Can nationalism and sectionalism co-exist? Why or why not? Be specific. › Nationalism- national spirit; devotion and loyalty to one's own nation; patriotism, etc. › Sectionalism- excessive regard for local interests; regional or local spirit; prejudice, etc.
Industrial Revolution begins in Britain, moves to the U.S. › We have all the necessities here, we simply need a spark Rivers Coal and iron Stream of unskilled immigrants eager for work › New approaches to manufacturing--Factory systems make mass-production possible › Eliminates costly workers and becomes a cheaper way to produce goods- most profitable After the Revolutionary War, trade (not manufacturing) is the main source of income. End of the War of 1812- increasing isolationism and a rise in American industry
NORTH: › Industrialization of New England- Pushed industry- relied on shipping and foreign trade; more ready than most Americans to embrace the change Thousands traveled to New England in search of work after the declining family farms
Northern Agriculture and Abolition- › Farmers moving into the Old Northwest established small farms, relying heavily on their own production and very rarely sold their produce at a distance › As cities grew, farming began to change—they would raise cattle to sell, then use the profit to buy goods Little need/demand for slaves Began to voice their religious and political opposition to slavery, founded on principle but also on the notion that it was “unnecessary.” By 1804, almost all states north of Delaware had enacted laws to abolish slavery or provide for its gradual end.
South: › The “Cotton Kingdom” Eli Whitney’s “gin”- invention that revolutionizes slavery Made it possible for Southern farmers to grow short staple cotton for profit (only type of cotton that could grow in the interior regions of the south) Great demand for cotton in the industrializing North and in Britain The gin would clean the cotton quickly and efficiently By 1820, interior southern states and farmers moving westward transformed into booming cotton “kingdoms” and greatly expanded the need for slavery Demand began to grow rapidly – cotton production flourished and so did slaves
As the North and South become extremely sectionalized, the creation of a plan to unify the nation becomes increasingly important. In 1815, President Madison proposed a plan to Congress: › Wanted to unite the different regions of the country and create strong, stable, economy to promote self-sufficiency › His plan included: 1. Establishing a protective tariff ( a tariff imposed to protect domestic firms from import competition) 2.Resurrecting the National Bank 3.Sponsoring the development of transportation systems as well as other internal improvements
Keep in mind: past foreign affairs, youth of the nation, economy, etc.
Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun rally behind this plan and promoted it as “The American System” › As explained by Clay, this new system would unite the nation’s economic interests. The North would produce goods that farmers in the South and West would buy. The South and West would raise grain, meat, and wheat needed to supply the North. › Most importantly---with each part of the country dependent on one another, we would finally be economically independent of Britain and other European nations. WHAT CAUSES THIS SHIFT? TOWARDS WHICH DIRECTION?
Boosts federal power, Limiting state power › Cases run by Supreme Court’s Chief Justice John Marshall and the rulings: Gibbons v. Ogden - Ruling: Federal gov’t has the power to regulate everything that crosses state lines, including authority of interstate commerce McCulloch v. Maryland - Ruling: “The power to tax is the power to destroy”; states cannot tax federal banks-declares the Bank of the United States constitutional Fletcher v. Peck, Dartmouth v. Woodward - Ruling: blocked state interference in business and commerce, even when it meant overturning state laws
J.Q. Adams, Secretary of State: › Nationalism- national interests and national unity should be placed ahead of “regional” concerns and foreign affairs should be guided by national self-interest Security of the nation- De-militarized common border btwn. Canada and U.S. U.S. and Britain will jointly occupy Oregon Territory Boundary pressures continued from parts of Canada, New Spain (Mexico), and the Oregon Country Expansion of the territory- Spain cedes Florida to the U.S.
President Monroe’s message to Congress (1823) i.e. “The Monroe Doctrine” : › All European powers should not interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere Should not attempt to create new colonies NOR try to overthrow the newly independent republics in the hemisphere U.S. will consider such actions “dangerous to our peace and safety” › The U.S. will not involve itself in European affairs or interfere with existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere. Since the U.S. lacked armed forces that would support this creed,,any European nations ignored Monroe; however, the Monroe Doctrine represented an important step for the U.S. onto the world stage. WHY?!?!
Settlers pushed westward in hopes for opportunity › Social and economic gains: “No white man or woman will bear being called a servant…hirelings must be spoken to with Civility and cheerfulness” (Did not exist in the East) When settlers reached the required population in Missouri for its application into statehood, conflict arose. › ISSUE: SLAVERY! Currently 10 free states, 10 slave states Illinois becomes the 11 th free state, Southerners expect that Missouri will be slave state #11. NY Congressman Tallmadge amended Missouri’s statehood bill requiring that it gradually free all slaves. South is furious! Threat to the South’s power!
Meanwhile, while they are arguing, Alabama is admitted as slave state #11…NOW WHAT? A balance and compromise is CRUCIAL to avoid collapse of the unity. The Missouri Compromise: Maine is admitted as a free state, Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the LA territory is split into two spheres of interest: slave v. free South of the 36’30’ latitude line, slavery is legal, north (except for Missouri), it is outlawed.
Factors Contributing to Sectionalism 1) Industrial Revolution 2) Development of different economic systems in the North and South 3) Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 4) Federal Power vs. State's Rights Factors Contributing to Nationalism 5) The American System 6) U.S. Supreme Court under John Marshall 7) John Quincy Adams's foreign policy 8) Monroe Doctrine 9) Westward Expansion and the Missouri Compromise 11) Indian Removal Act of 1830
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