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Polypodiaceae -- the polypody family (40-47/700; tropical and subtropical: limited presence in temperate regions) Plants homosporous Habit herbs with creeping,

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Presentation on theme: "Polypodiaceae -- the polypody family (40-47/700; tropical and subtropical: limited presence in temperate regions) Plants homosporous Habit herbs with creeping,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Polypodiaceae -- the polypody family (40-47/700; tropical and subtropical: limited presence in temperate regions) Plants homosporous Habit herbs with creeping, scaly rhizomes, sometimes erect Leaves simple and entire to pinnately lobed to compound arranged alternately; monomorphic or dimorphic Vernation circinate Sporangia leptosporangia (very small stalked sporangia with annuli) organized into round or oblong sori or distributed over the underside of leaf blade (abaxially) Indusia absent Spores uniform in size, small, golden in color when mature Gametophytes bisexual, aboveground, thin, green, photosynthetic Ferns and Gymnosperms

2 Pteridaceae -- the maidenhair family (40/1000; cosmopolitan) Plants homosporous Habit herbs with creeping, pubescent and/or scaly rhizomes, sometimes erect Leaves simple or 1-6 times compound arranged alternately; monomorphic or dimorphic Vernation circinate Sporangia leptosporangia (very small stalked sporangia with annuli) organized into sori along veins, often near leaf margins, or scattered on underside of leaf blade (abaxially) Indusia absent, or when present, a false indusium formed by the recurved pinnule margin Spores uniform in size, small; globose to globose-tetrahedral or trigonal Gametophytes bisexual, aboveground, thin, green, photosynthetic Ferns and Gymnosperms

3 Dryopteridaceae -- the wood fern family (60/3000; cosmopolitan) Ferns and Gymnosperms Plants homosporous Habit herbs with erect or creeping scaly rhizomes Leaves simple or 1-5 times pinnatelycompound; arranged alternately; monomorphic or dimorphic; more or less scaly, at least at petiole base Vernation circinate Sporangia leptosporangia (very small stalked sporangia with annuli) organized into round to oblong or linear sori away from leaf margins or continuous on underside of leaf blade (abaxially) Indusia present attached centrally relative to sorus or on 1 side of sorus Spores uniform in size, small; oblong to reniform in shape Gametophytes bisexual, aboveground, thin, green, photosynthetic

4 Ophioglossaceae -- the grape-fern family (3-5/70-80; tropic and temperate) Ferns and Gymnosperms Plants homosporous Habit herbs with short erect, unbranched stems Leaves solitary or alternate; sterile frond is simple to much dissected or compound and fertile frond resembles a spike or panicle; dimorphic, but both fronds borne as a pair, and are usually partially fused at the base into a solitary structure Vernation not circinate Sporangia eusporangia (large sporangia without an annulus) borne on fertile frond Spores numerous, small, uniform in size Gametophytes bisexual, fleshy, subterranean, mycotrophic

5 Cycadaceae/Zamiaceae -- the cycad families (11/185; tropical and subtropical) Plants seed plants, dioecious Habit shrubs or palm-like trees Leaves tightly alternate forming a dense terminal rosette; pinnately compound; most with circinate vernation Pollen borne on strobili (look like cones) with many spirally arranged scales; 6-many pollen sacs per scale (microsporophylls), on underside (abaxial) Ovules borne on strobili (look like cones) with many spirally arranged peltate scales or megasporophylls; in Cycadaceae: 2-8 ovules on margins of megasporophylls, in Zamiaceae: 2 ovules underneath peltate-shaped megasporophyll Seeds large, drupelike Ferns and Gymnosperms

6 Pinaceae -- the pine family (9-12/210; cosmopolitan) Ferns and Gymnosperms Plants seed plants, monoecious Habit shrubs or trees Leaves alternate or closely fascicled on determinate orindeterminate short shoots; simple and linear to needle-like Pollen borne on strobili (look like cones) with many spirally arranged scales; 2 pollen sacs per scale, on underside of scale (abaxial) Ovules borne on cones (scale/bract complex) woody at maturity with many spirally arranged scales, flattened and free from subtending bracts (more or less); 2 ovules per cone scale, on top of scale (adaxial) Seeds usually winged (rarely wingless)

7 Cupressaceae -- the cypress family (includes Taxodiaceae) (28/156; cosmopolitan) Plants seed plants, monoecious or dioecious Habit shrubs or trees Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled; simple and scale-like, awl-shaped or linear Pollen borne on strobili (look like cones) with many scales; 2-9 pollen sacs per scale, on underside of scale (abaxial) Ovules borne on cones (scale/bract complex) usually woody at maturity (fleshy in Juniperus) with several to many scales, flattened or often peltate; wholly adnate to subtending bract; 2-many ovules per cone scale, on top of scale (adaxial) Seeds small, wingless or narrowly winged Ferns and Gymnosperms

8 Taxaceae -- the yew family (5/17-20; widely distributed, mostly northern hemisphere) Plants seed plants, dioecious (rarely monoecious) Habit shrubs or trees Leaves alternate; simple and linear or needle-like, decurrent on twigs Pollen borne on strobili (look like cones) with several flattened sterile basal scales and 4-32 spirally arranged or whorled, peltate or ± flattened structures called sporangiophores that each bear 2-9 pollen sacs Ovules solitary or in pairs, borne on reduced cones (one scale) terminal on short shoots Seeds solitary, surrounded by a green or red fleshy aril Ferns and Gymnosperms

9 Taxaceae -- comments Ferns and Gymnosperms Comments: interesting coniferous family: you commonly see Taxus cultivated around Cornell campus. Which is more commonly planted, female plants or male plants? Taxus brevifolia (from the Pacific Northwest) is the source of Taxol, a treatment for breast cancer. The aril is bright red in Taxus and green in Torreya, which is named after the famous American botanist John Torrey ( ).


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