Practicalities Production Exercise #4 has been posted! Get your recordings in to me by Monday of next week. April 14 th, 5 pm This Friday: Jacqueline will lead a spectrogram reading exercise. I’ve scheduled a review session: April 23 rd, 1-2:30 pm Science A 147 There will be USRI evaluations at the end of class today!
A Note About F3 What about F3 distinctions? They’re unusual. For auditory reasons: sensitivity to frequency distinctions drops off in the higher frequency regions. However: English has very low F3.
English English is distinctive because it has a very low F3.
Toothpick Time typically combines three different approximant constrictions: 1.Post-alveolar (retroflex) 2.Lip rounding (labialization) 3.Pharyngeal constriction (pharyngealization) Hence, might be a better transcription. English speakers make the retroflex constriction in two different ways: 1.Tongue bunching 2.Tongue curling The articulation of is very complex.
Rhoticized Vowels Retroflexion is a feature which may be superimposed on other vowel articulations. These vowels are said to be rhoticized. Rhoticized vowels are contrastive in Badaga, a language spoken in southern India.
Rhoticized vowels in English Vowels before in Canadian + American English are consistently rhoticized. Check out Bruce + Peter’s productions of “hard”. Recall that there is a reduced set of vowel contrasts in this environment: Also note that there are alternative transcriptions for syllabic. Namely:
Laterals Laterals are produced by constricting the sides of the tongue towards the center of the mouth. Ex: [l], a lateral approximant Laterals can also be formed by constricting on one side of the mouth only…
Lateral Places The IPA includes symbols for lateral approximants at four different places of articulation Peter says: There are also two symbols for lateral fricatives. They are voiceless and voiced alveolars.
Lateral Approximant Contrasts Italian contrasts alveolar and palatal laterals.
Retroflex Laterals Toda contrasts dental and retroflex laterals. Toda is spoken in southern India. In syllable-final position, Korean laterals are typically retroflex.
Other Laterals Mid-Waghi contrasts dental, alveolar and velar laterals. Mid-Waghi is spoken in the highlands of New Guinea. Zulu contrasts alveolar lateral approximants and fricatives. Zulu is spoken in South Africa.
Lateral Acoustics Laterals have resonances like vowels… Mid-Waghi:[alala] but are weaker in intensity.
[l] vs. [l] and are primarily distinguished by F3 much lower in Also: [l] usually has lower F2 in English [ ]
Dark vs. Clear /l/ [alala] /l/ often has low F2 in English because it is velarized.
Velarization in English Different dialects: 1.[l] is velarized only in syllable-final position. 2.[l] is velarized everywhere except before front vowels. 3.[l] is velarized everywhere
Velarization in English Note: velarization of [l] leads to low F1 and low F2. closely resembles [o]. Leading to dialect Option 4: The [l] disappears and the velarization is left behind. The Columbus, Ohio “[o:]dies” station Coldplay (Devon accent):
The Remainders There are a handful of approximants in the IPA which are not considered glides, because they don’t correspond to high vowel articulations. These approximants correspond to flaps at the same places of articulation. An alveolar lateral flap is also possible:
Taps and Flaps There is a technical distinction made between taps and flaps. Tap: strictly up and down movement, with brief contact between articulators. Spanish: “expensive” Flap: brief contact during backwards or forwards movement of an active articulator. N.A. English:“ladder” or “latter” Note: Deadheaded Ed had edited it.
Tap and Trill Acoustics [pero]‘dog’ From Spanish: ‘but’
Full Circle The labio-dental flap was just introduced into the IPA in 2005. Re-check out the labio-dental flap movie.