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PSYCHOLOGY Perceptual Organization. Perceptual Illusions zhttp://www.yorku.ca/eye/m-lillu.htm.

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Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGY Perceptual Organization. Perceptual Illusions zhttp://www.yorku.ca/eye/m-lillu.htm."— Presentation transcript:

1 PSYCHOLOGY Perceptual Organization

2 Perceptual Illusions zhttp://www.yorku.ca/eye/m-lillu.htm

3 Objectives 1.Understand how illusions help us understand perception 2.Understand perceptual organization principles

4 Outline zA. Intro & illusions zB. Organizational Principles 1.Form perception xFigure/Ground xGestalt grouping 2.Depth perception  Binocular cues - retinal dispartity, convergence  Monocular cues Motion Perception - stroboscopic, phi phenomemon 4.Perceptual Constancy - size & shape, size & distance, light, color

5 Perception zWhat can we learn from looking at the visual illusions #1-6 in your textbook? zIllusion reveal the ways we normally organize and interpret sensation.

6 Perceptual Illusions

7 Perceptual Organization: Muller-Lyer Illusion

8 Illusions Muller-Lyer Illusion zWe interpret the arrows as cues for distance & length yThe arrows at the ends of the lines make them appear of different lengths

9 Room Illusion

10

11 Perceptual Organization: Size-Distance Relationship

12 Illusions What assumptions do we make about rooms? z90 degree angles zSize & distance (we make the false assumption that they are the same distance way) zTo fool us they distorted the shape of the room

13 St. Louis Arch zTaller than wider? zWider than taller?

14 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Relative Height

15 St. Louis Arch Explanation: yRelative Height - we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away

16 Perceptual Illusions

17 Illusions Hans- Wallach’s - glowing blue worm zGestalt principles grouping principles lead you astray in this puzzle Apply grouping principles like - continuity

18 Perceptual Illusions

19 Illusions Hoffman - ripple illusion zIt is a shading technique using light & shadows

20 Perceptual Illusions

21 Illusions zPeople tend to overestimate distance in the fog yLight & Shadow issues yRelative Clarity issues zWhere can this information be useful in the real world?

22 Perceptual Illusions

23 Perception zWhat can we learn from looking at the visual illusions #1-6 in your textbook? zIllusion reveal the ways we normally organize and interpret sensation.

24 Which sense dominates? Visual Capture  tendency for vision to dominate the other senses  Ex. - movie theater, roller coaster

25 Perceptual Organization: Gestalt  Our brains do more then just register info, we filter & infer to make sense Gestalt = whole  tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes

26 Necker Cube zThe whole may exceed the sum of the parts z8 circles - people tend not to notice the circles but the whole box

27 Perceptual Organization: Illusory Contours

28 Fig zIs there really a line down the middle? zYour eye perceives one

29 Outline M15 zA. Intro & illusions zB. Organizational Principles 1.Form perception xFigure/Ground xGestalt grouping 2.Depth perception  Binocular cues - retinal dispartity, convergence  Monocular cues Motion Perception - stroboscopic, phi phenomemon 4.Perceptual Constancy - size & shap, size & distance, light

30 Form perception  Our brains do more then just register info, we filter & infer to make sense by discriminating what it is - form  We organize and interpret meaning

31 What is it?

32 Perceptual Organization Form perception  Figure and Ground--organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground);  Reversible figures

33 What is it?

34

35 Perceptual Organization: Gestalt Grouping  the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

36 Gestalt grouping prin. Grouping Principles a)proximity--group nearby figures together b)similarity--group figures that are similar c)continuity--perceive continuous patterns d)closure--fill in gaps e)connectedness--spots, lines, and areas are seen as unit when connected

37 PerceptualOrganization: Grouping Principles

38 PerceptualOrganization: Closure  Gestalt grouping principles are at work here.

39 PerceptualOrganization: Grouping Principles  Gestalt grouping principles are at work here

40 PerceptualOrganization: Grouping Principles  Impossible doghouse

41 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception  ability to see objects in three dimensions  allows us to judge distance  Somewhat innate ability as shown by infants

42 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Visual Cliff

43 Depth perception 1. Binocular cues a)retinal disparity images from the two eyes differ closer the object, the larger the disparity (floating finger sausage) b)convergence neuromuscular cue - two eyes move inward for near objects

44 2. Monocular Cues a)relative size smaller image is more distant b) Interposition (overlay) closer objects blocks distant object

45 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Relative Size

46 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Interposition

47 Monocular cues c) relative clarity hazy object seen as more distant d) texture coarse --> close fine --> distant

48 Perceptual Illusions

49 Monocular cues e) relative height higher objects seen as more distant

50 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Relative Height

51 Monocular cues f) relative motion closer objects seem to move faster g) linear perspective parallel lines converge with distance h) relative brightness closer objects appear brighter

52 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Light and Shadow

53 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Perspective Techniques

54 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Illusory Depth

55 Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Illusory Depth Explanation

56 Motion Perception 1.Stroboscopic movement - still pictures can be perceived as moving ( cartoons & film) 2.Phi phenomenon - 2 adjacent stationary lights blink on/off in succession are perceived as moving

57 Perceptual Constancy  Perceptual Constancy  perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal image change  color  shape  size

58 Size & distance p.239

59 Monster & Ponzo illusions zMonster - linear perspective, relative height; cues to distance & size zPonzo - we perceive the bar as farther away as being larger based on experience

60 Moon illusion zMoon looks larger at the horizon then it does high in the sky zExplanation: cues to objects distances at the horizon make the moon seem farther away zSimilar to the monster & ponzo illusion

61 Perceptual Organization- Brightness Contrast

62 Perceptional Constancy 1.Shape 2.Size & distance 3.Color 4.Lightness/Brightness

63 Concentrate on the 4 dots in the middle for 30 sec.

64 Which is line is longer?


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