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Robert Goldstein Senior Technical Executive, Water & Ecosystems WSWC–WGA Energy–Water Nexus Workshop Denver, April 2, 2013 Water Prism: Decision Support Framework for Water Resource Risk Management
2 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Approaches to Reaching Sustainability Top down –Community/region/watersh ed-based –Considers all stakeholder demands –Matches aggregate water demands to supply Bottom up –Sector/Facility-based –Objectives Increase water use efficiency Conservation
3 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Drivers for Development of Water Prism Electric power generators reliance on water resources Manage environmental, regulatory, reputational, and financial risks Water stewardship disclosure requests Water saving technologies are emerging for all sectors A need for tools to evaluate strategies across sectors: –Accommodate future demands within limits of available water –Encourage collaborative water planning Roadmap for sustainability is difficult to define given system complexities Evaluate benefits of water resource management strategies and technologies
4 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Water Prism Conceptual Design Examine various scenarios to consider water use reductions needed to keep “demand” below “supply” Compute system water balance on regional scale –Surficial watershed model –Groundwater sources and uses Project consumptive and withdrawal demands for 40 to 50 year horizon Explore water saving strategies through scenario analysis Water Prism Volume 1: Tool Development (EPRI 1023771)
5 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Groundwater Storage Groundwater Storage Land use, Climate, Topography, etc. Population, Energy Demand, Irrigated Land use Water Prism Design Overview Available Surface Water Watershed Model Water Prism Access Database Water Prism DSS Ground Water Data
6 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Four Basic Steps of a Water Prism Analysis Add Water User Inputs Review System Water Balance Build Water Prism Scenarios Display Water Prism Results Define Available Surface Water (calibrate watershed model) Define Available Groundwater (map and parameterize major aquifers) Major Water Prism Steps 1. Calculate regional water balance 2. Compare projected water demand with available water 3. Generate scenarios with water saving strategies 4. Display reduced water consumption and/or withdrawal as a Water Prism spectrum
7 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Preliminary Water Prism Applications 2. Green River Watershed 1. Muskingum River Watershed Goal – demonstrate tool functionality Leverage watershed modeling from EPRI’s Water Quality Trading Project Promote synergies between projects
8 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Muskingum Watershed Background Area: ~8,000 mi 2 –Spans 5 counties and sections of 22 others –Several cities –Largely agriculture Water Use: –174 surface water withdrawals –329 groundwater withdrawals –319 point sources Power Plants: –2 large coal-fired – primarily once-through cooling –2 small coal-fired –3 NGCC (1 going online 2012) closed cycle cooling
9 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Muskingum River Power Plants
10 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Input Data Sets for WARMF and Water Prism Required Data Sets Watershed Model (WARMF) Water Prism DSS Data Source Time Period Frequency Topography (DEM) USGS NED 200930 meter Land use / land cover NLCD2006N.A. Climate NCDC1990-2009Daily Observed streamflow USGS1990-2009Daily Groundwater properties (aquifers, recharge) USGSN.A. Ecological flow / reservoir limits ??? Water withdrawals ODNR1990-2009Monthly Water discharges OEPA1990-2009Daily Projected demands (electric power) AEP Through 2014 N.A. Projected demands (other sectors) Dziegielewski et. al, 2004 2005-20255-Year
11 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Land Use / Land Cover (2006 NLCD)
12 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Principal Aquifers 4 Principal Aquifers 389 to 3741 mi 2 Unconsolidated Shallow, follows river valleys, high porosity, high yield Bedrock Deeper, low porosity, low yield
13 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Withdrawals and Returns Surface water withdrawals 174 facilities 789 MGD (2009) Groundwater withdrawals 329 facilities 131 MGD (2009) Point source discharges 319 stations at 307 facilities 915 MGD (2009)
14 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Development of Water Prism Strategies Planned power plant changes –Retiring once-through coal units –Conversion of coal to natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) –New NGCC plant on-line Reduction in municipal and industrial –BAU: State of Ohio projects increased water use due to increased population, increased per capita use and growth in industrial sector –Prism Strategy: Assume decreased per capita use Reduce withdrawals and returns for municipal and industrial users 8% to 25% reduction over 60 year period
15 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Water Prism Scenario: Reduced Per Capita Use Surface Water – Small Tributary Reduced Consumptive Demand for Each Sector Savings from Each Sector
16 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Water Prism Illustrates Impact of Decommissioning and Gas Conversion
17 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Concluding Thoughts There is no such thing as Business as Usual - everything is evolving with time Everything is geographically distributed non-uniformly Top down management is necessary for sustainability Need localized, fine resolution decision support tool to manage community (watershed, region) water resources Strategic and technological approaches depend on location Research can lead to promising breakthrough technologies to save water
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