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1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 6 Perception James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 6 Perception James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 6 Perception James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 2 QUICK! Describe what you see…

3 3 X Marks the spot! Stare at the “X”…What do you see??  Selective Attention: focus of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus  Per second our 5 senses take in about 11 million bits of info  We have to selectively attend  What is the cocktail party effect?

4 4 Change Blindness: We are “blind to change” What’s going on here? See “Door Study” In Psy video Files Also…See ”Funny example…” in Video Files

5 5 Perceptual Illusions: Which illusion is this one?

6 6 Perceptual Organization: Using Muller-Lyer Illusion in drawings

7 7 Perceptual Illusions: Big person, tiny person..See “Best Illus. ever”

8 8 Perceptual Illusions: How did this happen?? (slide 39/p. 246)

9 9 Perceptual Organization: Size-Distance Relationship (slide 5/6) Trapezoidal Room Illusion

10 10 Perceptual Illusions: Which disks look farther away?

11 11 Perceptual Illusions

12 12 Perceptual Illusions: What do the pale lines in w/in the black look like? Do they seem to “continue” (tied together)?

13 13 Perceptual Illusions: Describe this drawing… See p. 235 & Hold book upside down & look…Is it the same thing or not?

14 14

15 15 Perceptual Organization : Gestalt  Visual Capture: tendency for vision to dominate the other senses EX: Watching movie & know the projector is behind us w/ speakers…But where do we perceive the sound as coming from?  Gestalt: German word for “form” or “whole” --refers an organized whole  Our tendency to bring pieces of info into meaningful wholes.  Our brain tends to organize info…we don’t like fragments  There are 5 basic principles of grouping…(or gestalt principles)… 

16 16 Perceptual Organization: Gestalt  Grouping: the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups  Grouping Principles 1.proximity--group of nearby figures 2.similarity--group of similar figures 3.continuity--perceive continuous patterns 4.closure--fill in gaps 5.connectedness--spots, lines, & areas are seen as unit when connected

17 17 PerceptualOrganization: Grouping (Gestalt) Principles

18 18 Gestalt: EX: 4 lines…or a square? zExplains how we group sensations & fill in gaps to make sense of our world. z4 Gestalt Principles: proximity, continuity, similarity, simplicity, & closure.

19 19 Perceptual Organization: Illusory (illusions) Contours (edges or shapes…)

20 20 Perceptual Organization  Figure & Ground--organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)

21 21 Face/vase? A B: this one is several …

22 22 PerceptualOrganization: Closure: We see what…? A B  Gestalt grouping principles are at work here.

23 23 Gestalt continuity:

24 24 PerceptualOrganization: Using Grouping Principles: Gestalt grouping principles are at work here… Which? (see slide 42)

25 25 PerceptualOrganization: Grouping Principles  Impossible doghouse

26 26 Gestalt: Interesting info… zMax Wertheimer - a founder of the Gestalt school is famous for discovery of the phi phenomenon, the experience of apparent motion when there is none. zKurt Koffka - wrote the first book on the principles of Gestalt psychology in 1935. zWolfgang Kohler - developed the theory of insight and generalization of knowledge.

27 27 Perceptual. Organization:  Depth Perception  ability to see objects in 3 dimensions  allows us to judge distance using binocular & monocular cues  Binocular cues retinal disparity  images from the two eyes differ …make your finger move! “finger sausage”  closer the object, the larger the disparity convergence  neuromuscular cue  two eyes move inward for nearer objects …follow that finger!

28 28 Depth Perception: How early can babies perceive depth? Visual Cliff

29 29 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception  8 Monocular Cues: needing 1 eye only: (see Baseball slide 26  Find Ex’s of each)  Relative size: smaller image is more distant -little players in back = farther away  Interposition: closer object blocks distant object -legs of guys in front block other guys  Relative clarity: hazy (blurred) object seen as more distant…fans in the distance + last guy gets blurry  Texture: less detail coarse = close fine = distant  These all help us see “depth” (4 more  #28)

30 30 Relative Texture (course vs. fine) & Clarity (clear vs. hazy)

31 31 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Relative Size

32 32 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception: Interposition: “A” purposely confuses figure/ground using interposition… “B” uses interposition to show depth…look at baby on her lap A B

33 33 Percept. Organiz.: Depth Perception  Monocular Cues (cont.)  relative height  higher objects seen as more distant  relative motion (motion parallax)  closer objects seem to move faster  linear perspective  parallel lines converge with distance  relative brightness  closer objects appear brighter

34 34 relative brightness closer objects appear brighter

35 35 Relative height: higher objects seen as more distant & Linear perspective: parallel lines converge to show distance

36 36 Depth Perception: Which line is longer? Relative Height

37 37 Illusion of Perceived Motion:

38 38 This + next 2 slides: Are any of these items moving? Or are they perfectly still??

39 39 Illusion of motion

40 40 Now…focus completely on ONE single “almond”…What happens?

41 41 Non digital photography w/ stroboscopic lamp & varying speeds (sometimes used in discos or nightclubs). Long, slow shutter speeds– w/multiple exposures Perceived motion: Stroboscopic (Think “strobe light”)

42 42 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception z4z4 Illusory Depth: These “stairs” are just cut out from paper…& are just lying on the table... How does it work? (See Slide 38/p. 245)

43 43 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Illusory Depth Explanation

44 44 Depth Perception: Artists’ use of these: WHICH types of Perspective Techniques do you see?

45 45 ID depth cues in this painting by Gustav Callibotte: Paris on a Rainy Day

46 46 Cimabue, 1200’s: The Madonna & Jesus Note how “flat” these figures appear... Artists had not yet learned to use techniques to show depth

47 47 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Light and Shadow Which appears to go in… & Which appears in front? WHY?

48 48  Perceptual Constancy (staying constant)  perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination & retinal image change --color --shape --size -brightness

49 49 Monocular cues for distance a) Fooled by which cues? b) Ponzo illusion…which cue is wrong here?

50 50 Perceptual Organization- Brightness Contrast (p. 247) Squares A & B: 1 darker or lighter…or same?

51 51 Sensory Restriction (p. 249): Blakemore & Cooper, 1970  Kittens raised without exposure to horizontal lines later had difficulty perceiving horizontal bars  Need to “learn to see” these when we are v. young

52 52 Perceptual Interpretation  Perceptual Adaptation  (Vision) ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field  prism glasses: Touch the dot!!  Perceptual Set (What do you see???)  A mental predisposition to perceive one thing & not another  We tend to see what we expect to see…or hear…remember the “backwards masking? Who was more likely to hear it?  ALSO…what we are USED to seeing/hearing in a certain situation

53 53 Perceptual Set: “ Schemas”  What you see in the center is influenced by perceptual set, or mental disposition EX: If we know a pair are mother & child, we “see” a resemblance  Based on schemas we have as to what we will see next  How can this affect what we see? Jesus on a tortilla… word ”Allah” on a sliced potato…etc  STRONGLY affected by context effects: I f you see a waiter from your favorite restaurant at K-Mart, you may KNOW you know them…but in that context not be able to recognize them….

54 2 Philosophers’ ideas & perceptual set: Immanuel Kant: The mind shapes experience…EX: the concepts of space and time were programmed into the human brain So…Perception depends on innate ways of organizing sensory experience Locke: Perception is based on experience We’re born a “blank slate (tabula rasa) on which experience teaches us…) Which would relate more to bottom-up? Which to top-down?? 54

55 55 Perceptual Set: Schemas What you see is what you get? Or is it what you expect to see is what you get?? See P. 252 “anti-caricature”  real person? Flying Saucers or Clouds?

56 56 Culture & perceptual set: (p.254) What is in the picture? What did Western cultures see? What did East African cultures see? -------------------- **WHAT do YOU see???    ( 1/2 leave )

57 57 What we see or know before hand influences what we see next…Famous experiment for Perceptual Set: Group 1: Shown drawings of various animals Group 2: Shown drawings of human faces Control group: Shown no pictures beforehand. -81% of the control group reported seeing the ambiguous image as a man rather than a rat. -The more pictures of animals that the 'animal' group saw b4, the more likely to see a rat rather than a man (w/ 4 prior images of animals, 100% then saw a rat). WHAT do YOU see???    (1/2 leave room!)

58 58 Identify EACH…

59 59 Is it a man…or a mouse? Prior experience DOES influence what we see… Identify EACH

60 60 Is it a man…or a mouse? Prior experience DOES influence what we see… If they saw the faces FIRST, 73-80% subsequently saw a man rather than a rat.

61 61 Wife or Mother- in-Law:? Age & “P-S”…

62 62 QUICK!!!!! In 15 seconds…  Count the" F’s" in the following text: FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS... zWrite down how many…

63 63 THERE ARE 6 -- no joke. FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS... zThis has to do with the way we perceive words…The brain has trouble perceiving "OF". z3 is normal, 4 is quite rare all 6 exceptional… ….. unless you HAVE seen this before..

64 64 The Stroop Effect: Name the color of the squares. (next…  color of wd.)

65 65 Now... NAME the color of the words This is called the __?__ effect

66 66 Human Factors Psychology explores how people & machines interact  explores how to adapt machine & physical environments to human behaviors  EX: My VCR/DVD/TV situation…Could someone make a fortune making that easy to coordinate??!  Natural mapping: Stove design below: -Using the way the brain understands makes it more functional

67 67 Perceptual Set: Human Factors Read P. 255-6: Used for pilot error reduction Application Actual descent path Pilot’s perceived descent path Altitude looks this much higher 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Distance from runway (miles) 10 8 6 4 2 0 Altitude (thousands of feet)

68 Biopsychosocial perspective: An interaction of CULTURE…..EXPERIENCE…and BIOLOGY shape our perceptions of our world 68

69 69 Is There Extrasensory Perception? Extrasensory Perception : Controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input  Telepathy: reading ppl’s minds  Clairvoyance: Seeing something happening w/o actually being there  Precognition: Knowing something b4 it happens Parapsychology: Study of paranormal phenomena  ESP = ?  Psychokinesis: moving or bending materials w/ your mind only Top 260: What is the final result after 1000’s of experiments on ESP? How could perceptual set have an effect on someone’s belief that this has happened? **Know the terms above!!!

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