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Lecture Overview Understanding Consciousness Sleep & Dreams Psychoactive Drugs Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Understanding Consciousness Consciousness: an organism’s awareness of its own self & surroundings Alternate States of Consciousness (ASCs): mental states, other than ordinary waking consciousness, found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, etc. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Circadian Rhythms Circadian Rhythms: biological changes occurring on a 24-hour cycle – Our energy level, mood, learning, & alertness all vary throughout the day. – Sections of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) & the pineal gland regulate these changes. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Brain’s Role in Circadian Rhythms © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Disrupted Circadian Rhythms Disrupted circadian rhythms from shift work, jet lag, & sleep deprivation may cause alterations in mood, concentration, motivation, attention, & motor skills. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Stages of Sleep (NREM Sleep) NREM sleep (Non-Rapid- Eye-Movement): – includes Stages 1 through 4 – involves lower-frequency brain waves, decreased pulse & breathing,& occasional, simple dreams – serves a biological need (NREM needs met before REM needs) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Stages of Sleep (REM Sleep) REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep: – light sleep (also called paradoxical sleep) – also known as paradoxical sleep – involves high-frequency brain waves, increased pulse & breathing, large muscles – serves a biological need – may play a role in learning & consolidating new memories © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep graphed for 3 minutes © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Stages of Sleep in a Typical Night © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Assessment Can you label the three key areas of the brain involved in circadian rhythms? © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Assessment Judging by the cat’s posture, which cat is in NREM sleep and which is in REM sleep? © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Research The EEG, EOG, & EMG are common tools for sleep research. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Stages of Sleep & Brain Waves © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Over the Life Span © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Average Daily Hours of Sleep for Different Mammals © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Why Do We Sleep? Repair/Restoration Theory: sleep helps us recuperate from daily activities Evolutionary/Circadian Theory: sleep evolved to conserve energy & as protection from predators © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Why Do We Dream? Psychoanalytic Theory: dreams are disguised symbols (manifest versus latent content) of repressed desires & anxieties Biological View (activation-synthesis hypothesis): dreams are simple by-products of random stimulation of brain cells Cognitive View: dreams are a type of information processing © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Sleep Disorders Two major categories: 1.Dyssomnias: problems in amount, timing, & quality of sleep 2.Parasomnias: abnormal disturbances during sleep © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Three Forms of Dyssomnias Insomnia: persistent problems in falling asleep, staying asleep, or awakening too early Sleep Apnea: repeated interruption of breathing during sleep Narcolepsy: sudden & irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Narcolepsy in Dogs © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Two Forms of Parasomnias Nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams occurring near the end of sleep, during REM sleep Night Terrors: abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense physiological arousal & feelings of panic © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drugs: chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood, or perception © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms Drug Abuse: drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others Addiction: compulsion to use a specific drug or to engage in a certain activity © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms (Continued) Psychological Dependence: desire or craving to achieve effects produced by drug Physical Dependence: changes in bodily processes that make a drug necessary for minimal functioning © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms (Continued) Withdrawal: discomfort & distress experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs Tolerance: bodily adjustment to higher & higher levels of a drug leading to decreased sensitivity © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: How Drugs Work Agonist Drug: mimics a neurotransmitter’s effect Antagonist Drug: blocks normal neurotransmitter functioning © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Drug effects (cont.) Indirect Agonist : mimics neurotransmitter pre-synaptically Direct Agonist: mimics neurotransmitter post- synaptically Indirect Antagonist: blocks neurotransmitter pre-synaptically Direct Antatgonist: blocks neurotransmitter post-synaptically © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
How Psychoactive Drugs Work (Agonists vs. Antagonists) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories 1. Depressants: act on the CNS to suppress bodily processes (e.g., alcohol, valium) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Depressants (Continued) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Stimulants 2. Stimulants: act on the CNS to increase bodily processes (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, cocaine) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Opiates 3. Opiates: act as an analgesic or pain reliever (e.g., morphine, heroin) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Hallucinogens 4. Hallucinogens: produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychology at Work: Club Drug Alert! Popular “Club Drugs”: – Date Rape Drug (Rohypnol) – MDMA (Ecstasy) – GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate) – Special K (Ketamine) – Crystal Meth (Methamphetamine) – LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Other Ways to Alter Consciousness Meditation: group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, & produce an ASC © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Hypnosis: trancelike state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, & intense focus © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Hypnosis is used to treat chronic pain, severe burns, dentistry, childbirth, psychotherapy. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
© John Wiley & Sons, Inc CHAPTER 5 States of Consciousness PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation.
Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman Chapter 5: States of Consciousness Presented by: Mani Rafiee.
Psychology in Action (8e) PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 5: States of Consciousness 1.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Note to the Instructor: The following PowerPoint slides include the core concepts and.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Two notions of consciousness 1. General state of arousal (sleep vs. wakefulness) 2. Attentional.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Defining consciousness: Two notions of consciousness 1. General state of arousal (sleep.
Psychology in Action States of Consciousness. Lecture Overview Understanding Consciousness Sleep and Dreams Psychoactive Drugs Healthier Ways to Alter.
Vocab unit 5 States of Consciousness. an awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Chapter 4: States of Consciousness Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Consciousness The awareness.
© 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman/Vernoy/Vernoy: Psychology in Action 5e Psychology in Action, Fifth Edition by Karen Huffman, Mark Vernoy, and Judith.
Copyright © McGraw-Hill, Inc PsychSmart INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY.
LEVELS OF CONSCIOUSNESS, SLEEP & DREAMING, SLEEP DISORDERS, HYPNOSIS AND DRUGS States of Consciousness.
Definition Slides Unit 5: States of Consciousness.
Overview Dualism v. Monism Circadian Rhythm (25 hr. without light cues) Jet Lag Levels Sleep Dreams Hypnosis Drugs.
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E Chapter 7: States of Consciousness.
Chapter 5 States of Consciousness Lecture Overview Issues in Consciousness Sleep and Dreams Drugs that Influence Consciousness Alternate States of Consciousness.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 5: States of Consciousness.
Definition Slides Unit 4: States of Consciousness.
Chapter 5: States of Consciousness. Consciousness The awareness of sensations, thoughts, and feelings being experienced at a given moment –Waking consciousness.
Unit 5: States of Consciousness. Unit Overview Sleep and Dreams Sleep and Dreams Hypnosis Hypnosis Drugs and Consciousness Drugs and Consciousness.
Chapter 5 States of Consciousness. Levels of Consciousness Conscious: Brain processes of which we are aware (feelings, thoughts, perceptions) Preconscious:
CONSCIOUSNESS IS DEFINED AS THE AWARENESS OF OURSELVES AND OUR ENVIRONMENT.
States of consciousness Waking, Sleep, Dreaming. What is consciousness? Root of psychology as a science State of awareness.
Chapter 7 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environments.
© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION Seventh Edition by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation.
Consciousness Ongoing awareness of our own thoughts, sensation, feelings, and existence Normal consciousness Altered states of consciousness (ASC)
Chapter 5 States of Consciousness. Objectives 5.1 Overview: Consciousness, Brain Activity, Levels of Awareness Deﬁne consciousness. Describe how consciousness.
States of Consciousness. I. Sleep A. Circadian Rhythms: cycles of activity and inactivity generally lasting about one day. B. Shifting Sleep Schedules.
C ONSCIOUSNESS. What is consciousness? Awareness of ourselves and environment Different States? Cognitive Neuroscience Brain activity link with mental.
Drugs and Consciousness. DO NOW 1.Which of the following is NOT a theory of dreaming? a)Dreams facilitate information processing. b)Dreaming stimulates.
AWARENESS OF YOURSELF AND YOUR ENVIRONMENT Consciousness.
1 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2003 Consciousness process by which the brain creates a model of internal and external experience all the sensations, perceptions,
Consciousness Sleeping & Waking Awareness of Self (thoughts & feelings) Automatic Processes – * (Subconscious) Eating/driving Controlled Processes – learning.
Levels of Consciousness Unit 5. Levels of Consciousness - Focused Awareness - State of heightened awareness of the task at hand - Typically you will shut.
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION Sixth Edition by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation.
Chapter 5 Review: States of Consciousness 1. Sleep and Dreaming 2. Hypnosis 3. Drugs.
Chapter 5 States of Consciousness California Dreaming – The Mamas and the Papas.
Chapter 5. Consciousness Consciousness is an awareness of our internal and external stimuli Variations in consciousness are measured with an EEG (electroencephalogram)
Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness. Consciousness: Personal Awareness Awareness of Internal and External Stimuli –Levels of awareness James – stream.
Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Chapter 4: Consciousness: Wide Awake, in a Daze, or Dreaming?
Altered States of Consciousness
Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience – An interdisciplinary field involving cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics.
Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 6 States of Consciousness.
States of Consciousness
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