Presentation on theme: "Road to Independence Mexican Constitution of 1824 Created by the Mexican Federalist gov’t Lots of similarities to the U.S. Constitution. BUT-ONE."— Presentation transcript:
Road to Independence
Mexican Constitution of 1824 Created by the Mexican Federalist gov’t Lots of similarities to the U.S. Constitution. BUT-ONE HUGE DIFFERENCE!!! -No Freedom of Religion “The religion of the nation (Mexico) is the Roman Catholic Church and is protected by law and prohibits (outlaws) any other.”
Review… Fredonian Rebellion – The Edwards brothers tried to create a new country called the Republic of Fredonia in Mexican Texas. Mexican troops sent to end the rebellion Conflicts at Anahuac and Velasco
Law of April 6, 1830 Stopped all U.S. immigration into Mexico ( main purpose!!!) Set up custom duties, or import taxes, for products that came from the United States Froze impresario contracts Enforced slavery laws (no new slaves)
More Review Mexican troops arrive in Texas to deal with all the trouble Turtle Bayou Resolution – In response to the Conflict at Anahuac – It said that they were loyal to Mexico Conventions of 1832 &1833 – Wanted to make changes in the Mexican Government
The Revolution Begins
Battle of Gonzales
Battle of Gonzales-First Battle October 2, 1835, the 1 st major conflict between TX and Mexico. Mexican Colonel Ugartachea ordered the people of Gonzales to surrender a Mexican cannon. The colonists refused and buried the cannon. Battle broke out! NO Texans were killed and the Mexican forces withdrew. Victory proved to Texans that the Mexican Army could be defeated, and Texas could win independence! GO TEXANS!
START OF THE WAR!!! As a result, Mexican General Cós declared the Texas actions at Gonzales as the beginning of the war. He marched a large army to San Antonio Mistreats people in San Antonio
Capture of Goliad Colonists attack and capture a Mexican fort in Goliad in response to General Cós’ arrival in San Antonio Mexicans were outnumbered and didn’t put up a fight In effect, the Texians controlled the Mexican supply line
Anglo Settlements: 1835-1836
Point of No Return Colonists leave Gonzales to attack General Cós in San Antonio Stephen F. Austin is elected commander of the army Most Texians want to FIGHT!! Cooler heads prevail, so they SIEGE. Austin sent to U.S. / Burleson in charge Burleson and Texians almost leave …
The Grass Fight Rumor: A mule train carrying bags of silver was headed to San Antonio. – Some Texian troops decided to go take the bags. – A skirmish (fight) occurred. Texians got the bags! – As is the case with MOST RUMORS, this one proved to be FALSE!! – Inside the bags was nothing but grass to feed the Mexican horses. – Good news: The SIEGE was WORKING!
Capture of San Antonio On December 4, 1835 – Colonel Ben Milam led a group of 300 Texan rebels to attack San Antonio. At dawn… – Texans fought from house to house. (guerilla warfare) – December 6, Colonel Milam was killed by a sniper. – December 9, the Mexican forces had been pushed out of the center of the town. – December 10, General Cós surrendered.
Texans vs. Mexicans Ben MilamGeneral Cos
Consultation of 1835 San Felipe de Austin – Wanted Mexico to make the changes suggested at the Conventions of 1832 & 1833 – Wrote a state Constitution – War Party … wanted to attack the Mexicans at Matamoros, Mexico – Peace Party … pledged loyalty to Mexico and just wanted the Constitution of 1824 reinstated and refused to declare Texas as independent – Sam Houston sent Jim Bowie to destroy the Alamo and retrieve all of the cannons – Bowie left with 30 men under his command
What should be done with the Alamo? Houston wanted to destroy the Alamo and remove all the cannons to another fort. – He thought that the old fort was not fit to be defended and was no good since it was a former mission. Houston was outvoted. – Others thought that it was important to defend the Alamo because other Anglo settlements were east of it … protect the Alamo, protect those settlements.
People Start to Come to the Alamo TT he Governor of Texas told William B. Travis to raise a force and go to the Alamo. –T–Travis could only get 30 men. They left for San Antonio on February 3. NN ews of the fighting in Texas was spreading fast in the United States. –D–Davy Crockett led a group of volunteers from Tennessee. –J–James Bonham led a group of volunteers from Alabama called the Mobile Grays.
Santa Anna Santa Anna was angry that the Texans had taken San Antonio. He was determined to take San Antonio back. – Not only because it was an important city for Mexico. – But also to teach the Texans a lesson. San Antonio is my target!!!
Santa Anna comes to Town On February 23, 1836 Santa Anna marched in to San Antonio. As the Mexican troops entered the city the defenders, their families, and some local residents rushed inside the Alamo.
What Santa Anna Wants Santa Anna demanded a surrender. – The Texans answered with a cannon shot. Santa Anna answered this with a large red flag that could be seen all over town. – This flag meant “No Quarter” or no survivors.
The Siege Begins On February 24, 1836 Santa Anna begins to fire on the fort. – He does this to break down the walls. – He fires all during the day and night so that the Texans can get no rest. He also had his band play “El Degüello” which meant no mercy would be shown.
The Texans need Help!!! The Texans had about 150 men. To successfully defend the Alamo they would need 1000 men. – The area around the Alamo was about 3 acres big. So Travis wrote a letter and sent it by messenger to ask for more volunteers.
Commandancy of the Alamo Bexar, Feb. 24th 1836 To the People of Texas & all Americans in the world – Fellow citizens & compatriots--I am besieged by a thousand or more of the Mexicans under Santa Anna – I have sustained a continual Bombardment & cannonade for 24 hours & have not lost a man -- The enemy has demanded a surrender at discretion, otherwise, the garrison are to be put to the sword, if the fort is taken I have answered the demand with a cannon shot, & our flag still waves proudly from the walls -- I shall never surrender or retreat. Then, I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism & everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid, with all dispatch – The enemy is receiving reinforcements daily & will no doubt increase to three or four thousand in four or five days. If this call is neglected, I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible & die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor & that of his country – Victory or Death. William Barret Travis Lt. Col. Comdt. P.S. The Lord is on our side -- When the enemy appeared in sight we had not three bushels of corn --We have since found in deserted houses 80 or 90 bushels & got into the walls 20 or 30 heads of Beeves. Travis
Meanwhile back at Washington on the Brazos Sam Houston was elected commander of the Texan army. – He was worried that the untrained Texas Army couldn’t hold up against the well-trained Mexican Army. – He left to raise an army … went to Gonzales first – He ordered Fannin to leave Goliad and take his army to join Houston’s
Convention of 1836 Declaration of Independence A meeting was held at Washington-on-the- Brazos with 59 delegates. (only 2 were native Texans)
March 2, 1836 Texas Declaration of Independence is adopted.
Texas Declaration of Independence The Texas Declaration is similar to the U.S. Declaration of Independence. It stated Santa Anna had violated the civil or individual liberties of citizens guaranteed under the Mexican Constitution of 1824. March 2 became, and still is, Texas Independence Day.
George C. Childress Author of the Texas Declaration of Independence
Hope for the Texans On March 1, Captain Albert Martin led 32 volunteers from Gonzales. Other messengers left the Alamo to get help but no other helped arrived. – Including Juan Seguín who had to leave his men to take the message. This gave the final count as 189 Texans to over 2000 Mexicans.
March 6 th The Battle March 6 th Around dawn the Texans awoke to the sound of the approaching Mexican troops and the Mexican band playing “El Degüello”. The Texans tried to keep the Mexican soldiers back by firing their cannons. After the Mexican troops were over the wall, they used the cannons against the Texans.
After the Smoke Cleared On March 6 th On March 6 th, almost every Texan defender was killed. – At least 182 Texans were dead. The Mexican casualties, those killed, during the battle, range from 600-1600. Santa Anna thought that this would crush the Texans’ Rebellion. It gave the Texans something to fight for!
Defenders at the Alamo Jim Bowie (led the volunteer army at the Alamo) William B. Travis (led the regular army)
Defenders at the Alamo James Bonham Davy Crockett
Defenders of the Alamo Juan Seguín-Led a group of Tejanos Tejano - A Mexican who calls TX home Travis needed a person to sneak out of the Alamo to take a letter out. Travis chose Seguín because he was a Tejano. Seguín didn’t make it back to defend the Alamo. Joe (William B. Travis’ slave) – Santa Anna didn’t kill him because he did not fight.
Survivors of the Alamo Juan Seguín Susannah Dickinson
Survivors of the Alamo Susannah Dickinson – Married to one of the defenders. – Came to the Alamo for protection. Her husband died defending the Alamo. – Susannah and her daughter Angelina were the only Anglo- American survivors.
Convention of 1836…TX Constitution On March 16, 1836 the Texas Constitution was approved. The constitution was similar to the U.S. Constitution.
Government and Administration 3 branches of govt. created Called for a president (David G. Burnet) Lorenzo De Zavala became the vice president Called for a commander in chief of the Army (Sam Houston) Slavery was made LEGAL.
Similarities between Texas and American Revolutions TEXAS UNITED STATES 1. Declaration of Independence 2. Constitution 3. Committees of Correspondence 4. Protest against taxes 5. Military leader-Sam Houston 1. Declaration of Independence 2. Constitution 3. Committees of Correspondence 4. Protest against taxes 5. Military leader-George Washington
Goliad On March 19 th, 1836 Colonel James Fannin and General Urrea faced off at Coleto Creek. A battle took place between the Mexicans and the Texans. Fannin surrendered because he was told by Urrea that he and his men’s lives would be spared.
Goliad Massacre After being held as prisoners for a week, Urrea received orders from Santa Anna to execute all Texan prisoners. Some of Fannin’s men escaped, but Fannin and nearly all of his men were massacred on March 27th, 1836.
Sam Houston’s Army Since Sam Houston wasn’t able to aid the Texans at the Alamo and Goliad, he was able to build an army. Although his army was poorly equipped and poorly trained, Texas soldiers were inspired by the massacres at the Alamo and Goliad.
Runaway Scrape As the Mexican Army marched through Texas, towards Houston, they were burning towns, terrorizing, and killing Texans. Texan families had heard about the Alamo and Goliad and were scared of the approaching Mexican Army. As a result, Texans began fleeing their homes and this was known as the Runaway Scrape.
Battle of San Jacinto Finally, Santa Anna and his army had reached Houston. As Sam Houston and his army were close behind, word traveled that Santa Anna was near by. On April 20, 1836, Houston’s army had the Mexican’s insight. The next day, Houston and his army surprised Santa Anna and his army while they were resting. After an 18 minute fight, the battle was over and Santa Anna was defeated.
Treaties of Velasco Signed May 14, 1836 Public Treaty – Santa Anna promised to never go against TX again. – Ordered to remove ALL Mexican forces out of TX immediately. Private Treaty – Santa Anna escorted back to Mexico. – He also had to agree as the Rio Grande as the boundary between TX and Mexico.
Public Treaty Private Treaty
Key Texans at San Jacinto Sam Houston Juan Seguin (Texas Leader) (Led a group of Tejanos)
Key Texan’s… Mirabeau Lamar Erastus “Deaf” Smith “Led the Texas cavalry” Destroyed a bridge that cut off Santa Anna and kept him from retreating.
Scenes from San Jacinto
Santa Anna surrendering to Sam Houston. Houston is lying on the ground.