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Chapter 9 Section 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Section 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Section 2

2 Seedless Nonvascular Plants
When I ask you to list parts of a plant what would you say? Roots Stem Leaves Flowers

3 Seedless Nonvascular Plants
What if I asked you how plants grow? From a seed! What if I tell you that some plants don’t have the basic parts to a plant or grow from a seed?

4 Seedless Nonvascular Plants
When you hear the words seedless nonvascular what does that make you think about this type of plant? They don’t grow from a seed They are not vascular

5 Seedless Nonvascular Plants
Characteristics of a seedless nonvascular plant Few cells thick 2 – 5 cm tall Most have a stalk Green, leaf-like growths Rhizoids instead of roots Grow where it is damp

6 Seedless Nonvascular Plant
Rhizoid: Threadlike structure that anchors a seedless, nonvascular plant

7 Seedless Nonvascular Plants
Where can you find these type of plants? Places that are damp Why do they need to live in this type of environment? To absorb water directly through the cell wall and membrane

8 Seedless Nonvascular Plants
How do they reproduce? By spores Examples Mosses Liverworts Hornworts

9 Mosses

10 Mosses Most nonvascular plants are mosses
Have green, leaf-like growths arranged around a central stalk Sometimes the stalk has a cap Spores are produced in the caps of the stalks

11 Mosses

12 Mosses Where can you often find mosses? Where are some adapted to live
Growing on tree trunks Rocks The ground Where are some adapted to live The desert

13 Liverworts What does a liverwort look like? Rootless Flat
Leaf-like body

14 Hornworts What is different about hornworts?
Only 1 chloroplast in each of their cells Their spore-producing structures look like tiny horns of cattle

15 Importance 1st to grow in a new or undisturbed area
This is important after a forest fire or lava flow What is a pioneer species? Organisms that are the first to grow in a new or undisturbed area

16 Importance What happens as a pioneer species grows and dies over time?
Decaying material builds up This helps build soil When enough soil is formed, other organisms move into the area

17 Seedless Vascular When you hear the words seedless vascular plant what do you think of? No seeds Have tube-like structures to carry water, minerals, and food throughout the plant

18 Seedless Vascular Why is having vascular tissue an advantage?
They can grow bigger Can grow thicker They don’t have to live in an environment with constant water Water and nutrients are distributed to all plant cells

19 Types of Seedless Vascular
Examples: Ferns – more than 12,000 species Ground pines Spike mosses Horsetails Flourished 360 – 286 million years ago

20 Ferns

21 Ferns Largest group Have stems, leaves, and roots
What are their leaves called? Fronds

22 Ferns How do ferns reproduce?
Spores which are under the frond Ferns were even more abundant 360 million years ago when most of the Earth was tropical

23 Club Mosses What groups of plants are called club mosses? Ground Pines
Spike mosses

24 Club Mosses Why don’t we classify them with the mosses?
Closely related to ferns Ground pines are found in arctic regions and even the tropics Endangered in some areas because they are collected to make wreaths

25 Club Mosses Spike Mosses: 1 species is adapted to desert conditions
Water is limited it curls up and appears dead Water available it uncurls and greens back up

26 Horsetails Has a jointed stem with a hollow center
The hollow center is surrounded by a ring of vascular tissue Leaves grow out of each joint

27 Horsetail

28 Importance of Seedless Plants
When ancient seedless plants died they became submerged in water and mud Decomposed, compacted, and compressed Over a million years coal was made

29 Importance

30 Peat Bog plants die and decay slowly
Decaying plants are compressed into peat Peat is used as a low-cost fuel in Ireland and Russia We use it in gardens Eventually there is a possibility it could become coal

31 Peat

32 Uses of Seedless Vascular Plants
Ferns: Landscape plants in shady areas Peat: Soil conditioner and to line hanging baskets Rhizomes and young fronds are edible Treat bee stings, burns, fevers, and dandruff Horsetail: 1 type has stems that can be made into flour

33 Plant Kingdom

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