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Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety Stan Liang, CIH, CSP, CET KTA-Tator, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety Stan Liang, CIH, CSP, CET KTA-Tator, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scaffold and Aerial Lift Safety Stan Liang, CIH, CSP, CET KTA-Tator, Inc.

2 Webinar Objectives  Brief overview of the following: OSHA Scaffold Standard Safe work practices for the use of scaffolds, aerial lifts, and scissor lifts  Resources for additional information

3 Scaffolds/Aerial lifts Hazards –Falls –Falling objects –Structural instability –Electrocution –Overloading

4 Scaffolds 29 CFR 1926 – Subpart L 1926.450 – Scope, application, and definitions 1926.451 – General requirements 1926.452 – Requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds 1926.453 – Aerial lifts 1926.454 – Training requirements

5 29 CFR 1926 – Subpart L Appendices Appendix A – Scaffold specifications Appendix B – Fall protection for scaffold erectors and dismantlers Appendix C – National consensus standards Appendix D – Training topics for scaffold erectors and dismantlers Appendix E – Drawings and illustrations

6 Competent Person One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous or dangerous to employees and has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

7 Qualified Person One who by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to solve or resolve problems related to the subject matter, work, or the project.

8 General Requirements –Support its own weight and 4 times the maximum intended load –Suspension rope and connecting hardware support 6 times the maximum intended load

9 General Requirements –Stall load of scaffold hoist not to exceed 3 times the rated load –Designed by a qualified person and loaded according to design

10 General Requirements Scaffold Platform Construction Platforms must be fully decked and planked Platform must be at least 18 inches wide Planks must be in good condition

11 General Requirements Scaffold Platform Construction Each abutted end shall rest on a separate support surface Platforms overlap not less than 12” and only over supports Platforms that rest on a bearer at an angle other than a right angle must be laid first

12 General Requirements Scaffold Platform Construction The end of the platform must extend at least 6 inches beyond the support; or Restrained by hooks, cleats or other means

13 General Requirements Scaffold Platform Construction Platforms 10 feet long or less extend no more than 12 inches past the support Platforms more than 10 feet long extend no more than 18 inches

14 General Requirements Scaffold Construction Scaffold components manufactured by different manufacturers shall not be used together unless: –Components fit together without force –Scaffold's structural integrity is maintained by the user –Competent person determines the resulting scaffold is structurally sound

15 General Requirements Scaffolds Construction Components of dissimilar metals can not be intermixed

16 General Requirements Supported Scaffolds Fully planked Bear on adequate foundations Plumbed and braced Unstable objects not used as work platforms

17 General Requirements Suspended Scaffolds Support devices must support 4 times the imposed load Direct connection evaluated by a competent person

18 General Requirements Suspended Scaffolds Counterweights made of non-flowable material Counterweights secured and not removed until scaffold is disassembled Tiebacks secured to sound anchorage Single tiebacks installed at an angle prohibited

19 General Requirements Suspended Scaffolds Minimum lengths for suspension ropes on hoists No repaired wire rope Ropes inspected by a competent person prior to each shift

20 General Requirements Suspended Scaffolds No gasoline powered equipment or hoist Automatic brakes on powered and manual hoists Positive crank force required for descent Tied to prevent swaying Safety devices not used as platforms

21 Scaffold Access Access must be provided when platforms are more than 2 feet below or above a point of access Cross braces can not be used as a point of access

22 Scaffold Access Hook on attachable ladders: –Specifically designed for the type of scaffold –Rest platforms at 35 foot intervals when more than 35 feet high

23 Scaffold Use Do not overload scaffold Platform can not deflect more than 1/60 of the span when loaded Inspect scaffolds prior to each shift or after an event which may have damaged the scaffold Do not move the scaffold when occupied unless designed for such use Shore or lean-to scaffolds can not be used.


25 Scaffold Use Scaffolds must be erected, moved, and dismantled only under the supervision of a competent person Erecting, moving, or dismantling scaffolding must be performed by trained employees selected for such work by the competent person

26 Scaffold Use Employees are prohibited from working on scaffolds covered with snow, ice, or slippery materials Tag lines or equivalent means must be used to prevent swinging loads from contacting the scaffold Work on scaffolds is prohibited in high winds. Debris can not accumulate on platforms.



29 Power Line Clearances


31 Power Line Clearance Alternatives Two times the length of the insulator Notify utility company in advance and: –De-energize the power lines; –Relocate the lines; or –Install protective covering to prevent accidental contact

32 Fall Protection Fall protection is required when employees are more than 10 feet above a lower level Fall protection is required for erection or dismantling of scaffolds, if the competent person determines it is feasible

33 Fall Protection Methods Boatswain’s chair, catenary scaffold – personal fall arrest Single or two point adjustable suspension scaffold – personal fall arrest and a guardrail All other scaffolds – personal fall arrest or a guardrail

34 Fall Protection Each employee on a walkway within a scaffold must be protected by a guardrail system installed within 9 1/2 inches of and along each walkway

35 Personal Fall Arrest Vertical Life Lines Can not be used if overhead components are part of a single point or two point adjustable scaffold Attached to an anchorage independent of the scaffold Protected from sharp edges and abrasion

36 Personal Fall Arrest Horizontal Lifelines Can not be attached only to suspension ropes Independent anchorages are mandatory on all suspended scaffolds, except for two- point suspension scaffolds

37 Additional Requirements for Personal Fall Arrest If lanyards or lifelines are connected directly to a two-point suspension scaffold, the scaffold must be provided with additional independent support lines Vertical lifelines, independent support lines and suspension ropes shall not be tied to each other or share common anchorage points

38 Fall Protection Guardrails Guardrails must be installed on all open sides Guardrails must be installed prior to use Top rail height must be between 38 inches and 45 inches Where personal fall arrest is also used, top rail height must be between 36 inches and 45 inches

39 Fall Protection Guardrails Intermediate members must be not more than 19 inches apart Mid rails, screens, or mesh must be used Screens or mesh, if used, must extend along the entire opening between supports and from the top rail to the platform

40 Fall Protection Guardrails Top rail must withstand 200 pounds of force (100 pounds for single-point and two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds) When maximum force is applied, the top rail must not deflect below minimum permissible height Mid rails, screens, mesh, and intermediate members must withstand a force of 150 pounds (75 pounds for single-point and two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds)

41 Fall Protection Guardrails – Cross Bracing Can be used in place of a mid rail when the crossing point is between 20 inches and 30 inches above the work platform Can be used instead of a top rail when the crossing point is between 38 inches and 48 inches above the work platform Upright end points must be more than 48 inches apart

42 Falling Object Protection Options Barricading the work areas below Install toe board on scaffold platforms Install canopies or debris nets to protect workers below the platform

43 Requirements for Specific Scaffolds Tube and coupler scaffolds Mobile scaffolds Containment platforms Two-point suspension scaffolds Singe-point suspension scaffolds Pik boards

44 Tube and Coupler Scaffolds Designed by a P.E. if over 125 feet Requirements for couplers and bracing

45 Containment Platforms Containment platforms must comply with 1926. Subpart L.

46 Mobile Scaffolds Must be plumb, level, and squared Wheels must be able to be locked Scaffold must be leveled using screw jacks Caster stems and wheel stems shall be pinned or otherwise secured

47 Mobile Scaffolds Manual force to move the scaffold must be applied no more than 5 feet above the supporting surface Power systems used to move the scaffolds must be designed for such use

48 Mobile Scaffolds Employees can only ride mobile scaffolds under the following conditions: –Surface is within 3 degrees of level –Height to base width is two to one or less –Outrigger frames, when used, are installed on both sides –Speed does not exceed one foot per second when power systems are used –No employee is on any part of the scaffold that extends outward beyond wheels, casters, or other supports

49 Two Point Suspension Scaffolds Can not be connected together during raising and lowering operations unless the connections are articulated and hoists properly sized Can not be more than 36 inches wide unless designed by a qualified person to prevent unstable conditions

50 Single Point Suspension Scaffolds Use of a safety hook (hook with a latch), if a boatswain’s chair is used Supporting rope must be kept vertical

51 Pik Boards –Safety ropes or clips on stirrups used to suspend the platform from the cables –Minimum width of the pik boards must be at least 18" - Pik secured to hangers at both ends

52 Training Employees using scaffolds must receive training from a qualified person that covers: –Nature of electrical, fall, and falling object hazards –Use of scaffold –Maximum intended load and load carrying capabilities of the scaffold –Requirements of subpart L

53 Training OSHA has separate training requirements for workers engaged in the following: –Erecting –Disassembling –Moving –Repairing –Maintenance –Inspection

54 Training Employees engaged in activities other than use must receive training from a qualified person that covers: –Nature of electrical, fall, and falling object hazards –Correct procedures –Design criteria, load capacity, and intended use –Requirements of subpart L

55 Retraining Required if an employee lacks the skill or understanding needed for safe work involving scaffolds Retraining is also required when: –Additional or new hazards exist –Changes occur in the type of scaffold and fall protection –Where there are inadequacies in an employee’s work practices

56 OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements Training Operated only by authorized persons According to an OSHA letter of interpretation training is required Training requirements enforced by OSHA would be based on industry standards as defined in ANSI Standard A92.2

57 OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements Training ANSI Standard A92.2 training requirements include: –Instruction in safe operation including the operator’s manual, user’s work instruction, and other applicable ANSI standards –Hands on training must also be included

58 OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements Fall Protection Fall protection must be worn when in the basket A short lanyard (e.g. 3 to 4 foot lanyard) should be used for restraint Employees must always stand firmly on the floor of the basket (not the guardrails)

59 OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements Must be provided with upper and lower controls Lower controls to be operated only in emergencies or with permission of workers in the basket Test controls daily prior to use

60 OSHA Aerial Lift Requirements Place outriggers on solid surface or pads Load limits specified by the manufacturer must not be exceeded Boom must not be elevated when lift is moving

61 OSHA Scissor Lift Requirements Requirements for mobile scaffolds apply If guard rails are in place, no additional fall protection is required

62 Additional Information –29 CFR 1926 Subpart L (Scaffold Standard) –CPL 02-01-023 [CPL 2-1.23] (Compliance Directive) –Scaffolding Construction e-Tool –Letters of interpretation (Scaffold Industry Association) (American National Standard Institute) –A92 (SIA): Scaffolds and other elevating devices

63 Questions

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