2Ch 7 vocabulary in your notes write the following words and definition. InfantryTactical RetreatProvisional governmentAtrocityAlcaldeReinforcementsRegular ArmyBarracksCompromiseSiegeBayonetsCavalrySection questions for Chapter 7 Homework is due November 14, 2014
3Warm-up Nov. 6, 2014What events generally need to happen for a revolution to get off the ground?In the summer of 1835 war was not certain. List the events that will lead to the Texas Revolution.Think about the tensions that had been between the two sides for several years.What types of emotions/sentiments do you think the people on each side of the Battle of Gonzales were feeling?
4Events that led to the Revolution Fredonian Rebellion:The Edwards brothers took over Nacogdoches and claimed it was independent of Mexico.This made Mexico scared that Anglos were trying to take over Texas.Mier Y Teran ReportMexico sent Mier y Teran into Texas to observe conditions, he found that Anglos outnumbered Mexicans in Texas 10-1
5Events that led to the Revolution Law of April 6, 1830Mexico passed the law of April 6, 1830 in response to the Mier y Teran report.Said that there was to be no immigration from the U.S. into Texas, and that slavery was outlawedSanta Anna also created a Centralist government where he had all the powerStephen F. Austin’s Arrest:he was arrested for writing a letter Mexico considered treasonous and was imprisoned for several years
6Similarities Between the Texas and American Revolution Texas RevolutionGreat Britain originally left the colonists aloneMexico originally left the settlers aloneThe colonists began to develop the colonies largely on their ownThe settlers began to develop Texas largely on their ownGreat Britain feared losing control over the colonies and cracked downMexico feared losing control over Texas and cracked downThe goals of the colonists changed over timeThe goals of the settlers changed over timeKing George III denied the colonist rightsSanta Anna denied the settlers their rights
7The Battle of Gonzales: The Texans had borrowed a cannon from Mexico for protection from the Comanche Indians. After the battle at Anahuac, General Martin Perfecto de Cos was afraid they would use it against them. So he sent some soldiers to Gonzales to retrieve the cannon.Andrew Ponton was the alcalde (the mayor) of Gonzales and refused to give up the cannon without proper documentation from the government. While some of the soldiers went to get the paperwork, Ponton buried the cannon.Meanwhile, 18 of the townspeople (old Eighteen) prepared to fight. They removed all the boats that were along the Guadalupe River that ran by the town and captured some of the soldiers who were waiting for permission to take the cannon. However, 1 soldier escaped and told Mexico what the Texans were doing.
8The Battle of Gonzales continued: Oct. 2, 1825More Mexican troops were sent to the area to retrieve the cannon.When they reached Gonzales they could not get to the town, because the river was too high. So they went to another part of the river and rested over night.Meanwhile, the Texans dug up the cannon and got more people to join the 18 and attacked the Mexicans the next morning. They even made a flag saying “Come and take it!”.This battle was the 1st battle of the Texas Revolution.
9Battle of Gonzalez First battle of the Texas Revolution Battle over cannon was at Gonzales to protect against natives.Colonists fought (old 18)Mexican soldiers who wanted cannon backShowed colonists defiance
10Battle of Gonzalez Oct. 2, 1835 Mexican soldiers came for cannon Texans buried cannon in orchardDug up cannon & hung a flag statingCOME AND TAKE ITTexans fired first shot (1 Mex. died, 0 Texans) – Old 18Significance – first battle of the Texas RevolutionMexicans retreated, Texans won
11Summary Activity Gonzales Write:Concluding Statement about the Battle of GonzalesBattle SloganBattle Symbol
12The Capture of Goliad:Oct. 9, 1835The news of Gonzales worried General Cos so he and his soldiers left Goliad (La Bahia) to meet up with other soldiers in San Antonio.They left behind supplies in thefort of Goliad. Soon the Texansalong with Ben Milam capturedthe fort and its supplies.
13Capture of GoliadOct. 10, 1835Cos and his troops left Goliad to help put down the rebellionTexan volunteer army attacked Goliad while Cos was goneMexicans surrenderedSignificance – cut off Mexican army’s supply routes
14Warm up Nov 7, 2014Why was the Battle of Gonzalez called the Lexington of the Texas Revolution?What made Presidio La Bahia an important fort?What was the first state government in Texas?
15Establishing a government: The Consultation of 1835 was the first meeting where the Texans got together to discuss what they should do, fight or not. 3rd Texian Consultation, San Felipe de Austin, 1 November 1835But when the fighting started in Gonzales & Goliad the delegates put off the meeting until later in the year. However, they did create the Permanent Council, the first state government of Texas (it also set up a postal system, sent soldiers and supplies to the army in South Texas). But, when they finally had the meeting they disbanded.
16Establishing a government: Not all Texans wanted to fight against Mexico, so they came up with a compromise. They would fight, but not for independence. They would fight to put the Constitution of 1824 back in place.They also set up a Provisional government, or temporary government in Texas. They chose Henry Smith as governor.They put Sam Houston in charge of the army and tried to create a regular army, a full-time force of soldiers.
17March on San Antonio October 12, 1835 Led by Stephen F. Austin Tejanos, including Juan Seguin, joined the armyArmy had grown to 600Untrained army with little suppliesAustin was waiting to increase his cavalryCos led Mexican soldiers
18Mission Concepcion Oct. 28, 1835 Bowie, Fannin and Briscoe were sent out with a search party with 90 to find the best location for the March on San AntonioAttacked by 400 Mexican soldiersBowie and party had a good defense position behind the river bankAble to defeat Mexicans because they had more accurate riflesSignificance – Texans won a quick and clear victory
19The Siege of San Antonio: Oct. 28, 1835SFA put James Fannin and Jim Bowie in charge and they led a force to San Antonio where General Cos was with his men. They began a siege of the town. He hoped the Mexican troops would run out of food and surrender.
20SiegeThe siege lasted many weeks and many of the Mexican soldiers were hoping to giving up. SFA decided it was time to attack. General Cos and his men surrendered.Then SFA was chosen by the Consultation to go to the US to seek help in fighting Mexico so Edward Burleson was now in charge.
21“Grass Fight”:November 26, 1835A Texas soldier spotted some Mexican soldiers just outside of San Antonio with a large number of mules. It was said that the mules carried a lot of silver to pay Mexican soldiers.The Texans led by Jim Bowie attacked the Mexicans and after a fierce battle the Mexicans fled to S.A. leaving the mules behind.The Texans captured the mules only to find out they were only carrying hay which was to be food for the Mexican troops horses. Thus the name “Grass fight”.
22Grass Fight led By Bowie: William H. Jack to Edward Burleson, November 27, 1835Bowie
23The Grass Fight led by Bowie November 26, 1835Stephen F. Austin started a siege on San AntonioErastus “Deaf” Smith reported to Austin that more than 100 Mexican soldiers were heading toward San AntonioBowie led 40 Texas cavalry and 100 infantry troops to intercept the soldiersThey captured their horses and mules with cargoSignificance – discovered the siege was working since these were supplies for the Mexican soldiers in San Antonio
24The Capture of San Antonio: As the siege continued many Texas soldiers were wanting to leave. But when 1 Mexican soldier fled the town, he told the Texans that it would be easy to fight the Mexicans and take over the Alamo.
25The Capture of San Antonio: The Texans began to fight and within a matter of a few days General Cos surrendered the town, the Alamo, and his men.His troops were set free and pledged they would not return to Texas.
26Capture of San Antonio December 5, 1835 Texans found out that Mexican soldiers in San Antonio were weak and disorganizedThe siege and lack of supplies had worn them downBen Milam shouted “Who will go with old Ben Milam to San Antonio”300 rebels answered his call to attackFighting spread from house to house and even rooftopsDec. 9th – Mexican troops forced to the center of the cityDec. 10th – agreed to Cos’s terms of surrenderCos and his troops were led out of San AntonioSignificance – Texans believed the conflict was over and they could form a separate state within Mexico under the Constitution of 1824
27The Texans hold:The Texans held San Antonio and Goliad. They also held all the harbors on the Gulf Coast, this made their position strong in Texas.No force could invade by sea.The Mexican army could not move north of the San Antonio River.
29Warm upWhat was happening at Washington on the Brazos in February 1836?
30The Texas Government falls apart: The governor and General Council did not work well together and after many arguments the government fell apart.Governor Smith and the Texas army disagreed on where to attack the Mexican army. The Council ordered Smith removed from office and put James W. Robinson in charge.
31Disorganized Armies:The army was also having problems because there were 4 leaders (Sam Houston, Frank Johnson, James Grant, & James Fannin) and the men did not agree on where to attack the Mexican army. They also had very few soldiers.The men decided to split up the soldiers. Johnson & Grant took 500 men, Fannin 450, and Houston went to Goliad to take charge.Houston did not want to separate the men, but the other leaders refused to support Houston unless he refused to support Governor Smith– Houston feared there were to be more problems to follow.
32The Alamo & it’s defenders: Early 1836The men at the Alamo called for reinforcements to make their force stronger, as the fort was one of the main roads that connected Mexico to the interior of Texas.Jim Bowie was sent by Houston to the Alamo to assess the situation. He reported back that they need to defend the Alamo and send more troops.Houston soon sent more troops led by William Travis to help.David Crockett arrived from Tennessee along with 12 men. This left 150 men to defend the Alamo.
34The Siege of the Alamo:Santa Anna was moving north towards San Antonio with 6,000 troops.The sight of the Mexican army surprised Travis, as well as the sight of the Texans for Santa Anna, as he thought they would not be there.Santa Anna demanded the Texans to surrender but they refused. Travis responded with a cannon shot. The 2 armies fired their cannons at each other for days.Travis sent a messenger, Juan Seguin, to Gonzales for help. 32 men came to help.James Bonham also left the Alamo to seek help from Fannin in Goliad,but he sent word he was unable to help.Travis knew that he was unable to defend the fort without Fannins help. He asked the Texans if they wanted to leave they could, only 1 man did, Louis Rose.
38The Fall of the Alamo:On March 6, the north wall of the Alamo was falling down so Santa Anna decided to attack.There were too many Mexican soldiers and they quickly took over the Alamo. Killing 189 Texans. Only 600 Mexican soldiers were killed.Santa Anna told his soldiers to kill any man but let the women and children go free.The battle inspired the Texans to fight. They began to use the cry “Remember the Alamo”.
39Painting analysis And letters Dawn of the AlamoPainting analysisAnd letters
40Remember the Alamo!1. We will be analyzing a copy of the painting, “Dawn at the Alamo” & On the right side of your spiral across from a page of notes copy of the 3-Level Organizer.Look closely at the painting and write down 4 facts they notice in the painting. Discuss facts each group wrote. (See painting information sheet.)
41Remember the Alamo! Find major Texian figures: Bowie, Bowie (in the lower left rising off his sick bed) is placed out in the open, not in a small room.Crockett, Crockett (in the lower right) is probably out of place.Travis. Point out that Travis (the figure fighting on the top of the rampart) would have already been killed by the Mexicans by this point in the battle.Discuss the evidence written in the de la Pena diary (that Crockett & others surrendered and were executed on orders of Santa Anna)
42Remember the Alamo!3. Notice Texians are fighting valiantly, while the Mexicans are often showed “sneaking” up behind a Texan soldier. (See Travis)Find other examples of bias against the Mexican soldiers. Read the letter to MacArdle from Santa Anna. Ask them to identify elements of bias in the letter.
43Remember the Alamo! Three-Level Organizer: listed 4 facts from the painting in the center of the organizer,write 2 inferences about the battle from looking at the painting. (Write these in the middle frame of the graphic organizer.)In the outer frame, write an answer “ How has discovery of new historical evidence forced us to change our view of the Battle of the Alamo? “Compare Travis’ letter, especially the quote: “If this call is neglected, I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible and die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor and that of his country—Victory or Death!”Class debate: Compare Travis’ letter, especially the quote: “If this call is neglected, I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible and die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor and that of his country—Victory or Death!”with Patton’s quote: “Don’t be a fool and die for your country. Let the other [soldier] die for his.”After discussing what each quote means, ask students to form a continuum by placing themselves along a line between each quote to show their agreement with either quote.Students at either end of the continuum state their reasons for being at that spot. They should try to convince students in the middle area of the continuum to move to their end—or at least, closer to their end
44The Alamo March 1836 13 days of fighting A victory for the Mexican soldiersConsidered a turning point in Texas history“Remember the Alamo” became the chant of Texans during the revolution
46The Alamo Battleground Spanned more then 3 acres in 1836About Texas defenders died at the AlamoAround Mexican casualties1 Texan for every 7 feet of Alamo walls
47How did the Alamo affect the Texas Revolution? What impact did the Fall of the Alamo have on the rest of the Revolution?What became the rallying cry of soldiers in the Revolution after the fall of the Alamo?Santa Anna hoped to prove that it was futile to try to fight him.Did he prove his point with the Battle of the Alamo?Chances are excellent that Santa Anna enraged the Texans and made the fight even more difficult. The Battle of the Alamo really rallied the Texas troops. It also weakened Santa Anna’s troops as he spent a lot of time and lost many soldiers waiting out the Texans.47
48Travis’ Letter Travis wrote the letter shortly after the siege began The letter desperately called for more volunteersNow is labeled the “Most Heroic Document in Texas History”
49After the Alamo:Houston had heard of the defeat at the Alamo but did not believe it. So he sent Deaf Smith towards San Antonio to find out what happened.On his way there, he found Susanna Dickinson, and other survivors from the Alamo walking. They told Smith what had happened at the Alamo and that Santa Anna was on his way towards Gonzales.Houston knew he could not fight Santa Anna with the 400 men he had. So he called for a tactical retreat from Gonzales, an organized pullback of troops from an enemy in order to gain an advantage.He also sent a message to Fannin in Goliad to destroy the Presidio La Bahia there and join him. Houston hoped to add Fannin’s 500 men to his army.
50Houston’s Retreat:Houston left Gonzales for the Anglo part of Texas along with all the people who lived there. But before he left he burned down the town. He hoped as he went more north more people would join him and the fight against Santa Anna.When Houston reached San Felipe he had 1,400 men in his army.However, Houston found out that Santa Anna was moving towards the east into Anglo Texas and Fannin was not going to come help them.Also, many Texans disliked Houston and feared Santa Anna would come towards Washington-on-the-Brazos where the delegates were meeting. Since most of the soldiers in the area joined with Houston there were not many soldiers left the protect the area.
51Ambush at San Patricio: General Don Jose Urrea attacked the Texans at San Patricio.The men were under the leadership of Francis W. Johnson.He killed or captured most of them, Johnson managed to escape.A short time later Urrea defeated James Grant’s men as they traveled to Matamoros. Several men died, and the rest were captured.
52Refugio and Coleto Creek: Fannin believed Urrea was somewhere in the area around Refugio so he let 150 men led by William Ward and Amon King to go to nearby Refugio.King decided to take his men and have them attack some of the Tejanos that lived there.Urrea’s army attacked Ward and his men in Refugio. They also surrounded King and his men just outside the mission.After a day long battle, Ward’s and King’s men tried to escape but were captured. Many men were killed on the spot, other fled to Victoria.Fannin who was waiting for the men to return from Refugio when he heard of the defeat. He chose to flee towards Victoria because he did not have enough men to fight.On the way to Victoria Urrea’s men caught up with them. Urrea attacked Fannin’s men at Coleto Creek. Fannin offered to surrender. He asked for his men to be expelled from Texas instead of putting them in prison. Urrea seemed to agree with these terms.
53The Massacre at Goliad: Fannin and his men returned to Goliad, which was under Urrea’s control.The men stayed in jail for a few days and then were forced to march out of town. They thought they were going to the port of Copano to board a ship to the US.About a mile outside of town the Mexican soldiers opened fire on the Texans, killing 340 men. Only 30 people escaped due to the aide of Francita Alavez, who hid them from the soldiers. She was known as the “Angel of Goliad”.The massacre at Goliad moved more Texans to fight as they saw it as an atrocity, or a cruel and brutal act. They blamed Santa Anna for the actions taken. It also made many US citizens to come to Texas to help the Texans fight against Mexico.
54The Runaway Scrape:Many Texans were afraid of Santa Anna. Soon the people in Texas began to leave.Most of the men in Texas joined Houston’s army while the women were forced to bring their children to safety.The Runaway Scrape lasted for weeks, until late April 1836.Houston then met Santa Anna’s army near the San Jacinto River, where a fateful battle would take place.
55Runaway Scrape. Listen to the story of the Runaway Scrape Think about the pictures.Imagine what it might have been like to participate in the Runaway Scrape.Write a letter or journal entry/entries describing their experiences sentences minimum.Scape
56"The horrors of crossing the Trinity are beyond my power to describe," she wrote. "When the party got to the boat the water broke over the banks and ran around us. We were surrounded by water."In 1836, General Santa Anna was marching eastward from San Antonio, and settlers were fleeing to safety in Louisiana in what was called the Runaway Scrape. Only such a great danger would have forced Dilue Rose Harris's family to try a difficult river crossing.
57“… then we was all drove out of ouer houses with ouer little ones to suffer with cold and hungry and little Lorenzy not three months old when we started out died on the road … when the Mexicans was invadeing Texas … we alwase calld the invadeing of Texas the runaway trip so your uncle Tommys wife onley lived one day after tha got home thare was many births and deths on that road while we was running from the mexicans.”
58People of the Texas Revolution Sam Houston: Leader of the Texas ArmySanta Anna: Leader of the Mexican ArmyGeorge Childress: Led the convention of 1836 and created the Texas Declaration of IndependenceLorenzo de Zavala: Was a Mexican who came to Texas to escape Santa Anna’s power and help the Texans. He helped write the Texas ConstitutionJames Fannin: Commanded men in the Texas army at GoliadJuan Seguin: Fought at the Alamo, and recruited help for William B. Travis
59Warm up Explain why Presidio La Bahia was an important fort. Identify the first state government in Texas.Why did the Texans lay siege to San Antonio?Why was the Texan Capture of San Antonio important?
60William B. Travis Commanded ______________________________________ Was one of the first defenders _______________________
61William B. TravisCommanded the Texans against Mexican forces at the AlamoWas one of the first defenders to die
62Sam Houston/Santa Anna compare & contrast Early Life22.214.171.124.5.Early life1.2.3.
63Sam Houston/Santa Anna Experience1.2.3.LeadershipExperience1.2.3.Leadership
64The Leaders at Washington-on-the-Brazos: While the fighting was going on at the Alamo, some of the leaders of Texas were able to meet to make plans for Texas.They were now fighting to make Texas independent.They formed a new government and wrote a constitution.