5Selective AttentionThe focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.For example:1. “the cocktail party effect”2. in a restaurant when you listen to other people have a conversation.3. What other examples can you think of?
6PERCEPTUAL ILLUSIONSMuller-Lyer IllusionWhich line is bigger?
8Visual Capture:vision dominates the other senses.Example: 3D movie, roller coaster ride
9PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY-"the whole is greater than the sum of its parts."
10FORM PERCEPTIONFigure and Ground-the organization of the visual into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings. (the ground is the background in which the individual stands)-The following slides are examples of figure & ground
11Can you see the young woman? FORM PERCEPTIONCan you see the oldwoman?Can you see the young woman?
15Examples of GroupingGrouping-we organize the figure into a meaningful form so that people can make sense of what they see.Figure & Ground(previous slides are examples of- the vase or 2 faces, and the dog)
19Continuity-we perceive smooth continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones.
20Form PerceptionConnectedness-when they are uniform and linked, we perceive spots, lines or areas as a single unit.
21Form PerceptionClosure-we fill in the gaps to create a complete, whole object.
22Depth Perception Is the ability to see objects in 3 dimensions. Binocular cues-depth cues, that depend on the use of two eyes.Examples:1. Retinal Disparity-by comparing 2 images from the eyeballs, the brain computes distance-the greater the disparity (difference) between the 2 images, the closer the object.-Try the floating finger sausage.
23Visual Cliff-a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants.
24Monocular cues-distance cues available to either eye alone Examples:Relative size-if we assume that 2 objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts the smaller image to be further away.Interposition-if one object blocks the view of another, we perceive it to be closer.
25Relative Clarity-because light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects.Texture gradient-a gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture signals increasing distance. Objects further away appear smaller and more densely packed.
26Relative Height-we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away Relative Motion-as we move, objects that are stable may appear to move.For example: if while riding in a train you fix your gaze on an object-house-the objects closer to the house appear to move backward. The nearer an object is, the faster it seems to move.
27Linear Perspective-parallel lines such as railroads appear to converge with distance. The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance.Light and shadow-nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes. Thus given 2 identical objects, the dimmer one seems farther away.
28MOTION PERCEPTIONStroboscopic movement is when the brain interprets a rapid series of slightly varying images. By flashing 24 still pictures each second, a motion picture creates perceived movement. (a flip book)
30The PHI PHENOMENONis created when 2 or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession, creating the illusion of movement.
31PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCYPerceiving objects as unchanging, in size, color, shape, brightness, location and light.Is the ability to recognize than object remains the same even when it produces different images on the retina.
32PERCEPTUAL INTERPRETATION Sensory Deprivation-Infancy is a critical period during which experience must activate the brain’s innate visual mechanisms.Perceptual Adaptation-Human vision is adaptable. Given glasses that shift the world to the left or right or upside down, humans can adapt and see with ease.
33PERCEPTUAL SETPerceptual Set is the readiness to see objects in a particular way based on expectations, experiences, emotions & assumptions. Perceptual set influences our everyday perceptions.
34Human Factors Psychology (p255) A branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines & physical environments can be adapted to human behaviors.Perceptions vary and may not be what a designer assumes so human factors studies how machines & physical environments can be improved i.e. safety
35EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION The claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input.Parapsychology is the study of paranormalphenomena, including ESP (astrology, psychic healing, communication with the dead, out of body experiences.Types:telepathy-mind to mind communicationclairvoyance-perceiving remote eventsprecognition-perceiving future eventspsychokinesis-mind over matter
36The Ganzfeld Procedure Is the use of sensory deprivation to minimize distractions, hoping to detect faint telepathy signals.