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Systematics of Pinophyta

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Presentation on theme: "Systematics of Pinophyta"— Presentation transcript:

1 Systematics of Pinophyta

2 Pinus Male cones many and clustered
Female cones woody, with persistent soles (apophysis) Needles in cluster of 2-5; evergreen Umbo may be terminal or dorsal Pinus ponderosa


4 Ovulate cone, LS

5 Microsporangiate cone, LS
Microsporophyll, TS

6 Pinus ovule


8 Pinus kesiya (Benguet pine)

9 Figs. 9–12 9. Pinus longaeava showing centromucronate umbos. 10
Figs. 9–12 9.Pinus longaeava showing centromucronate umbos Detail of P. longaeva cone scales showing central position of mucros on the keel (arrows). 11.Pinus kesiya showing excentromucronate umbos Close up of P. kesiya cone scales showing excentromucronate umbos. University of California Herbarium specimen

10 Pinus merkusii

11 Pinus resinosa Habit of P. resinosa,25 m Dehiscing pollen
Pinus resinosa, young and older male cones Habit of P. resinosa,25 m P. resinosa, 2 leaves per cluster

12 Pinus resinosa Air bladder Pinus pollen ovulate cones

13 Pinus muricata ovulate cones young and old male cones
2 needles per cluster bark

14 Pinus nigra Microsporangiate cones Ovulate cones, young

15 Pinus quadrifolia Seed cones; open cone, right 4 needles per cluster

16 Pinus longaeva Needles, 2 per cluster Ovulate cone

17 Genus Larix European larch, 30 m Deciduous Shoots dimorphic
Leaves needle-like; borne singly, spirally-arranged on the long shoots, and in dense clusters of 20-50 needles on the short shoots Cones erect, green or purple, turns brown at maturity

18 Genus Larix B A Larix kaempferi, ovulate cones (A & B)
Larix griffithii, ovulate cone

19 Larix occidentalis (Western larch, NW USA, SW Canada)

20 Genus Abies (fir) Evergreen, with narrow, conic crown; becomes flattened or rounded in old trees Ovulate cones erect, dehiscent at maturity Leaves linear, spirally-arranged; slightly swollen & flattened at the base

21 Genus Abies Abies needles Abies homolepis, microsporangiate cones

22 Abies forrestii Abies (ovulate cones) Abies religiosa Abies koreana

23 Genus Picea (spruce) Conical, branches whorled
Leaves linear, flat, or angular; spirally-arranged and 4-angled; each needle on a small peg-like structure called pulvinus Cones erect but becomes pendulous with persistent scales; green to purple seed cones, becomes pale to dark brown at maturity

24 Picea sitchensis

25 Male cones Picea abies Female cones Picea abies (Norway spruce)

26 Picea abies Erect, young female cones

27 B Picea glauca (White spruce) A Picea glauca, ovulate & microsporangiate cones (A & B)

28 Genus Pseudotsuga (Douglas-fir)
Leaves flat and needle-like; borne singly, with 2 white stomatal bands Female cones pendulous, with persistent scales(unlike true firs) & a long tridentine (3-pointed) bract that protrudes above each scale Pollen cones axillary, cylindric Bark reddish brown, deeply fissured

29 Pseudotsuga menziesii
(Coast Douglas-fir) Tridentine bracts

30 Pseudotsuga menziesii

31 Pseudotsuga mensiezii
Microsporangiate cones 3-week old ovulate cone

32 Family Araucariaceae Stem erect and massive; bark dark gray-brown, with horizontal ridges leaves leathery, awl-shaped or broad and flat Mostly dioecious; female cones globose, usually high on top of the tree Male cones smaller, narrow to broad cylindrical Young trees broadly pyramidal or conical, become umbrella-like as they mature

33 Araucaria araucana Ovulate cones Male cones

34 Bark of Araucaria araucana

35 Araucaria heterophylla

36 Araucaria bidwillii

37 Cupressaceae (cypress)
Leaves scale-like, arranged in opposite, decussate pairs, persist for 3-5 years Bark fibrous & furrowed; may be smooth or exfoliating in plates Many species adapted to forest fires Ovulate cones globose or ovoid; may be terminal or axillary Monoecious, except Juniperus

38 Cupressus leaves

39 Cupressaceae: Cupressus sempervirens

40 Cupressus macrocarpa

41 A) Cupressus lucitanica B) Cupressus arizonica
Ovulate cones Ovulate & microsporangiate cones

42 Genus Juniperus Trees or low, spreading shrubs
Leaves may be needle-like (hard and sharp) or scale-like Monoecious or dioecious; seed cones fleshy, a berry-like structure (fused scales) Serves as exclusive food of some lepidopteran larvae

43 Juniperus californicum
Ovulate cones

44 Juniperus cedrus

45 Juniperus occidentalis

46 Juniperus occidentalis

47 Juniperus horizontalis

48 Thuja(“arborvitae”) Thuja occidentalis Thuja standishii
Shoots flat, leaves scale-like(needle-like in seedlings); scale leaves arranged in alternating decussate pairs in 4 rows along the twigs; male cones small, at the tips of the twigs; used for hedges Thuja occidentalis

49 Podocarpaceae Leaves lanceolate to oblong; shrubs or trees
Cones with 2-5 fused scales, becomes berry-like at maturity, brightly colored red to purple, fleshy; male cones often clustered Many species dioecious Podocarpus macrophyllus, female cones

50 Taxaceae(yew) Taxus cuspidata Much branched small trees and shrubs
Leaves linear to lanceolate, spirally arranged Female cones reduced, with just one ovuliferous scale (which develops into a fleshy aril) & one seed

51 Cryptomeria japonica (“Sugi”)
Male cones Female cone immature foliage shoot

52 70 meters in height Cryptomeria japonica

53 Sequoiadendron giganteum
Ovulate cones Sequoiadendron giganteum, 90 m ht., trunk, 11 m diam.

54 Taxodium ascendens Ovulate cones

55 Taxodium mucronatum Male cones

56 Taxodium distichum Ovulate cone

57 Sequoia sempervirens Open & closed cones
Bark thick, up to 12 in, soft and fibrous, bright red brown when freshly exposed; leaves flat or scale-like, in spirals; seed cones ovoid, male cones oval ; monoecious Male and female cones

58 Sequoia sempervirens (coast redwood)
115 m in height, 7 m diam., 2,200 yrs Sequoia sempervirens (coast redwood)

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