3 Historical perspectives Remember germs and how to combat them was discovered in the mid 1800sInitially ill family members were cared for at homeNow ill members of society are cared for in the hospitalChances of cross contamination are high
4 Application Medical aseptic technique- “Practices intended to confine a specific microorganisms to a specific areaProtective – reduces the numbers of potentially infectious organismsClean – absence of almost all microorganismsDirty – soiled, denotes the likely presence of microorganisms some of which could cause an infection .”(Kozier)
5 Surgical Asepsis Sterile technique “those practices that keep an area free of all microorganisms” (Kozier)Including pathogens & spores
6 Application of Surgical Asepsis During procedures that require internal perforation of a client's skin (IM or IV)When the skin’s integrity is broken (surgical incisions or burns)During procedures that involve the insertion of catheters or surgical instruments into sterile body cavities(Potter & Perry 6thp. 802)
10 Principles of S.A.T.The nurse must follow certain principles in order to maintain surgical asepsisFailure to do could result in placing the client at risk for infectionThese principles are same in all situations that requiring sterility.Injections, insertion of catheters etc.
11 A Sterile Object Remains Sterile Only When Touched by Another Sterile Object Sterile touching sterile remains sterileUse of sterile gloves & sterile forcepsSterile touching clean becomes contaminated
12 A Sterile Object Remains Sterile Only When Touched by Another Sterile Object Sterile touching contaminated becomes contaminatedSterile touching questionable is contaminatedWhen in doubt discard !
13 Only Sterile Objects May Be Placed on a Sterile Field Storage – must be dry and cleanAppropriate preparationPackaging must be intact
14 A Sterile Object or Field Out of the Range of Vision or an Object Held Blow the Person’s Waist Is ContaminatedNever turn your back on a sterile fieldSterile objects must be kept in view
15 A Sterile Object or Field Becomes Contaminated by Prolonged Exposure to Air Limit air currentsDo not laugh, sneeze, or talk over a sterile field- minimize movement around the sterile fieldReach around the sterile fieldWhen opening sterile equipment hold it as close as possible without touching the field
16 When a Sterile Surface Comes Into Contact With a Wet, Contaminated Surface, the Sterile Object or Field Becomes Contaminated by Capillary ActionPackages must be intactNote the water proof barriersWork on a dry surface
17 Fluids Flow in the Direction of Gravity Surgical hand scrubHold forceps with tip down
18 Edges of the Sterile Field or Container Are Considered Contaminated I inch all the way aroundPour liquid off open bottle discard and then pour the liquid
19 Opening Sterile Packages Be sure and reviewStarting p 805 Potter & Perry