Presentation on theme: "Place of Articulation, continued September 30, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Place of Articulation, continued September 30, 2013
Administrative Stuff 1.Production exercise #1 is due at 5 pm on Wednesday. Ive only received a few recordings so far! 2.This Friday: practice transcription exercise on place of articulation. This has been posted to the course website. 3.For next Monday: another English transcription exercise Broad and narrow Phonetic features (dimensions of articulation) Mid-sagittal diagrams 4.Lets walk over a basic transcription problem…
A Useful Diacritic Some English syllables have a consonant peak. This can only happen with /n/, /m/, /l/ and /r/. When this happens, the consonant is said to be syllabic and is denoted with a small vertical dash underneath. Examples: chasm ribbon eagle feature
An Interesting Fact Some vowels are louder than others dB of different vowels relative to (Fonagy, 1966): :0.0 [e] : -3.6 [o] : -7.2 [i] : -9.7 [u] : Why?
Another Interesting Fact Some vowels are inherently longer than others. Data from Swedish (Elert, 1964): longshort high[i y u]140 msec95 mid low Why?
Sonority Loudness is also a highly context-dependent measure. Can vary wildly within speaker, from speaker to speaker, from room to room, and across speaking contexts. However, all things being equal, some speech sounds are louder than others. Course in Phonetics: The sonority of a sound is its loudness relative to that of other sounds with the same length, stress and pitch.
A Sonority Scale low vowels high vowels glides liquids nasals fricatives stops high sonority low sonority
Sonority and Syllables An old idea (e.g., Pike, 1943): syllables are organized around peaks in sonority. This is the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP). Example: [bæd] is a well-formed syllable in English. [æ] [b][d] high sonority low sonority
Sonority and Syllables An old idea (e.g., Pike, 1943): syllables are organized around peaks in sonority. This is the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP). Example: [blænd] works well, too. [æ] [l][n] [b][d] high sonority low sonority
Technical Terms The sonority peak forms the nucleus of the syllable. [æ] [l][n] [b][d] high sonority low sonority nucleus
Technical Terms The sonority peak forms the nucleus of the syllable. The sounds that precede the nucleus form the syllable onset. [æ] [l][n] [b][d] high sonority low sonority onset
Technical Terms The sonority peak forms the nucleus of the syllable. The sounds that precede the nucleus form the syllable onset. The sounds that follow the nucleus form the syllable coda. [æ] [l][n] [b][d] high sonority low sonority coda
Technical Terms The sonority peak forms the nucleus of the syllable. The sounds that precede the nucleus form the syllable onset. The sounds that follow the nucleus form the syllable coda. Together, the nucleus and coda form the syllable rhyme. [æ] [l][n] [b][d] high sonority low sonority rhyme
Lets Try This One More Time If a liquid or nasal is in the syllable onset, it is not syllabic: reach, look If a liquid or nasal is in the syllable coda, it is not syllabic: fear, mall, form, cold If a liquid or nasal is in the syllable peak, it is syllabic: bird, worm pull (for speakers like me)
IPA Chart:Stops You are already familiar with Bilabial, Alveolar, Velar = the 3 most common places of articulation for stops UPSID Database (in Maddiesons Patterns of Sounds, 1984) surveys 317 languages 314 have bilabial stops (Wichita, Hupa, Aleut) 316 have alveolar/dental stops (Hawaiian) 315 have velar stops (Hupa, Kirghiz)
Palatal Stops Peter says: 59 languages in UPSID database have palatal stops Palatals vs. Velars in Ngwo (spoken in Cameroon)
Also: Palatal Nasals symbol: not to be confused with the velar nasal: PL: Examples from Hungarian
Uvular Stops Peter says: 47 languages in UPSID database have uvular stops Uvular nasal: Peter, again: Japanese: Japan
Quechua Contrasts Quechua is spoken primarily in Bolivia and Peru.
Epiglottals, Glottals There are no pharyngeal stops. However, there is an epiglottal stop: Peter says: Check out Stefans epiglottis There are also glottal stops: As in English: uh-oh, bottle, kitten More on these later
Epiglottals in Agul Agul is spoken in Dagestan, near the Caspian Sea, in Russia Note: no nasal pharyngeals, epiglottals, or glottals. Why?
Back to the Coronals
Two parameters to consider here: The active articulator 1.The tongue tip (apical) 2.The tongue blade (laminal) The passive articulator or target 1.The upper lip (linguo-labial) 2.Between the teeth (interdental) 3.The upper teeth (dental) 4.The alveolar ridge (alveolar) 5.Behind the alveolar ridge (post-alveolar)
Coronal Basics Coronal stops are usually dental or alveolar. Dental stops are usually laminal produced with the blade of the tongue as is typical in, e.g., French, Spanish Alveolar stops are usually apical pronounced with the tip of the tongue as is typical in English Dental ~ Alveolar contrasts are rare, but they do exist.
Laminal Dentals check out the labio- dental flap file
Yanyuwa Coronal Contrast Yanyuwa is spoken in the Northern Territory of Australia UPSID data-- Languages with the following number of stop place contrasts: <-- 5 of these languages are from Australia! Yanyuwa has 7 stop place contrasts!
Retroflex Stops Retroflex stops are produced in the post-alveolar region, by curling the tip of the tongue back. Common in south Asian languages. Peter says:
Sindhi place contrasts
Malayalam Place Contrasts
Palatography + Linguography
Two Places at Once Labial-velar stops are not uncommon, especially in African languages. Examples from Idoma (spoken in Nigeria):
Linguolabials Linguolabials are formed by touching the blade of the tongue to the upper lip. Examples from Venen Taut, a language spoken in Vanuatu (the South Pacific):
Place Contrast Round-up Most languages have three stop places: bilabial dental/alveolar velar If a language has a fourth stop place, it is usually palatal or uvular If a language has a fifth stop place, it is usually retroflex sometimes labial-velar