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©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Defining consciousness: Two notions of consciousness 1. General state of arousal (sleep.

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Presentation on theme: "©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Defining consciousness: Two notions of consciousness 1. General state of arousal (sleep."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Defining consciousness: Two notions of consciousness 1. General state of arousal (sleep vs. wakefulness) 2. Attentional focus or current awareness (watching football game or listening to wife)

2 Defining consciousness: Levels of Awareness Higher-Level Consciousness  controlled processing  actively focus efforts toward a goal  requires attention

3 Defining consciousness: Levels of Awareness Lower-Level Consciousness Automatic processes require little attention/conscious effort do not interfere with other ongoing activities Daydreaming wandering thoughts fantasy, imagination, rumination potentially useful (reminding, solving)

4 Defining consciousness: Altered states Altered States of Consciousness  drug states  fatigue, illness, trauma, deprivation  meditation, hypnosis  mental disorders

5 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive Studies of Consciousness: Generally deal with 2 nd notion 1. Consciousness as attentional focus: Cocktail party effect (selective attention) 2. Automatic vs. Controlled processing (effects of practice on conscious awareness) 3. Implicit vs. Explicit memory  Recall test vs. Perceptual Identification test  Effects of priming

6 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive Studies of consciousness: Priming test Word or non-word RT measure FORK = word; DXMZ = non-word SIGN – FORK DXMZ – FORK SPOON – FORK (sig reduction in rt) Unconscious priming? -- yes

7 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive studies of consciousness: Exclusion task in priming Coconut…palm (tree or wrist?) cons: only tree/uncon: either Hand…palm (tree or wrist?) cons: only wrist/uncon: either Stem completion task: complete BUT_ _ _ (could be butter or butler). What happens when one is presented earlier either consciously or unconsciously?) But can only be excluded consciously

8 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive studies of consciousness: Brain Damaged Subjects 1. Blindsight: loss of visual consciousness due to damage to primary visual cortex 2. Prosopagnosia: loss of face recognition due to damage to temporal lobe visual pathway.

9 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep NREM (Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep: Stage 1 (lightest sleep) Stage 2 (deeper sleep) Stages 3 and 4 (deepest sleep) REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep: Light sleep (also called paradoxical sleep)

10 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep (Continued) NREM (non-REM) sleep:  includes Stages 1 through 4  involves lower-frequency brain waves, decreased pulse and breathing,and occasional, simple dreams  serves a biological need (NREM needs met before REM needs)

11 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep (Continued) REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) sleep:  also known as paradoxical sleep.  involves high-frequency brain waves, increased pulse and breathing, large muscle.  serves a biological need.  may play a role in learning and consolidating new memories.

12 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep in a Typical Night

13 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Research The EEG, EOG, and EMG are common tools for sleep research. What Happens When We Sleep

14 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep & Brain Waves

15 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Over the Life Span

16 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Average Daily Hours of Sleep for Different Mammals

17 Why Do We Need Sleep? Adaptive Evolutionary Function  safety  energy conservation/ efficiency Restorative Function  body rejuvenation & growth Brain Plasticity  enhances synaptic connections  memory consolidation

18 Theories of Dreaming Historical and Religious Significance Freud’s Psychodynamic Approach manifest and latent content Cognitive Theory information processing and memory Activation-Synthesis Theory brain makes “sense” out of random brain activity

19 Sleep Disorders insomnia sleep walking, talking, and eating nightmares and night terrors narcolepsy sleep apnea

20 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep Disorders Insomnia: persistent problems in falling asleep, staying asleep, or awakening too early Sleep Apnea: repeated interruption of breathing during sleep Narcolepsy: sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours

21 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep disorders Nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams occurring near the end of sleep, during REM sleep Night Terrors: abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense physiological arousal and feelings of panic

22 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drugs: chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood, or perception

23 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms Drug Abuse: drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others Addiction: compulsion to use a specific drug or to engage in a certain activity

24 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms Psychological Dependence: desire or craving to achieve effects produced by drug Physical Dependence: bodily processes have been so modified by repeated drug use that continued use is required to prevent withdrawal symptoms

25 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms (Continued) Withdrawal: discomfort and distress experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs Tolerance: decreased sensitivity to a drug brought about by its continuous use

26 Reward Pathway for Psychoactive Drugs

27 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories 1. Depressants: act on the CNS to suppress bodily processes (e.g., alcohol, valium) Alcohol & Neurotransmitters

28 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Depressants (Continued)

29 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

30 Psychoactive Drugs: Stimulants 2. Stimulants: act on the CNS to increase bodily processes (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, cocaine)

31 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Opiates 3. Opiates: act as an analgesic or pain reliever (e.g., morphine, heroin)

32 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Hallucinogens 4. Hallucinogens: produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana)

33 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

34 Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Club Drug Alert! Popular “Club Drugs”:  Date Rape Drug (Rohypnol)  MDMA (Ecstasy)  GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate)  Special K (Ketamine)  Crystal Meth (Methamphetamine)  LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)

35 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: How They Work Step 1). Alter the production or synthesis of neurotransmitters. Step 2). Change the storage or release of neurotransmitters. Step 3). Alter the reception of neurotransmitters. Step 4). Change the deactivation (block the reuptake or break-down) of excess neurotransmitters.

36 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) How Psychoactive Drugs Work (Step 3: Agonists vs. Antagonists)

37 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

38 Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Meditation: group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, and produce an ASC

39 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Hypnosis: trancelike state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus

40 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Hypnosis is used to treat chronic pain, severe burns, dentistry, childbirth, psychotherapy.

41 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Upper Paleolithic Cave Art: Indications of rituals to achieve ASC?

42 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Traditional ceremonies Mandan Indiana sun-dance: altered state as pain endurance

43 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Ritual Use of Altered State Intoxicants As far back as we can trace, humans have used consciousness altering rituals and intoxicants, but always together and always under supervision or regulation. The ritual regulated the drug use.


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