Presentation on theme: "Japan’s Warrior Society"— Presentation transcript:
1Japan’s Warrior Society By the 1100s, central government was losing control of the empireLocal clans fighting for power and land, no law and orderBandits (ronin)roamed countryside, landowners hired armies of samurai, trained professional warriors
2Feudalism and SamuraiUse of samurai, trained professional warriors, developed into feudal warrior society in JapanSimilar to feudal system in EuropeIn exchange for allegiance, military service, noble landowners gave property, payment to samurai
3Payment for SamuraiUnlike in Europe, where knights were usually paid with land grants, only most powerful samurai received landMost paid with food, usually rice
4Payment for SamuraiThose samurai who were given land did not work or live on the land.The samurai’s lands were worked by peasants, who gave the samurai food for payment each year.
5Warrior Role Main role of samurai, that of a highly skilled warrior Wore armor, were skilled with many weapons, often fought on horsebackExpected to be in fighting form all the time, ready to do battle should need arise
6Societal PrivilegesAs time passed, samurai rose in status in society, enjoyed many privilegesCrowds parted to let them pass when samurai walked down streetPeople dropped eyes out of respect—and fear!Samurai had right to kill anyone who showed disrespect
7Samurai Code of EthicsSamurai followed strict code of ethics, known as Bushido, “the way of the warrior”Bushido required samurai to be courageous, honorable, obedient and loyal.
8Samurai Code of EthicsWord samurai means “those who serve;” each had to serve, obey his lord without hesitation, even if samurai, family suffered as result.Samurai who failed to obey, protect his lord was expected to commit seppuku—suicide by ritual disembowelment
9Discipline Strove to live disciplined lives Pursued activities requiring great focus, like writing poetry, arranging flowers, performing tea ceremonies
10Zen Buddhism Many samurai accepted Zen Buddhism Spread from China to Japan in 1100sZen stressed discipline, meditation as ways to focus mind, gain wisdom
11Role of Women Both men, women of samurai families learned to fight Usually only men went to war.Female samurai had to follow Bushido.Were prepared to die to protect home, family honor.
12Role of Women Both men, women of samurai families learned to fight Samurai women honored in Japanese societyCould inherit propertyAllowed to participate in business
13Rise of the ShogunsFor most of the 1100s, Japan had no strong central government.Local nobles, the heads of powerful clans, fought for power.
14YorimotoMinamoto family defeated rival clan to become Japan’s most powerful clan1192, clan leader Minamoto Yoritomo forced emperor to name him shogun, “general,” Japan’s supreme military leaderShogun ruled in emperor’s name
15Shogun RuleEmperor remained at top of society, but became mere figureheadFor nearly 700 years shoguns ruled JapanYoritomo allowed emperor to hold court at Heian, later known as KyotoShogun formed military government at Kamakura
16Kamakura ShogunateKamakura Shogunate, military dynasty, ruled Japan until 1333.1200s, Kamakura Shogunate faced major threat—Mongols.
17Kamakura Shogunate1274, again in 1281, large Mongol fleets attacked Japan.Each time Japanese defeated them, with help of powerful storm that wiped out enemy fleet.
18Weakened ShogunateJapanese referred to storms as kamikaze, “divine wind”; believed they showed that the gods favored Japan.Mongol invasions weakened Kamakura Shogunate.
19Weakened ShogunateMany lords thought shogun had not rewarded them enough; loyalties broke down.1338, Shogunate overthrown.
20Rebellion and OrderA new shogunate took power but was too weak to gain control of Japan.With the loss of centralized rule, Japan splintered into many competing factions.
21DaimyoNumerous local daimyo, powerful warlords with large estates, gained control of territories, battled for power.Daimyo built large fortified castles to defend lands.
22FortificationsCastles often on hills, protected by walls, surrounded by water.Towns often grew up around them.Daimyo began to use peasants as foot soldiers, samurai on horseback.
23Firepower 1543, Portuguese introduced firearms. Daimyo began to arm soldiers with guns.Some samurai refused to use them.Died wielding swords against superior firepower.
24Ambitious MenGenerals Take Control1500s, three strong daimyo worked to take control of Japan.Oda Nobunaga, first to arm soldiers with guns, defeated opponents easily.
25Ambitious Men By death in 1582, controlled half of Japan. Generals Take ControlBy death in 1582, controlled half of Japan.Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Oda’s greatest general, continued efforts.By 1590, he controlled most of Japan
26Ambitious Men Tokugawa Ieyasu 1600, Tokugawa won decisive battle. Gained complete control of all Japan.1603, emperor made Tokugawa shogun.Event began the Tokugawa Shogunate.
27The Tokugawa Shogunate Strong Central GovernmentTokugawa established capital at quiet fishing village, Edo, now Tokyo.Established strong central government.Tokugawa shoguns brought about period of relative unity, peace, stability.
28The Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa shoguns closely controlled daimyo, who still held local level power.To keep loyal, shoguns required daimyo to live in Edo periodically.Leave families there year-round as “hostages.”Forced daimyo to maintain two residences.Attempt to prevent rebellion.
29The Tokugawa Shogunate ProsperityStability, peace of Tokugawa rule brought prosperity to Japan.Agricultural production rose, population and cities grew.Economic activity increased.New roads linked main cities, castle towns, improving trade.
30Rigid Feudal System Top of Society: Under Tokugawa rule, Japan’s strict feudal system became more rigid.At top of society, emperor - only a figurehead.Next was shogun, held real power as military ruler.Below shogun, daimyo—owed shogun loyalty.
31Rigid Feudal System Ruling Warrior Class: Under daimyo, samurai who served them.Emperor, shogun, daimyo, samurai made up ruling warrior class.Three Lower Classes:Below ruling warrior class were three classes.Peasants, artisans, merchants.
32Lower ClassesRulesMembers of lower classes could not rise in social status.Could not serve in military or government.Could not hold government positions that might challenge power of warrior class.
33Lower Classes Peasants Peasants made up vast majority—about 80 percent—of Japan’s population.Forbidden to do anything but farming.Supported selves by growing rice, other crops on daimyo, samurai estates.
34Lower Classes Honor and Some Status In Japan, farming considered honorable trade.Peasants enjoyed relatively high status, just below samurai.However, peasants paid most of taxes, led hard lives.
35Artisans and Merchants Below peasants were artisans.Artisans often lived in castle towns; made goods like armor, swords.Merchants at bottom of society.
36Artisans and Merchants Not honored because did not produce anything.Merchants often grew wealthy.Could use wealth to improve social position.
37Women During Tokugawa period, women’s status gradually declined Many led restricted livesHad to obey male head of household absolutelyEven samurai class women lost many rights, freedoms
38Male Samurai Role of male samurai changed Peace put many out of work Not allowed to engage in trade.Many ronin — masterless samurai — fell on hard times.Some became farmers, others warriors for hire, still others bandits.
39Relations with the West The prosperity of the Tokugawa Period went hand in hand with Japan’s increasing contact with Europeans.Initially the Japanese welcomed European traders and missionaries and the new ideas, products and technologies that they brought.
40Changes Trade with Europe boosted Japan’s economy Christian missionaries changed Japanese societyMany Japanese became Christian; soon samurai could be heard chanting Christian prayers in battle
41Period of IsolationOver time Tokugawa shoguns grew concerned with spread of Christianity.Began to persecute Christians, kill missionariesAlso began to restrict foreign trade, travel.
42Period of Isolation Banned building large ships. By 1650, Japan had shut its doors to all Europeans except the Dutch.Japan continued this policy for more than 200 years.
43Feudal CultureJapan’s growing cities became centers of culture during the feudal period.
44Art and LiteratureIn art, colorful woodblock prints called Ukiyo-e, “pictures of the floating world,” became popularIn literature, realistic stories became popular, as well as form of poetry called haikuThree lines with 17 syllables; many haiku deal with themes of nature, harmony
45Theater In theater, Noh drama developed, 1300s Slow-moving Noh plays told stories through use of masks, stylized dance, music1600s, new type of theatre with more action, plot, humor—kabukiWomen initially performed kabuki, but later banned and replaced by men