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ExitGlossary of Terms A New Zealand Tree Fern Cyathea.

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Presentation on theme: "ExitGlossary of Terms A New Zealand Tree Fern Cyathea."— Presentation transcript:

1 ExitGlossary of Terms A New Zealand Tree Fern Cyathea

2 ExitGlossary of Terms Biodiversity and Radiation of a New Zealand Tree Fern (Cyathea): -Species phylogeny for Cyathea? -Pattern and timing of species diversification? -Impact of habitat in driving morphological and ecological diversity of Cyathea in New Zealand? -Differences in species radiation of Cyathea in New Zealand (an Island archipelago) and respective South Pacific Island habitats and evolutionary importance of habitat on biodiversity & radiation? Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) ALLAN WILSON CENTRE for Molecular Ecology and Evolution RSNZ: Home -Develop learning modules to develop and strengthen problem solving skills of New Zealand students, relevant and interesting to students, written from a New Zealand context & perspective.

3 ExitGlossary of Terms Cyatheaceae -A family of 500-600 species of tree ferns. -Wet, montane tropical forests around the world. -Unusual: High Species Diversity, yet near uniform chromosome number, n=69 [Contant(1994). -Fertile diploid hybrids. -At least THREE different systems of classification: 1. Tyron and Tyron(1982), 2. Holttum and Edwards(1983) 3. Lellinger*(1987). *Supported by Brownsey(2000).

4 ExitGlossary of Terms Cyatheaceae Classification Tryon and Tryon (1982) Alsophila Nephelea Cnemidaria Cyathea Trichipteris Sphaeropteris subgenus Sphaeropteris subgenus Sclephropteris Holttum and Edwards (1983) Cyathea subgenus Cyathea section Alsophila sub sect. Alsophila sub sect. Nephelea section Cyathea subgenus Sphaeropteris Lellinger (1987) Alsophila Cnemidaria Cyathea Sphaeropteris Data from a study of cpDNA completed by Conant(1994) shows strong support for 3 evolutionary lineages: Alsophila clade, Cyathea clade and Sphaeropteris clade, Alsophila being most basal and Cyathea and Sphaeropteris are derived sister groups. cpDNA Data are most consistent with Lellinger’s classification. Note: Taxonomically, New Zealand species are reasonably easy to identify,

5 ExitGlossary of Terms Classification Sori and indusial characteristics Habitat (shows geographical distribution of A. colensoi) Stipe Frond Forms

6 ExitGlossary of Terms Various Cyatheaceae Distributions c. dealbatac. colensoic. smithiic. cunginghamiic. medullaris

7 ExitGlossary of Terms Fern Life Cycle Mature Tree FernsSori on under-side of Cyathea medullaris The young gametophyte is a rarely seen plant (1-2 mm) that is a completely independent plant in the life cycle. Gametophyte Young Sporophyte emerging from gametophyte

8 ExitGlossary of Terms Fern Morphology (Anatomy) Each spore-case under the leaf(pinna) is called a sorus. Each sorus contains many sporangia. Each sporangium produce a varying number of spores. The spore-cases look different for various species of Fern, and can be used to identify them. This spore-case may be covered by a flap, called an indusium. The Tree-Fern fiddlehead gives rise to a new Frond (leaf). ‘ The young fiddlehead and it’s stalk (stipe) are often covered with hair and/or scales.

9 ExitGlossary of Terms Classifying Ferns (A Dichotomous Tree) To use this Key to identify Ferns, Start at the BOTTOM of the Key and follow the arrows. START HERE Does it look like a tree ? Go to Page (13) Does it Have simple, single/unlobed fronds (leaves)? Does it have fronds that are divided once? Does it have see-through fronds? Does it have fronds that are divided more than once - (NOT a tree-fern)? Go to Page (10)

10 ExitGlossary of Terms Morphological Classification Key Start at the BOTTOM Start HERE Is it a Tree Fern? YES NO Go Back to Page 5 Does it have a “Skirt” of dead fronds in this area? NOYES Does it have a “Prickly” Trunk? NO YES Cyathea medullaris -Scars on trunk oval or hexagonal in shape. Are the Frond (leaf) stalks black? YES NO Cyathea dealbata -Underside of leaves silver/white. Dicksonia squarrosa -Slender trunk with black pegs of remaining dead fronds. (Sometimes branches) Is the “Skirt” Tidy? YES NO YES Are the Fronds in the “Skirt” whole? Cyathea medullaris (Young) -Very uneven skirt of black frond stalks. -Thick frond stalks. Cyathea smithii - Skirt made of frond stalks only. -Very soft and pale fronds, horizontal like parasol. Dicksonia fibrosa -Very thick and soft brown trunk. To complete a Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleotide Sequences, go to:The Phylogenetic Tree ConstructorThe Phylogenetic Tree Constructor

11 ExitGlossary of Terms Cyathea vs. Dicksonia Cyathea dealbata.....................................................................vs. Dicksonia sqarrosa Dicksonia fibrosa. Height: Up to 10m Fronds: Up to 4m Distinguishing characters: -White peg-like frond bases on trunk -White stalks (stipe) and under fronds. Location: North Island, East of South Island Dry Forest or open scrub Cyathea smithii….....................................................................vs. Height: Up to 6m Fronds: Up to 3m (HARSH) Distinguishing characters: -Trunk is thick, soft and brown. -Skirt of entire dead fronds. Location: North Island and South Island Forrest, semi-open scrub Height: Up to 8m Fronds: Up to 2.5m Distinguishing characters: -Fronds are soft, pale, horizontal. -Short skirt of dried stalks (not Frond) Location: More common in South Island at high altitudes as they like it cold and wet. Height: Up to 7m Fronds: Up to 3m Distinguishing characters: -Black peg-like frond bases on trunk -Black stalks, may have branches. Location: North Island and South Island, common in most Forest

12 ExitGlossary of Terms Cyathea the others Cyathea medullaris (Young) Cyathea medullaris (Mature) Height: Up to 20m Fronds: Up to 5m Distinguishing characters: -Young ferns will often have untidy skirt of a few dead fronds. Height: Up to 1m (a creeping Fern, may have horizontal fronds along ground) Fronds: Up to 1.5m Distinguishing characters: -Very slender, pale brown stalks Location: North and South Island in mountain forests. Favours damp areas/treeline. Height: Up to 20m Fronds: Up to 5m Distinguishing characters: -Thick Black stalks, Oval/Hexagonal scars left where fronds are lost. Location: North Island and South Island, common in most damp valley forests. Height: Up to 20m Fronds: Up to 3m Distinguishing characters: -Fronds are soft, pale, horizontal. -Ragged skirt on young plants, rough stalks/dark brown and appressed. Location: Wet coasts (North and West). ? Cyathea colensoiCyathea cunninghamii (Similar to C. medullaris)

13 ExitGlossary of Terms DichotomousTo branch into two. A dichotomous keys asks a question about a plant, and there are two possible answers. EndemicA plant is endemic if it exists only in one geographical region/island. The silver fern (Cyathea dealbata) grows in New Zealand and is not found anywhere else in the world, and is therefore, endemic to New Zealand. FrondsThe leaves of a Fern. GametophyteA VERY tiny, green, heart shaped plant that is produced from Fern spores in the Fern Life Cycle.Fern Life Cycle The gametophyte produces egg and sperm which ‘merge’, and a new sporophyte (Fern plant) grows. Indusium (indusia, pl)In some Ferns, it protects sporangia by covering them. The indusium looks different on various Fern species. MorphologyPhysical Characteristics of a plant. What a plant looks like, and it’s form (including the internal structure). PhloemTube in a vascular plant that carries nutrients. RhizomeThe trunk of the Tree-Fern. (Found along the ground in the Creeping Tree-Fern) SpeciesAn individual group of plants that has been ‘produced’ from parents of the same species. If all the plants in a species die, it cannot be reproduced by any means, and is therefore extinct. Sorus (Sori, pl)A group of sporangia found under the leaves of a fern, sometimes covered by an indusium. Sporangium (sporangia, pl)The part of a Fern plant under the leaves that produce and hold spores before they are released. SporeFern ‘seeds’. Spores are produced under the leaves (pinnae) and dropped when they are mature. If they land in a favorable location, they become a gametophyte (see Fern Life Cycle), which produces egg and sperm.Fern Life Cycle SporophyteThe Fern Plant we see. In a Fern Life Cycle it produces the spores.Fern Life Cycle StipeThe ‘stalk’ of a Fern that connects the trunk (rhizome) to the leaf(frond). See Fern Morphology (Anatomy)Fern Morphology (Anatomy) Vascular plantAny plant that makes use of tubes to transport water, nutrients or other materials through the plant. XylemTube in a vascular plant that carries water.

14 ExitGlossary of Terms Exit Thank you for using New Zealand Ferns, and I would like to thank: 1. Royal Society of New Zealand. 2. Allan Wilson Centre, Massey University. 3. Associate Professor Peter Lockhart, Recourses: -“New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants”, Patrick J. Brownsey and John C. Smith Dodsworth, David Bateman, pp83-89. -“Native Trees of New Zealand 2”, J.T. Salmon, Reed Publishing NZ Ltd., 2003. -“Which Native Tree", Andrew Crowe, Penguin Books NZ Ltd., 2001. -“New Zealand Trees – Ferns”, Alina Arkins, Reed Publishing NZ Ltd., 2003. Click to Exit or click to return to beginning.A New Zealand Tree Fern

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