3 Introduction Aseptic technique is also known as sterile technique. Some procedures that require sterile technique are:Minor surgical proceduresSuture insertion & removalBreat biopsy (bx)Incision & drainage (I&D)Removal of growthsWound treatment (tx)If there is any doubt that something is sterile or not; assume that it is non-sterile.Page 902
4 Ambulatory Surgery Method for performing surgical procedures Patient is admitted and discharged from a surgical facility on the same dayIncludes outpatient surgery in a hospital setting, a surgicenter, or medical office.Hospitalization is not required unless unexpected complications occur.Disadvantage is the short time the health care team has for assessing the patient’s postoperative condition.Important for outpatient facility to develop a follow-up procedure to track the patient’s condition after leaving.Page 902
5 Outpatient SurgeryGenerally limited to procedures requiring less than 60 minutes to perform.Many surgeries are performed in free-standing surgicenters or surgical centers that are part of a hospital complex.Insert Figure fromFrazier/Malone MA, p. 578Page 902
6 Categories of Surgery Elective: Emergency: Optional: Considered medically necessary, but can be performed when the patient wishesEmergency:Required immediately to save a life or prevent further injury or infectionOptional:May not be medically necessary, but the patient wishes to have it performedPage
7 Categories of Surgery Outpatient: Urgent: does not require an overnight stay in a hospitalUrgent:to be performed as soon as possible, but is not an immediate or acute emergencyPage 903
8 Medical versus Surgical Asepsis Medical asepsis—the elimination of organisms that have left the bodySurgical asepsis—the practice of creating and maintaining a sterile environment, in which organisms are destroyed before entering the bodyInsert Figure 42-1 fromPCMA 2ePage 903
9 Medical versus Surgical Asepsis Medical AsepsisSurgical AsepsisClean technique usedSterile technique usedControls microorganismsAbsence of microorganismsBasic hand hygiene usedSurgical scrub performedClean equipment and suppliesSterile equipment and suppliesClean fieldSterile fieldPage 903
10 Principles of Surgical Asepsis Surgical asepsis is necessary for any invasive procedureRequires:Sterile scrubSterile glovesSterile technique when handling material“Clean for clean” and “sterile for sterile”Insert Figure 42-2EPCMA 2ePage 903
11 Guidelines for Surgical Asepsis A sterile item can only touch another sterile itemA sterile item on a sterile field must be within your field of vision and above your waistAirborne microorganisms contaminate sterile fieldsThe edges of a sterile field are contaminatedSterile gloves must only touch sterile itemsSterile packets may be touched on the outside with bare handsBe honest if you make an error or suspect you have made an errorPage (Guidelines 42-1)The purpose of PPE is to protect the pt & health care worker from exposure to pathogenic organisms.
12 Sterile Scrub and Hand Hygiene Insert Figure 42-2A from PCMA 2ePageIs the #1 way to prevent spreading of infection.Surgical scrub removes microorganisms more effectively than regular hand washing.
13 Steps to Surgical Hand Hygiene/Sterile Scrub Remove jewelry and gross dirt from beneath fingernailsAssemble equipmentStand at sink without allowing your body to touch itRemove lab coat and roll sleeves above the elbows. Keep your hands and arms above waistRegulate running water temperature to warm, not hotPlace hands under running water with hands pointed upward. Allow water to run from fingertips to elbowsPage (Procedure 42-1)
14 Steps to Surgical Hand Hygiene/Sterile Scrub 7. Apply a circle of soap and lather well8. Vigorously scrub hands and wrists with scrub brush (5 minutes per hand)9. Raise hands, bending at elbows, and rinse off soap, fingertips to elbows10. If performing a second lather, use 3 minutes per handInsert Figure 42-2C fromPCMA 2ePage (Procedure 42-1)
15 Steps to Surgical Hand Hygiene/Sterile Scrub 11. Use sterile towel to pat hands dry, from finger-tips to wrists to elbows12. Turn off faucet with fresh towel or foot lever13. Glove immediately. Keep hands above waist and folded together until procedure beginsInsert Figure 42-2F fromPCMA 2ePage (Procedure 42-1)
16 Personal Protective Equipment Insert Figure 42-3 from PCMA 2ePage 905Includes: face shield, gown, & gloves.Provides a barrier between infectious or hazardous material & the wearer.
17 Steps to Surgical Gloving Assemble equipment and check seal and expiration date on packPlace pack on a flat surface at waist height with cuffed end of gloves toward youOpen outside wrapper; leave opened wrapper in placeOpen inner wrapper without reaching over or touching the inside of the packCritical ThinkingQuestion:Why is it important not to reach over the pack when opening the inner wrapper?Page (Procedure 42-2)
18 Steps to Surgical Gloving Using the thumb and fingers of the left hand, pick up the glove on the right side of the pack by grasping the folded inside edge of the cuffPull the glove onto the right hand using only the thumb and fingers of the left handPlace fingers of the right-gloved hand under the cuff of left glove and pull onto left hand and up over left wristWith gloved right hand, place fingers under the cuff of left glove and pull up over left wristAfter the gloves are in place, fingers can be adjusted with gloved handsPage (Procedure 42-2)
19 Steps to Removing Gloves Remove the first glove by grasping the edge of that glove (with fingers of the other gloved hand) and pull the first glove over the hand inside out.Discard the first glove into the proper biohazard waste container.Remove the other glove by grasping the edge of the cuff with your fingers (from the ungloved hand) and pull the second glove down over the hand, inside out.Discard the gloves appropriately.Page (Procedure 42-2)
20 Insert Figure 42-22 source of pick up from PCMA 2e Sterile PackagingEach autoclaved pack may contain one or more itemsPacks are set up on Mayo standThe inside of the packet’s wrapper is the sterile fieldInsert Figure source of pick up from PCMA 2ePageTo prepare you must know the names & uses of the instruments routinely used in minor surgery.
21 Steps for Opening a Sterile Packet Insert Figure 42-5D from PCMA 2ePage 908 (Procedure 42-3)
22 Steps for Opening a Sterile Pack Perform hand hygiene.Assemble equipment.Adjust the Mayo stand to correct height.Place packet on the Mayo stand with the folded edge on top.Position the packet on the stand so that the top flap will fold away from you.Remove the tape or fastener and check the sterilization indicator and date. Discard in a waste container.Pull the corner of the pack that is tucked under and lay this flap away from you.Page 908 (Procedure 42-3)
23 Steps for Opening a Sterile Pack With both hands, pull the next two flaps to each side.Grasp the corner of the last flap, without reaching over the sterile field, and open the flap toward your body without touching it.The inside of this outer wrapper is now your sterile field. If you need to arrange items within this field, use sterile forceps.If an inner packet needs to be opened with an instrument setup, then someone wearing sterile gloves must open it.Page 908 (Procedure 42-3)
24 Steps for Dropping a Sterile Packet onto a Sterile Field Insert Figure 42-6 from PCMA 2ePage 909 (Procedure 42-4)
25 Steps for Dropping a Sterile Packet onto a Sterile Field Assemble equipment; check expiration date and sealed condition of packet.Locate the edge on the prepackaged item and pull apart by using the thumb and forefinger of each hand.Do not let your fingers touch the inside of the packet.Pull the packet apart by securely placing the remaining three fingers of each hand against the outside of the packet on each side.Holding the item securely about eight to ten inches from the sterile field, gently drop the packet contents inside the sterile field.Page 909 (Procedure 42-4)
26 Steps for Transferring Sterile Objects Insert Figure 42-7 from PCMA 2ePage (Procedure 42-5)
27 Why is it important not to turn your back on the sterile field? Sterile TransferUsed to move items around on the sterile field or to place instruments onto a sterile fieldMust put on sterile gloves or use transfer forcepsDo not reach across or turn your back on the sterile field unless it is covered with a sterile towelCritical ThinkingQuestion:Why is it important not to turn your back on the sterile field?Page