2 PreviewUnder the Shogun- Japan was firmly organized under the Tokugawa shogunate. Under Japan’s Tokugawa shogunate, social status was passed down through families. It was closely tied to military rank or way of earning a living. Members of one social class could not move up to another social class. A person’s social class affected all parts of life.Japanese Cultural Treasures- Under the Tokugawa shogunate, several parts of Japanese culture grew and changed.
3 Reach Into Your Background For hundreds of years, Japan developed its unique culture with influence from only its closest neighbors, China and Korea. Create a list of five facts you know about Japanese culture today. (5 minutes)
4 Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
5 Key Ideas- Under the Shogun The emperor was considered to be descended from the gods but had no political power.The shogun, or supreme military dictator, was the real ruler of the country.Large landowners, or daimyo, controlled local people through samurai warriors who were loyal to them.Peasants made up most of the population and worked the land for the daimyo.
6 Japanese SocietyThe Japanese people believed their emperor was descended from the gods, but by about 400 the emperor was little more than a religious symbol.
7 Key TermEmperor- A male leader of an empire or a ruler who has total power in a country or region.
8 Key TermShogun- The highest-ranking samurai or general who received the title of Shogun for some great victory on behalf of the emperor.
9 Key TermDaimyo- Regional lords who controlled local territories and had their own group of loyal samurai. All daimyo shared an equal title, but some were more powerful than others.
10 Emperor, Shogun, and Daimyo Real power was in the hands of the noble families, who often fought each other to gain political control.
11 Emperor, Shogun, and Daimyo In 1185, Yoritomo of the Minamoto clan gained power against his rivals and claimed the title shogun: supreme military dictator.
12 Emperor, Shogun, and Daimyo The noble families and the shogun relied on the military support of armed warriors called samurai.Samurai were loyal to the shogun or the family they served.
13 The End of FeudalismBy the mid-1300s, when the shogun had lost much of his power, Japan developed a feudal system with no central power.Regional lords called daimyo controlled local territories and had their own groups of loyal samurai.
14 The End of FeudalismThe period of 1467–1603 was one of civil war, as daimyo fought each other for wealth and power.
15 The End of FeudalismA samurai named Toyotomi Hideyoshi defeated his rivals and united all of Japan under his rule.However, because he was of peasant birth, he could not become shogun.
16 The End of FeudalismHideyoshi issued a law that made the classes of Japanese society permanent: Samurai were at the top; peasants, who were farmers, were below the samurai; artisans came next; and merchants were the lowest class of society.
18 The End of FeudalismAfter Hideyoshi’s death, Tokugawa Ieyasu became shogun and won control of Japan.He began the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan for 265 years.
19 The End of FeudalismPowerful landowners and samurai were required to live in Edo the capital city every other year.In this way, the shogun ensured that the landowners would not gain regional power and become rivals of the Tokugawa family.
20 Key TermSamurai- A Japanese warrior who was a member of the military upper classes.
21 Key TermBushido- Or the way of the warrior is the traditional code of the Japanese samurai, stressing honor, self-discipline, bravery, and simple living.
22 The Way of the WarriorAlthough they had many privileges, the samurai had to live their lives according to a strict code called Bushido, or the way of the warrior.
23 The Way of the WarriorThis code required the samurai to be brave, skilled in battle, loyal, honest, and willing to sacrifice themselves in service of their lord.Samurai were even expected to commit ritual suicide if their daimyo ordered them to.
24 The Way of the WarriorThe samurai owed loyalty to the emperor, his parents, his master, his teachers, and his friends.By showing such obedience and loyalty, the samurai set an example of ideal citizenship for the lower orders.
25 Creating a Samurai Sword Video- Creating a Samurai Sword
26 Code of the SamuraiReading Handout- Code of the Samurai
27 Social RankFamilies arranged marriages, and women had few rights in marriage.The samurai practiced cultural activities, such as painting, flower arranging, calligraphy, and writing poetry.
28 Social RankWomen who were related to samurai had their own strict rules to follow.A woman of the samurai class was obligated to obey her parents as a child, her husband as a wife, and her sons when they were grown.
29 Social RankPeasants made up the great majority of the population. They had very little power in society.For example, they were not free to leave their daimyo’s land and seek other work in the towns.
30 Rice in Japan’s Economy Because the peasants produced food, they were essential to the foundation of the state in feudal Japan.As a result, the shogun and daimyo needed to keep the peasants happy but not allow them to gain too much power.
31 Rice in Japan’s Economy Although merchants occupied the bottom of the social structure, many of them became rich by shrewdly buying and selling rice.For all classes, the economy of Japan was based on a rice standard.
32 MerchantsAs Japanese society became more urban, a money economy began to develop.Because daimyo and their samurai needed cash to pay for goods, services, and their luxurious lifestyles, they often found themselves in debt to merchants.
33 Key Ideas- Japanese Cultural Treasures Zen, a Japanese form of Buddhism, was the chosen religion of the samurai class.Woodblock printmaking developed as an art form. It captured the lively city life of the merchant class.Haiku, a traditional Japanese form of poetry, was at its height during the Tokugawa shogunate.
35 Zen BuddhismThe preferred religion of the samurai was Zen Buddhism, which was a branch of Buddhism.Zen teachers guided their students in meditation through the use of stories, dialogues, and metaphors.
36 The Floating WorldIn Edo and other cities, wealthy merchants developed an art form called ukiyo-e, or “the floating world.”In this form of art, the natural world is shown in brief moments of unreal beauty, such as a snowfall or the blossoming of cherry trees.
37 17 SyllablesJapanese writers also developed new form of poetry called a haiku.A haiku is a poem in 17 syllables, divided into three lines of five, seven, and five syllables.
38 HaikuThe years of the Tokugawa shogunate were the “golden age” of haiku, but the form is still popular in Japan today.
39 Key TermHaiku- A three-line poem with five syllables in the first line, seven syllables in the second line, and five syllables in the third line. These poems do not rhyme.
40 How to Write a HaikuVideo- How to Write a Haiku
41 Independent ActivityWrite a short one page story from the perspective of a samurai, a shogun, or a lord about life in feudal Japan.
42 Independent ActivityWhat has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)
43 Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)