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Hen and chickens fern © The University of Waikato | Contexts > Ferns > New Zealand native ferns Scientific name: Asplenium bulbiferum Maori name:mouku Distribution:throughout New Zealand Habitat:lowland and low montane forests Frond size:200–1550mm Rhizomes are short, erect and dark brown. The stipe and rachis are green. Fronds are tufted, arching and feathery. The fronds are often covered in bulbils – hence its common name. The bulbils take root once the frond drops to the ground. Sori are oblong and arranged on the pinnae margin.
Leather-leaf fern © The University of Waikato | Contexts > Ferns > New Zealand native ferns Scientific name: Pyrrosia eleagnifolia Maori name:ngarara wehi Distribution:throughout New Zealand to 1000m Habitat:common on trees, rock in native forests and exposed coastal areas Frond size:30–200mm Endemic to New Zealand. Creeping rhizome grows up surfaces ranging from tree trunks to garden walls. Fronds are thick and leathery, glossy on the top with white hairs on the underside. Sterile fronds are rounded, short and broad in shape. Fertile fronds are long and narrow. Sori are oblong and arranged on the pinnae margin.
Silver fern © The University of Waikato | Contexts > Ferns > New Zealand native ferns Scientific name: Cyathea dealbata Maori name:ponga Distribution:throughout North Island, most of the South Island north of Dunedin but rare on the West Coast Habitat:common in native forest and open scrub Frond size:1.5–3m Endemic to New Zealand. Rhizome is vertical, forming a trunk up to 10m tall. Fronds are long with a distinctive white underside. This silver colour appears when the fern is 3 or 4 years old. Sori are round and arranged along the vein of the pinnae.
Thread fern © The University of Waikato | Contexts > Ferns > New Zealand native ferns Scientific name: Blechnum filiforme Maori name:panako Distribution:throughout North Island, confined to the Nelson area in the South Island Habitat:common in lowland native forest Frond size:creeping fronds are 60–300mm, climbing fronds are up to 700mm Endemic to New Zealand. Rhizome is long and creeping. Fronds differ considerably according to their location on the rhizome. Fronds creeping along at the ground level are sterile, rounded and very small. As the rhizome climbs upward, the fronds are progressively larger with elongated, tapering pinnae. Several metres above the ground, the pinnae are long, narrow and pointed, hence the common name.
King fern © The University of Waikato | Contexts > Ferns > New Zealand native ferns Scientific name: Marattia salicina Maori name:para Distribution:from Taranaki northward Habitat:lowland, heavily forested areas Frond size:up to 4m Rhizomes are erect and compact. The king fern is New Zealand’s largest ground fern – hence its common name. Fronds are tufted and huge – up to 4m long. Pinnae are long, strap-like, dark green and glossy. Emergent growth is yellowish-green and darkens as the fronds grow. Sori are oblong and arranged on the pinnae margin.
Palm-leaf fern/Cape fern © The University of Waikato | Contexts > Ferns > New Zealand native ferns Scientific name: Blechnum novae-zelandiae Maori name:kiokio Distribution:very common throughout the country to 1000m Habitat:common in road cuttings, bush, scrub and swamps Frond size:300–3200mm long Endemic to New Zealand Rhizomes are ground creeping. Fronds can grow very large. Sterile fronds are green with finely serrated, strap-like pinnae. Fertile fronds are thin and spindly in appearance. Young fronds are red before reaching maturity. Sori are oval.
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