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Lecture Overview Understanding Consciousness Sleep & Dreams Psychoactive Drugs Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Understanding Consciousness Consciousness: an organism’s awareness of its own self & surroundings Alternate States of Consciousness (ASCs): mental states, other than ordinary waking consciousness, found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, etc. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Circadian Rhythms Circadian Rhythms: biological changes occurring on a 24-hour cycle – Our energy level, mood, learning, & alertness all vary throughout the day. – Sections of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) & the pineal gland regulate these changes. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Brain’s Role in Circadian Rhythms © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Disrupted Circadian Rhythms Disrupted circadian rhythms from shift work, jet lag, & sleep deprivation may cause alterations in mood, concentration, motivation, attention, & motor skills. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Stages of Sleep (NREM Sleep) NREM sleep (Non-Rapid- Eye-Movement): – includes Stages 1 through 4 – involves lower-frequency brain waves, decreased pulse & breathing,& occasional, simple dreams – serves a biological need (NREM needs met before REM needs) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Stages of Sleep (REM Sleep) REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep: – light sleep (also called paradoxical sleep) – also known as paradoxical sleep – involves high-frequency brain waves, increased pulse & breathing, large muscles – serves a biological need – may play a role in learning & consolidating new memories © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep graphed for 3 minutes © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Stages of Sleep in a Typical Night © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Assessment Can you label the three key areas of the brain involved in circadian rhythms? © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Assessment Judging by the cat’s posture, which cat is in NREM sleep and which is in REM sleep? © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Research The EEG, EOG, & EMG are common tools for sleep research. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Stages of Sleep & Brain Waves © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Over the Life Span © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Average Daily Hours of Sleep for Different Mammals © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Why Do We Sleep? Repair/Restoration Theory: sleep helps us recuperate from daily activities Evolutionary/Circadian Theory: sleep evolved to conserve energy & as protection from predators © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Why Do We Dream? Psychoanalytic Theory: dreams are disguised symbols (manifest versus latent content) of repressed desires & anxieties Biological View (activation-synthesis hypothesis): dreams are simple by-products of random stimulation of brain cells Cognitive View: dreams are a type of information processing © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Sleep Disorders Two major categories: 1.Dyssomnias: problems in amount, timing, & quality of sleep 2.Parasomnias: abnormal disturbances during sleep © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Three Forms of Dyssomnias Insomnia: persistent problems in falling asleep, staying asleep, or awakening too early Sleep Apnea: repeated interruption of breathing during sleep Narcolepsy: sudden & irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Narcolepsy in Dogs © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sleep & Dreams: Two Forms of Parasomnias Nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams occurring near the end of sleep, during REM sleep Night Terrors: abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense physiological arousal & feelings of panic © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drugs: chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood, or perception © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms Drug Abuse: drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others Addiction: compulsion to use a specific drug or to engage in a certain activity © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms (Continued) Psychological Dependence: desire or craving to achieve effects produced by drug Physical Dependence: changes in bodily processes that make a drug necessary for minimal functioning © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms (Continued) Withdrawal: discomfort & distress experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs Tolerance: bodily adjustment to higher & higher levels of a drug leading to decreased sensitivity © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: How Drugs Work Agonist Drug: mimics a neurotransmitter’s effect Antagonist Drug: blocks normal neurotransmitter functioning © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Drug effects (cont.) Indirect Agonist : mimics neurotransmitter pre-synaptically Direct Agonist: mimics neurotransmitter post- synaptically Indirect Antagonist: blocks neurotransmitter pre-synaptically Direct Antatgonist: blocks neurotransmitter post-synaptically © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
How Psychoactive Drugs Work (Agonists vs. Antagonists) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories 1. Depressants: act on the CNS to suppress bodily processes (e.g., alcohol, valium) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Depressants (Continued) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Stimulants 2. Stimulants: act on the CNS to increase bodily processes (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, cocaine) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Opiates 3. Opiates: act as an analgesic or pain reliever (e.g., morphine, heroin) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychoactive Drugs: Hallucinogens 4. Hallucinogens: produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychology at Work: Club Drug Alert! Popular “Club Drugs”: – Date Rape Drug (Rohypnol) – MDMA (Ecstasy) – GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate) – Special K (Ketamine) – Crystal Meth (Methamphetamine) – LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Other Ways to Alter Consciousness Meditation: group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, & produce an ASC © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Hypnosis: trancelike state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, & intense focus © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Hypnosis is used to treat chronic pain, severe burns, dentistry, childbirth, psychotherapy. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 5 States of Consciousness This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
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