Presentation on theme: "Place of Articulation, continued"— Presentation transcript:
1 Place of Articulation, continued September 30, 2013
2 Administrative StuffProduction exercise #1 is due at 5 pm on Wednesday.I’ve only received a few recordings so far!This Friday: practice transcription exercise on place of articulation.This has been posted to the course website.For next Monday: another English transcription exerciseBroad and narrowPhonetic features (dimensions of articulation)Mid-sagittal diagramsLet’s walk over a basic transcription problem…
3 A Useful Diacritic Some English syllables have a consonant peak. This can only happen with /n/, /m/, /l/ and /r/.When this happens, the consonant is said to be syllabic and is denoted with a small vertical dash underneath.Examples:‘chasm’‘ribbon’‘eagle’‘feature’
4 An Interesting Fact Some vowels are louder than others dB of different vowels relative to (Fonagy, 1966):: 0.0[e] : -3.6[o] : -7.2[i] : -9.7[u] :Why?
5 Another Interesting Fact Some vowels are inherently longer than others.Data from Swedish (Elert, 1964):long shorthigh [i y u] 140 msec 95midlowWhy?
6 Sonority Loudness is also a highly context-dependent measure. Can vary wildly within speaker, from speaker to speaker, from room to room, and across speaking contexts.However, all things being equal, some speech sounds are louder than others.Course in Phonetics:“The sonority of a sound is its loudness relative to that of other sounds with the same length, stress and pitch.”
8 A Sonority Scale low vowels high vowels glides high sonority liquids nasalsfricativesstopshigh sonoritylow sonorityWrite this on the board
9 Sonority and Syllables An old idea (e.g., Pike, 1943): syllables are organized around peaks in sonority.This is the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP).Example: [bæd] is a well-formed syllable in English.[æ][b] [d]high sonoritylow sonority
10 Sonority and Syllables An old idea (e.g., Pike, 1943): syllables are organized around peaks in sonority.This is the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP).Example: [blænd] works well, too.[æ][l] [n][b] [d]high sonoritylow sonority
12 Technical Terms The sonority peak forms the nucleus of the syllable. [æ][l] [n][b] [d]nucleushigh sonoritylow sonority
13 Technical Terms The sonority peak forms the nucleus of the syllable. The sounds that precede the nucleus form the syllable onset.[æ][l] [n][b] [d]onsethigh sonoritylow sonority
14 Technical Terms The sonority peak forms the nucleus of the syllable. The sounds that precede the nucleus form the syllable onset.The sounds that follow the nucleus form the syllable coda.[æ][l] [n][b] [d]codahigh sonoritylow sonority
15 Technical Terms The sonority peak forms the nucleus of the syllable. The sounds that precede the nucleus form the syllable onset.The sounds that follow the nucleus form the syllable coda.Together, the nucleus and coda form the syllable rhyme.[æ][l] [n][b] [d]rhymehigh sonoritylow sonority
16 Let’s Try This One More Time If a liquid or nasal is in the syllable onset, it is not syllabic:“reach”, “look”If a liquid or nasal is in the syllable coda, it is not syllabic:“fear”, “mall”, “form”, “cold”If a liquid or nasal is in the syllable peak, it is syllabic:“bird”, “worm”“pull” (for speakers like me)
17 IPA Chart:StopsYou are already familiar with Bilabial, Alveolar, Velar= the 3 most common places of articulation for stopsUPSID Database (in Maddieson’s Patterns of Sounds, 1984)surveys 317 languages314 have bilabial stops (Wichita, Hupa, Aleut)316 have alveolar/dental stops (Hawaiian)315 have velar stops (Hupa, Kirghiz)
26 Epiglottals, Glottals There are no pharyngeal stops. However, there is an epiglottal stop:Peter says:Check out Stefan’s epiglottisThere are also glottal stops:As in English: “uh-oh”, “bottle”, “kitten”More on these later
27 Epiglottals in AgulAgul is spoken in Dagestan, near the Caspian Sea, in RussiaNote: no nasal pharyngeals, epiglottals, or glottals.Why?
29 Back to the Coronals Two parameters to consider here: The active articulatorThe tongue tip (apical)The tongue blade (laminal)The passive articulator or targetThe upper lip (linguo-labial)Between the teeth (interdental)The upper teeth (dental)The alveolar ridge (alveolar)Behind the alveolar ridge (post-alveolar)
30 Coronal Basics Coronal stops are usually dental or alveolar. Dental stops are usually laminalproduced with the blade of the tongueas is typical in, e.g., French, SpanishAlveolar stops are usually apicalpronounced with the tip of the tongueas is typical in EnglishDental ~ Alveolar contrasts are rare, but they do exist.
31 Laminal Dentalscheck out the labio-dental flap file
33 Yanyuwa Coronal Contrast Yanyuwa is spoken in the Northern Territory of AustraliaUPSID data--Languages with the following number of stop place contrasts:<-- 5 of these languages are from Australia!Yanyuwa has 7 stop place contrasts!
34 Retroflex StopsRetroflex stops are produced in the post-alveolar region, by curling the tip of the tongue back.Common in south Asian languages.Peter says:
39 Two Places at OnceLabial-velar stops are not uncommon, especially in African languages.Examples from Idoma (spoken in Nigeria):
40 LinguolabialsLinguolabials are formed by touching the blade of the tongue to the upper lip.Examples from V’enen Taut, a language spoken in Vanuatu (the South Pacific):
41 Place Contrast Round-up Most languages have three stop places:bilabialdental/alveolarvelarIf a language has a fourth stop place, it is usuallypalatal or uvularIf a language has a fifth stop place, it is usuallyretroflexsometimes labial-velar