Presentation on theme: "AIR NAVIGATION Part 5 Weather. LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of this unit, you should: –Be able to carry out calculations to determine aircraft distance,"— Presentation transcript:
LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of this unit, you should: –Be able to carry out calculations to determine aircraft distance, speed and time –Understand the principles of vectors and the triangle of velocities to establish an aircraft’s track and ground speed
LEARNING OUTCOMES –U–Understand the principles of the 1 in 60 rule –U–Understand the types of compass systems used for air navigation, how they work and their limitations –K–Know the hazards that weather presents to aviation
Introduction You will have previously studied the weather as it relates to walking in the hills. It is the same weather that affects aircraft operations but with one major difference Icing is a far more serious problem for an aircraft than it is for a walker
Meteorological Conditions Simple aircraft such as basic trainers are not equipped with instruments to enable them to safely fly in cloud or fog The student pilot does not have the experience to fly in fog or cloud.
Meteorological Conditions Consequently, it is necessary to define the weather conditions in which beginners may fly. These are called
Visual Met Conditions VMC a simplified version of the rules are set out in the following table
ABOVE 3000’ BELOW 3000’ Visibility - 8 KMVisibility - 5 KM distance FROM cloud: 1000’ vertically 1500m horizontally distance FROM cloud: 1000’ vertically 1500m horizontally NB AIRCRAFT FLYING BELOW 140 KTS AND IN SIGHT OF THE GROUND MAY USE KM VISIBILITY AND MERELY KEEP CLEAR OF THE CLOUD
It follows that if an aircraft flies in weather worse than shown in the table, it must have the necessary instruments to fly in or near to cloud or in poor visibility.
This weather is known as Instrument Met Conditions IMC Only aircraft with suitable equipment and pilots with suitable instrument ratings may fly in IMC
The Visual Circuit In the early stages of flying, a trainee pilot will not want to lose sight of the runway when flying circuits in order to practice take- offs and landings To achieve this, VMC is needed and normally the aerodrome controller will decide if the weather is good enough
If the circuit height is 1000’ then the lowest cloud base will need to be above this (usually 1500’) and the visibility will need to be good enough to be able to see the runway from anywhere in the circuit (usually 5 km)
THE VISUAL CIRCUIT 2 2 6 5 KM VISIBILITY 1500’ CLOUDBASE
Surface Wind We have already looked at the effects of wind & drift, when transiting from A- B. On the airfield we must also note the effect of surface wind.
Surface Wind If conditions are not completely calm, we need to know the wind direction & strength, so we take off & land into the wind You hopefully will remember that takeoffs & landings into the wind are shorter !
Wind Component It is very rare to find the wind blowing exactly along the runway (even thought runway directions are chosen along the line of the prevailing wind) Normally the wind will blow partly across the runway, so we need to calculate cross wind & headwind To find this you can draw a vector, use a table or a simple mental method, as we shall see.
2 7 6 0 TAKE OFF SURFACE WIND 130/20 KNOTS CROSSWIND COMPONENT 13 KNOTS HEAD WIND 15 KNOTS 50 40 THE VECTOR Angle Off 90°- Angle Off =
. 104050607080902030 Angle between wind direction & runway heading for crosswind component WindspeedinKnotsWindspeedinKnots For headwind component - Angle between wind direction and runway heading 5 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 10 2 35 6 7 8 9 9 10 15 3 5 7 9 11 13 14 14 15 20 3 7 10 13 15 17 18 19 20 25 4 8 12 16 19 22 23 24 25 30 5 10 15 19 23 26 28 29 30 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Note: these angles are from the vector triangle shown minus angle off THE TABLE This is a standard table to enable you to work out the wind component
To use the table you need the angle between the runway heading & the wind direction (angle off)
If it is 40 degrees you obtain the crosswind component you use the top row of angles, find the 40 degree column, & follow it until you get to the windspeed, in this case 20 knots.
This gives the cross wind component as 13 knots 104050607080902030 Angle between wind direction & runway heading for crosswind component WindspeedinKnotsWindspeedinKnots For headwind component - Angle between wind direction and runway heading 5 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 10 2 35 6 7 8 9 9 10 15 3 5 7 9 11 13 14 14 15 20 3 7 10 13 15 17 18 19 20 25 4 8 12 16 19 22 23 24 25 30 5 10 15 19 23 26 28 29 30 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Note: these angles are from the vector triangle shown minus angle off 40 20 You use the bottom angles if you know the headwind
The Quick Method This is somewhat easier & and definitely quicker ANGLE BETWEEN WIND DIRECTION AND RUNWAY HEADING FOR CROSS WIND COMPONENT DEGREES 0-15 15-30 30-45 45-60 60-90 ZERO 1/4 WIND STRENGTH 1/2 WIND STRENGTH 3/4 WINDSTRENGHT FULL WIND STRENGTH
Shallow Fog As fog starts to form in the early evening, there is often a shallow layer, a few feet thick, next to the ground. A pilot in the circuit, especially at night may not even notice this as the ground & lights are clearly visible However once in the approach on the glide slope the fog will appear to be much thicker, & prevent the aircraft from landing as the runway or light will no longer be visible.
Shallow Fog This slant visibility can be measured & if the runway visual range ( RVR ) is under 800 metres a safe landing is unlikely. UNDER 800 METRES? ABORT!
Precipitation This is a fancy word for rain! Covers rain, sleet, snow, hail etc It causes the following problems: Leaks into aircraft on the ground Floods runways If it is frozen it can stick to the airframe and cause takeoff problems Once a fluid has frozen on the airframe it must be removed with de icing fluid
Airborne Hazards Apart from thunderstorms, the main hazard is ice Even in VMC icing can form on an airframe at certain temperatures.
In a car the main problem on a frosty morning is the frozen windscreen In an aircraft this is easily cured by heating the windscreen. But you cannot heat the whole of the airframe So the ice will stick to the surface.
On the wings this means the shape of the wing changes & will eventually cease to be an aerofoil WING Ice on leading edge
However this is not all. As the ice gathers on the airframe the weight increases This means that lift will be decreasing, & eventually the aircraft will fly like a brick
Icing can also affect other aspects of the aircrafts operations, such as undercarriages, controls surfaces, and radio aerials It will also affect engine operation, so the best advice is to stay away from icing