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Chapter 15 (2012 Edition) Scalp Care, Shampooing, & Conditioning.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 (2012 Edition) Scalp Care, Shampooing, & Conditioning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 (2012 Edition) Scalp Care, Shampooing, & Conditioning

2 ~ judgments about surroundings the shampoo: ~ heavenly ~ forgettable
client ~ judgments about surroundings the shampoo: ~ heavenly ~ forgettable ~ nightmare First (preliminary) step for services Add to the side bar: has a psychological impact

3 Encompases: Scalp care Massage Shampooing Conditioning

4 quality relaxation time happy with shampoo ~ happy with entire visit
*Soothing * pleasurable sets the mood quality relaxation time happy with shampoo ~ happy with entire visit Read: Why Study….

5 Scalp Massage healthy scalp ~ cleanliness ~ stimulation
Manipulations used in scalp treatments and ***shampooing jpg

6 Scalp treatments: Given with a continuous even motion Stimulate the scalp Help to relax the client Do not massage or manipulate a client’s scalp if abrasions are present

7 Scalp massage is performed:
Before a shampoo if a scalp condition is apparent During the shampoo (once the conditioner has been applied) for relaxation Procedure Page 338 Difference between Relaxation and Treatment: Are the products that are used Follow all manufacturer’s directions

8 Knowing the location of: ~ muscles ~ blood vessels ~ nerve points
scalp and neck ~ areas that benefit from massage movements Read: FYI

9 Normal Hair and Scalp Treatment
Recommended after a hair and scalp examination Given either before or after the shampoo Depending on which treatment is given

10 Dry Hair and Scalp Treatments
Deficiency of natural oil Use scalp preparations with moisturizing and emollient ingredients Avoid: strong soaps, mineral- or sulfonated-oil base, greasy or high alcohol content Use a scalp steamer or hooded dryer Procedure page 329

11 Oily Hair and Scalp Treatment
Manipulate scalp Increases blood circulation to the surface Hardened sebum will be removed with gentle pressing or squeezing Procedure page 330

12 Antidandruff Treatment
Antidandruff shampoos, conditioners, and lotions control dandruff Moisturizing salon treatments soften and loosen scales Recommend additional salon treatments and antidandruff home care Procedure page 331 Read “Service Tip”

13 Brushing the Hair Correct hair brushing: Stimulates the blood circulation to the scalp Helps remove dust, dirt and hair spray buildup from the hair Gives hair added shine Include before every shampoo and scalp treatment Examine scalp for abrasions and infections

14 Four exceptions to HAIR brushing:
Do not brush before a chemical service Do not brush if the scalp is irritated Add: Do not brush wet hair

15 NO brushing, shampooing, or massaging the scalp prior to:
~ single-process and double-process haircolor ~ highlighting ~ most chemical relaxers (FMD) ~ some temporary rinses ~ semipermanent haircolor (FMD) *If recommended, gently shampoo to avoid scalp irritation (especially prior to permanent wave)

16 Natural (boar) bristle brushes have tiny overlapping layers
Cleans and adds luster to the hair Nylon bristles are shiny and smooth More suitable to hairstyling Not on test, however important Add: never use a comb to loosen scales-can tear off skin and cause bleeding

17 Understanding Shampoo
analyze ~ hair and scalp Check for: dry, dehydrated hair Thinning excessive hair ~ left in the sink dry, tight scalp oily scalp

18 scalp disorders or diseases ~ tick or lice infestation
abnormal flaking open wounds scalp irritations scalp disorders or diseases ~ tick or lice infestation

19 alert the stylist ~ any hair or scalp conditions infectious disease is never treated ~ referred to a physician cleanse the hair and scalp prior to services home care quality hair care products

20 remove all: dirt oils cosmetics skin debris cleanse regularly ~ combat oils ~ perspiration ~ dirt ~ breeding ground for disease-producing bacteria

21 shampoo as often as necessary
excessive: ~ strips protective oil (sebum) oily hair shampooed more often Add to side bar: Shampoo products account for the highest dollar expenditure in hair care products

22 Selecting the Proper Shampoo
skilled at selecting shampoos read the labels make informed decisions recommend home-care items select a shampoo ~ condition of hair and scalp

23 oily, dry, normal, or chemically treated
Be aware: ~ has the hair been treated with a chemical service (lightened, colored, permed, chemically treated) ~ abused by harsh shampoos ~ damaged by improper care ~ exposed to the elements


25 right home-care products
~ makes all the difference ~ looks, feels, and behaves wrong product choice ~ good haircut look bad affects outcome of chemical services


27 ***only professional products
*guaranteed when purchased in a salon *can only guarantee your chemical services if professional products are used at home. client’s ~ good advertising for you

28 Pure Substances and Physical Mixtures
All matter classified as a pure substance or a physical mixture Pure substance: * a chemical combination of matter in definite proportions * has unique properties * example: Distilled water *tap (faucet) water is not pure water

29 Physical mixture: *physical combination of matter in any proportions *combined properties of the substances in the mixture *example: salt water Most of the products used by cosmetologists and nail technicians/estheticians are physical mixtures

30 Solutions, Suspensions, and Emulsions
All physical mixtures ~ difference between: *size of the particles *solubility of the substance

31 Solution: ~ two or more mixable substances Solute: ~ substance dissolved in a solution Solvent: ~ dissolves the solute and makes the solution Water: the universal solvent

32 Miscible liquids ~ mutually soluble * mixed into stable solutions ex. water and alcohol Stays mixed-forms a solution They do not separate Ex. Salt water Immiscible liquids ~ not mixed into stable solutions ex. water and oil

33 ~ unstable mixture of undissolved particles ~ separate over time
Suspensions ~ unstable mixture of undissolved particles ~ separate over time *some lotions and creams-needs to be shaken ex glitter nail polish oil and vinegar salad dressing calamine lotion nail polish

34 Emulsions ~ unstable mixture of two or more immiscible substances ~ plus an emulsifier * brings two incompatible materials and binds them into a fairly stable blend ~ separate over time ~ stable for at least three years *cosmetics should be used within one year Name two examples of an emulsifier in hair care products.

35 ~ allow oil and water to mix The term=“surface active agent”
Surfactants ~ allow oil and water to mix The term=“surface active agent” Head of the surfactant molecule is Hydrophilic = water-loving Tail is Lipophilic = oil-loving Fig. 12-8

36 Oil-in-water emulsion ~ oil is emulsified in water *do not feel greasy
Read “Did You Know” Ex. Mayonnaise ~egg yolk emulsifies the oil and the water Used in salons: Haircolor, shampoos, conditioners, hand creams, and facial creams

37 Water-in-oil emulsions ~ water emulsified in oil * feels greasy
ex. Cold cream, styling creams, foot balms

38 Other Physical Mixtures
Ointments, pastes, pomades, and styling waxes-semi solid mixtures Made with petroleum jelly, oil, and wax Off-the-Scalp powdered lighteners are physical mixtures

39 Other common product ingredients are: Volatile alcohols
~ evaporate easily * isopropyl alcohol (rubbing) *ethyl (hairspray) Fatty alcohols: (nonvolatile alcohol waxes) cetyl alcohol cetearyl alcohol *Skin and hair conditioners

40 ~ used in place of ammonia * less odor
Alkanolamines ~ neutralize acids ~ raise pH of products ~ used in place of ammonia * less odor

41 Ammonia ~ raises pH in products ~ allows solution to penetrate hair shaft ex. Ammonium hydroxide (chemical relaxer) ammonium thioglycolate (perm solution)

42 ~ moisturizer in skin and body creams
Glycerin ~ moisturizer in skin and body creams Silicones ~ type of oil in conditioners and skin, nail products ~ less greasy ~ does not cause comedones ~ silky smooth feel on skin ~ shine to hair

43 Volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) ~ evaporate very quickly
ex. Hairspray * SD alcohol (ethyl alcohol) Volatile organic solvents *ethyl acetate *isopropyl alcohols Ex. Nail polish, base and top coats polish removers b

44 Potential Hydrogen (pH)
small p =quantity capital H =the hydrogen ion Add to the side bar: potential hydrogen Understanding pH ~ affects hair, skin, and nails ~ all salon services

45 ~ carries an electrical charge Ionization
Water and pH Ion ~ an atom or molecule ~ carries an electrical charge Ionization ~ separation of an atom or molecule ~into positive and negative electrical charges

46 Anion ~ ion ~ negative electrical charge Cation ~ positive electrical charge

47 Water molecules ionize ~ hydrogen ions ~ hydroxide ions
Acid 4 Water molecules ionize ~ hydrogen ions ~ hydroxide ions pH scale measures these ions Hydrogen ions are acidic Hydroxide ions are alkaline (base) Neutral Alkaline 14

48 *only products that contain water can have a pH
Add: oil and wax cannot be dissolved with water (no pH) *pure water is neutral pH -equal balance of acid and alkaline

49 The pH Scale measures ~ acidity (below 7 acidic) ~ alkalinity (base) of a substance (above 7 alkaline)

50 Range from 0-14 pH of 7 is a neutral solution Next slide:everyday foods/products

51 Above 7 alkaline solution Below 7 acidic solution Above 7 alkaline solution Note: strengths

52 pH is a Logarithmic scale Two whole numbers
~ multiples of 10 pH is a Logarithmic scale Two whole numbers 10x10=100 times more acidic or alkaline 10 10 x 10=100

53 0 5 6 7 14 Pure water 100 times more alkaline than hair Pure water
Skin water neutral Pure water 100 times more alkaline than hair Pure water ~ hair to swell as much as 20% ~ drying to the skin

54 Acids and Alkalis Acids-below pH 7.0 ***turns litmus paper ~ blue to red Alpha hydroxy acids: Derived from plants (mostly fruits) Acids used in salons exfoliate the skin and adjust the pH of lotions and creams

55 *contract and harden the hair
*thioglycolic acid ~ permanent waving solution

56 Alkalis “alkali” and “base” ~ interchangeable *hydroxide ion *pH above 7 ~ litmus paper from red to blue *feels slippery and soapy on the skin *softens and swells ~ hair, skin, cuticle, and calloused skin

57 *sodium hydroxide (13 or higher on pH scale)
~ lye ~ very strong alkali ~ drain cleaners ~ chemical hair relaxers Determine how many times stronger sodium hydroxide is to hair.

58 A chemical relaxer is 100,000,000 times stronger than the hair
FYI A chemical relaxer is 100,000,000 times stronger than the hair Same strength as Drain cleaner Short processing time Drying to the hair Can disintegrate the hair if too strong for the hair’s texture

59 Follow manufacturer’s directions
Do not let product touch or sit on the skin Where safety glasses to avoid eye contact. Consult MSDS

60 Acid-Alkali Neutralization Reactions
Acids and alkalis in equal proportions-neutralize each other-forms water Neutralizing shampoos and normalizing lotions (used in chemical relaxers) neutralize hair relaxers Liquid soaps neutralize callous softener residues A basic understanding of chemistry will help you use professional products effectively and safely in the salon.

61 Acid-Alkali Neutralization Reactions
acids and alkalis ~ equal proportions ~ neutralize to form water neutralizing shampoos/normalizing lotions ~ neutralize hydroxide relaxers ~ acid-alkali neutralization reaction

62 The pH scale page 313 understanding pH ~ select the proper shampoo acidic shampoo ~ alkaline shampoo ~ pH rating of 7.1 or higher more alkaline ~ stronger and harsher

63 leaves the hair ~ dry ~ brittle ~ porous ~ cause fading in color-treated hair slightly acidic shampoo ~ more closely matches the ideal pH of hair Focus On…

64 The pH Scale Acid: 0 – 6.9 Neutral: 7.0 Alkaline: 7.1 – 14
Project-Litmus paper test Acid :turns Litmus paper from blue to red Alkalis: turns Litmus paper from red to blue

65 The human body is made up of approximately 70% water and
Add to the side bar: page 314 The human body is made up of approximately 70% water and water covers almost 75% of the Earth’s surface

66 The Chemistry of Water most abundant and important element on Earth “universal solvent” ~ dissolves more substances than any other solvent fresh water ~ purified by sedimentation ~ filtration chlorine is added to kill bacteria

67 Boiling ~ 212 degrees F destroys most microbes Distillation ~ heat water to a vapor ~ condense the purified vapor ~ collect as a liquid


69 used in the manufacturing of cosmetics
Water used for: ~ shampooing ~ mixing solutions ~ many other functions

70 The Chemistry of Water Review: Purification Sedimentation Filtration
Chlorine Boiling Distillation

71 classified as hard or soft
Soft water ~ rain water ~ chemically softened water ~ allows soap and shampoo to lather freely ~ preferred for shampooing

72 Hard water ~ contains minerals ~ reduced ability of shampoo to lather readily ~ may change the results of haircoloring services ***use demineralizing shampoo

73 The Chemistry of Shampoos
understand ~ chemical and botanical ingredients ~ regularly found in shampoo Many shampoos have ingredients in common small differences in formulation makes one shampoo better than another for a particular hair texture or condition.

74 Water is the main ingredient
~ purified ~ deionized Usually the first ingredient listed Ingredients are listed in descending order

75 Surfactants Second ingredient ~ surfactant ~ base detergent ~ cleansing ~ “surface active agent”

76 A surfactant molecule has two ends:
~ hydrophilic ~ water attracting “head” ~ lipophilic ~ oil attracting “tail” twh 120.htm

77 creates a push-pull process
~ oils, dirt, and deposits ~ roll up into little balls ~ lifted off in the water ~ rinsed from the hair

78 Other ingredients added to surfactants
~wide variety Moisturizers Oils Proteins Preservatives Foam enhancers Perfumes



81 Shampoo



84 Types of Shampoo shampoo product ~ most $ spent in hair care products be knowledgeable ~ products you are selling skilled in demonstrating their use Your credibility ~ will be in question if client is better informed than you are

85 shampoos for every type of hair or scalp condition
~ dry ~ oily ~ fine ~ coarse ~ limp ~ lightened ~ permed ~ relaxed ~ color-treated ~ chemically treated ~ deposit a slight amount of color ~ cleanse build-up or mineral deposits

86 List of ingredients determines: ~ shiny and manageable
~ treat a scalp or hair condition ~ prepare hair for a chemical treatment

87 pH-Balanced Shampoo prevents excessive dryness hair damage during cleansing close the hair cuticle Recommended for color treated or lightened

88 Conditioning Shampoos
Known as moisturizing shampoos make hair appear smooth and shiny improve manageability contains protein and biotin (conditioning agents)

89 These conditioning agents: ~ restore moisture ~ elasticity These conditioning agents: ~ restore moisture ~ elasticity ~ strengthen the hair shaft ~ add volume ~ non-stripping

90 reducing excessive dandruff relieving other scalp conditions
Medicated Shampoos reducing excessive dandruff relieving other scalp conditions some prescribed by physician quite strong could affect the color of tinted or lightened hair Remains on the scalp longer always read manufacturer’s instructions

91 Active chelating agent-binds to metals-removes from the hair
Clarifying Shampoos Active chelating agent-binds to metals-removes from the hair Helps retain moisture Makes hair more manageable used when buildup is evident (after swimming) Use prior to chemical services **also called chelate shampoos

92 wash away excess oiliness prevents the hair from drying out
Balancing Shampoos for oily hair and scalp wash away excess oiliness prevents the hair from drying out

93 wet shampoo uncomfortable hard to manage use a dry or powder shampoo
Dry or Powder Shampoos wet shampoo uncomfortable hard to manage use a dry or powder shampoo picks up dirt and oils brush or comb it through the hair adds volume follow manufacturer’s instructions never use before a chemical service

94 Applying Dry Shampoos follow manufacturer’s directions apply scalp to the ends natural bristle brush ~ remove oil and dirt

95 Color-Enhancing Shampoos
surfactant base with basic color pigments Similar to temporary color rinses attracted to porous hair slight color change removed with plain shampooing

96 Shampoos for Hairpieces and Wigs
prepared wig-cleaning solutions are available Add to the side bar: Liquid dry shampoos were used on hairpieces and wigs in the 1970’s. It is like a dry cleaning chemical

97 Shampooing Clients With Special Needs
disabilities or wheelchair ~ will tell you how they prefer to be shampooed Options: ~ facing the shampoo bowl ~ bending forward ~ towel to protect their face

98 some will arrive freshly shampooed
others need a dry shampoo always ask about their preferences make their comfort and safety a priority

99 Understanding Conditioners
deposit protein or moisturizers Restore hair’s strength give body protect against possible breakage temporary remedy or cosmetic fix Can only repair hair to a certain extent

100 grows long enough to be cut off
restores luster shine manageability strength grows long enough to be cut off

101 ~ rinsed out after worked through
Conditioners ~ reconstructor’s ~ hair masks Rinse-out *Finishing rinses or cream rinses ~ rinsed out after worked through ~ detangling

102 ~ deep penetrating conditioners ~15-30 minutes
2. Treatment or repair ~ deep penetrating conditioners ~15-30 minutes ~ restores protein and moisture *requires longer processing time ~ under a heated dryer for deeper penetration

103 ~ applied, not rinsed out
3. Leave-in ~ applied, not rinsed out Conditioners contain silicone along with: ~ humectants ~ absorb moisture ~ promote the retention of moisture

104 Silicone ~ reflects light ~ hair appears shiny Other ingredients
~ reduce frizz ~ bulk up the hair

105 ~reinforce the hair shaft ***can buildup ***heavy and oily
Proteins ~ penetrate the cortex ~reinforce the hair shaft ***can buildup ***heavy and oily ***shampoo unnecessarily ***strips the hair protective oils ***creating a vicious cycle so… Senseof

106 ***use a gentle shampoo
***little conditioner *** pass on to client’s

107 Healthy cuticle: ~ lies down smoothly ~ reflects light ~ shiny

108 Conditioners, detanglers, cream rinses
smooth the cuticle ~ coat the hair shaft to achieve healthier looking hair The cortex ~ 90 % of the hair strand ~ penetrated with protein conditioners *reinforce the hair shaft from within ~ TEMPORARILY reconstruct the hair

109 NOT IN TEXTBOOK: FYI Instant Conditioners remain 1-5 minutes left in (“leave-in”) improve dry, brittle hair pH of restores the pH ~ alkaline chemical treatment

110 Cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol are common ingredients in instant
Add to the side bar in very small lettering: **more to add on next two slides Cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol are common ingredients in instant conditioners, work as pearlizing agents with a glossy finish This conditioner has both ingredients listed within the first 8 ingredients

111 Add to side bar: Lanolin derivatives are often included
in conditioner formulas for fine hair because of their light molecular weight

112 The size of the molecules, the distribution
Add: The size of the molecules, the distribution of molecular weights, how much salt the product contains, and how the protein is hydrolized, all determine a products effectiveness on the hair

113 Other Conditioning Agents
*Spray-on thermal protectors ~ applied to hair prior to any thermal (heat) service *Scalp conditioners ~ cream base ~ soften and improve the health of the scalp

114 *Medicated Scalp Lotions
~ promotes healing Add: control dandruff *Scalp Astringent Lotions ~ remove oil accumulation ~ after scalp treatment ~ before styling

115 Acid-balanced rinses prevent the fading of haircolor
Add to the side bar: Acid-balanced rinses prevent the fading of haircolor Color rinses add temporary color to the hair

116 Not in Textbook: FYI Moisturizers (side bar notes later in P.P.) heavier and creamier need for test 15-30 minutes more penetrating longer staying power Quaternary ammonium compounds are included to attach to hair fibers provide longer-lasting protection

117 Not in Textbook:FYI Protein Conditioners
Concentrated protein conditioners (brown liquid) increase hair diameter need for test adding body improve the tensile strength (stretching ability) temporarily closes split ends passes through the cuticle penetrates the cortex

118 replaces keratin improves appearance equalizes porosity increases elasticity not given immediately following a chemical treatment ~ may alter the desirable rearrangement of protein bonds formed by perms, relaxers or haircolor

119 Deep Conditioning Treatments
~ hair masks ~ conditioning packs concentrated protein ~ heavy cream base moisturizer equal degree of moisturizing and protein

120 Side bar notes: Moisturizers- heavier, creamier formulation-longer processing time. Concentrated protein-recognized by brown liquid appearance. Masks/packs-are chemical mixtures of concentrated protein in the heavy cream base of a moisturizer.

121 Draping Client draping is important Contributes to the clients safety and comfort Wet clothing/haircolor or perm solution on clothing…completely avoidable with a professional draping

122 Two types of draping: Shampoo draping or wet draping Chemical draping Wet draping-hair styling or haircutting services Textbook: one towel under cape/one towel over cape. Remove after shampoo and replace with a sanex strip. Mrs. Mandato’s way: plastic piece on clothing-towel-cape

123 Chemical draping-haircolor/ lightening, permanent wave and chemical relaxer services.
Textbook: towel under cape/one towel over cape, leave on for chemical service. Mrs. Mandato’s way: plastic piece-towel-cape Drape for chemical service prior to applying chemicals.

124 FMD-is a shampoo required before a chemical product
If shampoo is required…shampoo gently Before chemical service is to begin-redrape for a chemical service.

125 Three-Part Procedure Keeps track of what you are doing: pre-service Actual service Post-service

126 Part one: Pre-service procedure
Organized step-by-step plan Cleaning and disinfecting tools, implements, and materials Setting up your station Meeting, greeting, and escorting your client

127 Part two: Service procedure
Organized step-by-step plan for the actual service Part three: Organized step-by-step plan for caring for your client after the procedure Scheduling Payment process Prepare for next client

128 With each massage movement ~ place the hands under the hair
Mrs. Mandato:The rest of the slides are Not in Textbook- Important With each massage movement ~ place the hands under the hair ~ use length of the fingers ~ balls of the fingertips ~ cushions of the palms ~ stimulate the muscles, nerves, and blood vessels of the scalp area

129 Shampoo Procedures Good posture ~ protect against muscle aches ~ back strain ~ discomfort ~ fatigue ~ other physical problems that can result from performing shampoos


131 Correct posture ~ maintain an attractive image ~ always keep your shoulders back ~ avoid slumping over the client ~ hold abdomen in

132 Free-standing shampoo bowls ~ allow for healthier body alignment
~ help reduce strain on the back and shoulders

133 Shampooing Chemically Treated Hair
drier and more fragile use a mild shampoo tends to tangle

134 use wide-toothed comb ~ gently remove tangles ~ beginning at the nape ~ work your way up use a conditioner if necessary relaxed or straightened hair needs moisturizing before drying

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