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©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 5: States of Consciousness Karen Huffman, Palomar College

2 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Lecture Overview Understanding Consciousness Sleep and Dreams Psychoactive Drugs Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness

3 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Understanding Consciousness Consciousness (an organism’s awareness of its own self and surroundings)

4 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Understanding Consciousness Alternate States of Consciousness (ASCs): mental states, other than ordinary waking consciousness, found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, etc.

5 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Circadian Rhythms Circadian Rhythms (biological changes occurring on a 24-hour cycle)  Our energy level, mood, learning, and alertness all vary throughout the day.  Sections of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the pineal gland regulate these changes.

6 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Circadian Rhythms (Continued) Disrupted circadian rhythms, through shift work, jet lag, and sleep deprivation may cause mood alterations, reduced concentration and motivation, increased irritability, lapses in attention, and reduced motor skills.

7 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams What happens to humans and other animals while we sleep and dream?

8 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep NREM (Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep: Stage 1(lightest sleep) Stage 2 (deeper sleep) Stages 3 and 4 (deepest sleep) REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep: Light sleep--also called paradoxical sleep

9 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep (Continued) NREM (non-REM) sleep  Includes Stages 1 through 4  Lower-frequency brain waves, decreased pulse and breathing,and occasional, simple dreams  Serves a biological need (NREM needs met before REM needs)

10 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep (Continued) REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) sleep  Also called paradoxical sleep  High-frequency brain waves, increased pulse and breathing, paralysis of the large muscles, and dreaming  Serves a biological need and may help with learning and consolidating new memories

11 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep in a Typical Night

12 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Research How scientists study sleep (note the EEG, EOG, and EMG measuring devices)

13 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep & Brain Waves

14 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) NREM and REM Sleep in Cats Can you identify which photo was taken while this cat was in REM sleep?

15 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Over the Life Span

16 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Average Daily Hours of Sleep for Different Mammals

17 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Why Do We Sleep? Repair/restoration theory: sleep helps us recuperate from daily activities Evolutionary/circadian theory: sleep evolved to conserve energy and as protection from predators Cognitive theory: dreams are an important part of information processing of everyday experiences

18 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Why Do We Dream? Psychoanalytic theory: dreams are disguised symbols (manifest versus latent content) of repressed desires and anxieties Biological theory: (activation-synthesis hypothesis) dreams are simple by-products of random stimulation of brain cells

19 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Sleep Disorders Two major categories: 1. Dyssomnias (problems in amount, timing, and quality of sleep) 2. Parasomnias (abnormal disturbances during sleep)

20 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Three Forms of Dyssomnias Insomnia: persistent problems in falling asleep, staying asleep, or awakening too early Sleep apnea: repeated interruption of breathing during sleep Narcolepsy: sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours

21 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Narcolepsy in Dogs

22 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sleep and Dreams: Two Forms of Parasomnias Nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams occurring near the end of sleep, during REM sleep Night terrors: abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense physiological arousal and feelings of panic

23 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms 1. Psychoactive Drugs (chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood, or perception) 2.Drug Abuse (drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others) 3.Addiction (compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity) 4.Psychological Dependence (desire or craving to achieve the effects produced by a drug)

24 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms (Continued) 5.Physical Dependence (bodily processes have been so modified by repeated drug use that continued use is required to prevent withdrawal symptoms) 6.Withdrawal (discomfort and distress experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs) 7.Tolerance (decreased sensitivity to a drug brought about by its continuous use)

25 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories 1. Depressants: act on the CNS to suppress bodily processes (e.g., alcohol, valium)

26 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories (Continued)  Depressants--Alcohol’s Effects

27 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

28 Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories (Continued) 2. Stimulants: act on the CNS to increase bodily processes (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, cocaine)

29 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories (Continued) A hidden danger of stimulants. The key ingredient in methamphetamine destroys the teeth and gums of chronic users.

30 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories (Continued) 3. Opiates: act as an analgesic or pain reliever (e.g., morphine, heroin)

31 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories (Continued) 4. Hallucinogens: produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana)

32 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

33 Psychoactive Drugs: How They Work Step 1). Alter the production or synthesis of neurotransmitters. Step 2). Change the storage or release of neurotransmitters. Step 3). Alter the reception of neurotransmitters. Step 4). Change the deactivation (block the reuptake or break-down) of excess neurotransmitters.

34 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) How Psychoactive Drugs Work (Step 3: Agonists vs. Antagonists)

35 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

36 Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Meditation (group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, and produce an ASC)

37 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Hypnosis (trancelike state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus)

38 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Therapeutic uses of hypnosis: treatment of chronic pain, severe burns, dentistry, childbirth, psychotherapy.

39 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)  Hypnosis: Myths and Controversies 1. Forced hypnosis 2. Unethical behavior 3. Exceptional memory 4. Superhuman strength 5. Fakery Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness

40 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation End of Chapter 5: States of Consciousness Karen Huffman, Palomar College


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