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1293 Airport Road Beaver, WV 25813 Phone: (304) 253-8674 Fax: (304) 253-7758 Subpart L-Scaffold Safety 1926.451-453 Vincent.

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Presentation on theme: "1293 Airport Road Beaver, WV 25813 Phone: (304) 253-8674 Fax: (304) 253-7758 Subpart L-Scaffold Safety 1926.451-453 Vincent."— Presentation transcript:

1 1293 Airport Road Beaver, WV Phone: (304) Fax: (304) Subpart L-Scaffold Safety Vincent J. Giblin, General President

2 This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

3 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 3 Introduction Subpart L specifies the requirements needed to safely erect scaffolds or staging. Scaffolds are temporary platforms workers use in order to access their work area and to hold the supplies needed for that job. Because of the locations and dangers involved, only trained and competent persons are to erect scaffolds at the job site.

4 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements All scaffolds are to be capable of supporting, without failure, at least 4 times the maximum intended load.

5 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safety Precautions  Never allow debris/materials to collect on scaffold  Always use netting to catch anything that falls  Make sure scaffold is secure

6 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safety Precautions  Do not stand on ties, guardrails, or extensions

7 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safety Precautions  Do not overreach outside the guardrails

8 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safety Precautions  Stay off scaffold during loading or unloading  Replace guardrails after loading or unloading  Use 3-point climbing  Don’t hang tarps without evaluation  Exit mobile scaffolds before moved

9 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safety Precautions  Always wear fall protection to avoid accidents

10 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Footing or Anchorage The footing or anchorage is to be on a solid foundation; sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load without settling or displacement.

11 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Footing or Anchorage The use of unstable objects to support planks or scaffolds is prohibited.

12 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Guardrails The use of guardrails is very important, preventing workers from falling. Nearly 3/4 of the reported scaffold accidents are caused by improper guarding.

13 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Guardrails Open-ended or open- sided platforms must have standard guardrails and toeboards.

14 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Guardrails The guardrails are to be 2 X 4 and about 42” high with a midrail whenever needed. The supports for the guardrails are to be at intervals no more than 8 feet.

15 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Protective Screening Overhead protection shall be provided for men on scaffolds and, in the same sense, a screen is to be placed below the scaffold where persons may in danger of falling objects.

16 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms Scaffold construction is to be with the proper grade lumber with a minimum of 1,500 fibers (Stress Grade). This lumber is marked with a grading stamp and is free of defects.

17 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms The planking is to be of Scaffold Grade wood or metal, free of defects that may contribute to an accident.

18 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms The planking shall be overlapping or secured from movement, extending not less than 6 nor more than 12” over their end supports.

19 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms The poles, legs, or uprights of scaffolds shall be plumb (vertical members standing perpendicular to horizon) and securely and rigidly braced to prevent swaying and displacement.

20 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms Only synthetic or fiber rope that has been treated properly may be used as staging support where open flame work or corrosive substances or chemicals will be used.

21 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms Any means of support for scaffold suspension shall be capable of supporting at least 6 times the rated load.

22 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Safe Access In order for workers to avoid injuries when getting on or off the platform, internal stairs or attached vertical ladders will be used.Never use the frame or braces for climbing!

23 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding General requirements Design load The design load of all scaffolds shall be calculated on the basis of: Light--Supporting 25 lbs per square foot Medium--Supporting 50 lbs. Per square foot Heavy-- Supporting 75 lbs. Per square foot

24 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds This standard covers many different scaffold types. We will touch briefly on the three basic types that are most commonly used in the construction industry. 1. Suspension Scaffolds 2. Supported Scaffolds 3. Aerial Lifts (Subpart N)

25 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)  Single-point adjustable suspension- These may be power units (either electrically or air motor driven) or manually operated winches. All power operated gears and brakes shall be enclosed.

26 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)  T wo-point suspension- Theses scaffolds are to be securely lashed to the building or structure to prevent them from swaying.

27 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)  M ulti-point suspension- Capable of sustaining a working load of 25 pounds per square foot. The platform shall be securely fastened to the hangers by U- bolts or other equivalent means.

28 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)  Needle beam- Ropes or hangers used as supports, shall be attached to the needle beams by a scaffold hitch or a properly made eye splice. The loose end of the rope shall be tied by a bowline knot or by a round turn and a half hitch.

29 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)  Interior hung- Hung or suspended from the roof structure or ceiling beams by rope capable of supporting at least 6 times the rated load.

30 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds The workers on these scaffolds are to wear fall protection at all times.

31 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds These suspension scaffolds must:  Be solidly attached to a structure  Be regularly serviced and inspected  Have proper guardrails, netting, and toeboards  Be at least 20” wide but no wider than 36”

32 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds Upon meeting these requirements, the platform can be one of four types:  Plank type  Beam-type  Light metal-type  Ladder-type

33 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds The scaffold unit shall be suspended from metal outriggers, iron brackets, wire rope slings, or iron hooks, inspected daily by a competent person. Supporting parts are to be inspected before every installation and periodically inspected during use.

34 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds Suspension scaffolds are hung by:  Outrigger beam with counterweights  Rolling outrigger beam with counterweights  Parapet clamps  Roof hook or cornice hook

35 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds These scaffolds are raised on posts, uprights, frames, or outrigger beams. They may also be mounted on trucks or casters.  Tube and coupler  Pole  Frame  Mobile

36 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds  Tube and coupler scaffolds- Have limited heights to be followed using tables L-10-L-12. Light, medium, and heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds are to follow specified requirements for the appropriate categories, all of which are to hold 4 times the maximum intended loads.

37 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds  Pole - Scaffold poles shall bear on a foundation of sufficient size and strength to spread the load from the pole over a sufficient area to prevent settlement. Independent pole scaffolds shall be set as near to the wall of the building as practicable.

38 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds  Frame - Proper cross bracing or diagonal bracing is to be used for securing vertical members together laterally with coupling or stacking pins to provide proper vertical alignment of the legs.

39 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds  Mobile - When free- standing mobile scaffold towers are use, the height shall not exceed four times the minimum base dimension.

40 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds  Mobile - When using casters, they are to have a positive locking device to hold the scaffold in position.

41 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds  Mobile - A ladder or stairway, affixed to or built into the scaffold, shall provide proper access and exit

42 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds This section applies to ladder stands (not aerial) and rolling scaffolds (towers).

43 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds Due to the wide variety of materials and design possibilities, specified design and construction requirements are not a part of this section.

44 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds The minimum platform width for any work level shall not be less than 20 inches for mobile scaffolds. Ladder stands shall have a minimum step width of 16 inches, with all exposed surfaces free from sharp edges, burrs or other safety hazards.

45 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds Wheels or casters shall be properly designed for strength and dimensions to support four times the design working load.

46 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Aerial lifts (Subpart N) These are vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms such as ladder trucks and tower trucks. Aerial lifts are to be operated only by authorized persons.

47 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Aerial lifts (Subpart N) Aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device on top of the truck cab, and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder before the truck is moved for highway travel.

48 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Aerial lifts (Subpart N) Never move an aerial lift truck when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the basket, except where specifically designed for this type of operation.

49 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Aerial lifts (Subpart N) Lifts that are used primarily as personnel carriers must have both platform (upper) and lower controls. The lower controls are to override the upper controls, never to be used without permission from the employee in the lift, except in emergencies.

50 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Aerial lifts (Subpart N) While working on aerial lifts, employees shall:  Always stand firmly on the floor of the basket and not sit or climb on the edge

51 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Aerial lifts (Subpart N) While working on aerial lifts, employees shall:  Wear a body belt and have a lanyard attached to the boom or basket for fall protection

52 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Aerial lifts (Subpart N) While working on aerial lifts, employees shall:  Keep within specified load limits  Use brakes and wheel chocks when needed

53 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program Aerial lifts (Subpart N) Examples:  Telescoping  Rotating boom  Scisor type

54 This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

55 Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 55 End This publication was made possible by grant numbers 5 U45 ES AND 5 U45 ES from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH.


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