2Outline What is WEAP? Brief overview of WEAP Examples of issues that can be modeledWhen will the new system be ready?Exercise
3Water Evaluation And Planning System Integrated watershed hydrology and water planningGeneral purpose model building, data management and scenario analysis tools.Integrated analysis across demand and supply.Transparent, flexible and user-friendly with low initial data requirements.Similar user interfaces and terminologies.Widely used in Governments, Universities, Consulting Companies, Utilities and NGOs: 100s of users worldwide.Available at no charge to non-profit, academic and governmental institutions based in developing countries.
4Water Evaluation And Planning System Integrated watershed hydrology and water planning modelGIS-based, graphical drag & drop interfacePhysical simulation of water demands and suppliesAdditional simulation modeling: user-created variables, modeling equations and links to spreadsheets, scripts & other modelsScenario management capabilitiesGroundwater, water quality, reservoir, hydropower and financial modules
5WEAP Network Schematic Linking supply and demandReturn flows to surface or ground water or treatment plants5 Main Views
6Data for the demand sites is displayed numerically and graphically Data ViewData for the demand sites is displayed numerically and graphically.
7Read in timeseries data from text files or Access database Reading from FilesRead in timeseries data from text files or Access database
8Results can be displayed in a number of formats and scales Results ViewResults can be displayed in a number of formats and scales
16Examples of WEAP Analyses Sectoral demand analysesLand use & climate change impacts on hydrologyWater conservationWater rights and allocation prioritiesGroundwater and streamflow simulationsReservoir operationsHydropower generationFinancial analysisPollution trackingEcosystem requirements
18WEAP Applications Water Systems Planning Transboundary Water Policy Small Reservoirs Project, Ghana/BrazilCalifornia Water Plan, California, USAGuadiana River, SpainTransboundary Water PolicyOkavango River, Angola/Namibia/BotswanaLower Rio Grande, USA/MexicoMekong River, Thailand/Cambodia/Vietnam/LaosJordan River, Syria/Israel/JordanClimate Change StudiesSacramento and San Joaquin River Basins, California, USAMassachusetts Water Resources Authority, Massachusetts, USAYemen Second National CommunicationMali Second National CommunicationEcological FlowsConnecticut Department of Environmental ProtectionTown of Scituate, Massachusetts, USAWater Utility DSS ApplicationCase studies in Portland, Oregon; Austin, Texas; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
19Linking Water Decision Processes Groundwater depletionWater qualityUnmet ecological flowsCostsLimited sectoral water, increased energy requirements for pumping.Increased energy requirements for desalination.Insufficient water for sectors, even with increased groundwater pumping.Still insufficient water--further enhance supply with desalination.Water demand in each sectorEfficiency and SustainabilityWaterDemandDSSWater SupplyStorageSectoral policiesLess water-intensive processes and technologiesWater requirements for sectorsWater conservationWater requirementsReduced water demands
21How much river water can a user use? River flow ≠ Water available to a userAlso reach gains/losses, reservoir storage, consumptive use, return flows, groundwater, soil moisture,Delivery targets and water allocation prioritiesAppropriation doctrine (first in time, first in right)By purpose (e.g.: urban demands before environmental)By location (e.g.: upstream, then downstream, or reverse)Prior withdrawals and deliveriesChanges from month to month and year to year
22Draw a System Schematic Identify major system components and linkagesWater sources (surface and groundwater)Demand sites (agricultural, urban, etc..)Source connections to demand sitesOutflows from demand sites after useExample 1: A river can supply water to an upstream city and downstream agricultural district. 40% of the city’s withdrawals are collected, treated, returned to the river, and available for downstream use by the agricultural district.
23Calculate Allocations Step 1: Draw the schematicStep 2: Determine delivery targets for demand sites (demands)Step 3: Assign priorities to demand sites (delivery preferences)Step 4: Determine water availabilitySourcesReturn flowsStep 5: Allocate remaining available water to meet delivery target of highest priority demand siteRepeat Steps 4 and 5 for next highest priority site.
24Calculate Allocations (cont.) Example 2: A river can supply an upstream city and downstream agricultural district. 40% of the city’s withdrawals are collected, treated, discharged, and available for downstream use by the agricultural district.70 hm3 is available in the river this year. The table shows demand site priorities and delivery targets.What water volume is allocated to each demand site?Demand SitePriority [rank]Delivery Target [hm3/yr]City2 (lower)30Agricultural1 (high)60
25Calculate Allocations (cont.) Always use mass balance to determine water available to a user (or at model node)Data requirements and allocation calculations get more complex as add demand sites and return flowsHydroinformatics and computer modeling can help!
26WEAP Allocation MathIn each time step, WEAP solves a small linear programMaximize Demand SatisfactionMeet supply prioritiesObey demand site preferencesMass balanceOther constraintsEmbed the LP in a time-series simulation (psuedo code)Such that:
27Using WEAPMajor ModulesSchematicDataResultsScenario Explorer
28WEAP Schematic Drag and drop system node components Demand sites Reservoirs, etc.Drag, click, and drop system link componentsRiversTransmission linksReturn flowsAdd GIS layers to help place componentsMust include all infrastructure you plan to test in Scenario Explorer
30WEAP Data Module Enter data for each schematic component Rivers: Headflows for each month of the simulationReaches: Reach gains for each month of the simulationDiversions: Minimum flow requirements as reach lossesDemand sites: activity levels, use rates, losses, consumption, demand priority (1=highest; 99=lowest)Transmission links: Max flows, supply preferenceReturn flows: routing (percent returned)Reservoirs: storage capacity, initial storage, volume-elevation curve, evaporation, pool definitions, buffer coefficients, priorityEnter data or read from input file
31Alternatively, right-click any schematic component to also get to the Data module
32Tree view, Buttons, and Tabs to navigate to desired data
33WEAP Results ModuleClick the Results icon and recalculate (all scenarios)Choose results from schematic or dropdown listsNumerous options to view, tabulate, and export