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KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA 1. 2 ADRF, June 07 - 08, 2004 Bangkok, Thailand. Presented by: Mr. Nhean Choch, Deputy Bureau Chief for International Cooperation.

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Presentation on theme: "KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA 1. 2 ADRF, June 07 - 08, 2004 Bangkok, Thailand. Presented by: Mr. Nhean Choch, Deputy Bureau Chief for International Cooperation."— Presentation transcript:

1 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA 1

2 2 ADRF, June , 2004 Bangkok, Thailand. Presented by: Mr. Nhean Choch, Deputy Bureau Chief for International Cooperation and IT Development, Public Policy Specialist, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cambodia. Country Case Study on Food Security

3 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA 3 Content 1. Background; 2. Current Status of Nutrition; 3. National Nutrition Plan of Action; 4. Ongoing Programme on Food Security; and 5. Recommendation to Improve Food Security.

4 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA 4 1. Background 1.1. Overview 1.2. Geography; 1.3. Demography; 1.4. Politics; 1.5. Economy; 1.6. Poverty Situation; 1.7. Agriculture Development; 1.8. Structure of the Market; 1.9. Sources of Earning; Employment and Wages Poverty and Standard of Living; and Rural Economy

5 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Overview first National Poverty Reduction Strategy (NPRS) first National Poverty Reduction Strategy (NPRS) Commitment of the RGC to fight poverty and reach the Millennium Development Goal by 2015; Commitment of the RGC to fight poverty and reach the Millennium Development Goal by 2015; 6 June 2003 agreement on the establishment of the Khmer Rouge Tribunal; 6 June 2003 agreement on the establishment of the Khmer Rouge Tribunal; 27 July 2003 third democratic election; and 27 July 2003 third democratic election; and WTO accession. WTO accession.

6 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Geography Total land area 181,035 km 2, coastline 435 km; Total land area 181,035 km 2, coastline 435 km; Water body coverage 4,870 km 2 equal to 2.7% of the total area, Great Lake 3,000-10,000 km 2 ; Water body coverage 4,870 km 2 equal to 2.7% of the total area, Great Lake 3,000-10,000 km 2 ; Paved roads 4,165 km; Paved roads 4,165 km; Waterways 3,700 km; Waterways 3,700 km; Rail track 603 km; and Rail track 603 km; and 20 provinces and 4 municipalities, 185 districts, 1,621 communes and 13,694 villages. 20 provinces and 4 municipalities, 185 districts, 1,621 communes and 13,694 villages.

7 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Demography Total Population million (2003), 90% in rural area and 10% in urban; Total Population million (2003), 90% in rural area and 10% in urban; Annual growth rate 2.5%; Annual growth rate 2.5%; Female 51.8% and male 48.2%; Female 51.8% and male 48.2%; Population under 15 years old 43%; Population under 15 years old 43%; Life expectancy at birth: women 57.1 and men 51.9 yeas; Life expectancy at birth: women 57.1 and men 51.9 yeas; Infant Mortality/1,000 births: 89.5; Infant Mortality/1,000 births: 89.5; Under-5 Mortality/1,000 birth: 125; and Under-5 Mortality/1,000 birth: 125; and Maternal Mortality/1,000 birth: 437. Maternal Mortality/1,000 birth: 437.

8 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Politics 1941 France installed 19-year-old Prince Norodom Sihanouk on the Cambodian throne; 1941 France installed 19-year-old Prince Norodom Sihanouk on the Cambodian throne; 1953 Independence from French Colonial; 1953 Independence from French Colonial; 1969 the United States carpet-bombed Cambodia, killing thousands of civilians and dragging the country unwillingly into the US-Vietnam conflict; 1969 the United States carpet-bombed Cambodia, killing thousands of civilians and dragging the country unwillingly into the US-Vietnam conflict; 1970 State coup d'état by General Lon Nol; 1970 State coup d'état by General Lon Nol; 1975 Genocide regime by Khmer Rouge; 1975 Genocide regime by Khmer Rouge; 1979 Republic Popular Kampuchea supervised by Vietnam and Soviet Union; and 1979 Republic Popular Kampuchea supervised by Vietnam and Soviet Union; and 1993 first General Election supported by UN first General Election supported by UN.

9 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Economy GDP: US$ 3.6 billion, GDP growth rate 5.5%, GDP per capita: approx. US$ 297 in 2003; GDP: US$ 3.6 billion, GDP growth rate 5.5%, GDP per capita: approx. US$ 297 in 2003; Agriculture, Tourism, Garment industry (90% exports consist of garment); Agriculture, Tourism, Garment industry (90% exports consist of garment); Export growth 23%; Export growth 23%; Total Budget: US$ million 2003 ( Total Budget: US$ million 2003 (US$ 659 million 2002); Education: US$ million 2003 ( Education: US$ million 2003 (US$ 71.5 million 2002); Health: US$ 50 million 2003 ( Health: US$ 50 million 2003 (US$ 43 million 2002); Defense: US$ 67 million 2003 ( Defense: US$ 67 million 2003 (US$ 97.5 million 2002); Interior (including police forces): US$ 40.4 million 2003( Interior (including police forces): US$ 40.4 million 2003(US$ 37 million 2002); The RGC set itself the target of increasing budget expenditure on social services from 2.1% of GDP in 1999 to 3.3% in The RGC set itself the target of increasing budget expenditure on social services from 2.1% of GDP in 1999 to 3.3% in 2003.

10 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Poverty Situation

11 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Agriculture Development Contributes to GDP 42% in 2001 (52% in 1999); Contributes to GDP 42% in 2001 (52% in 1999); Crop and livestock 70%, Fisheries 20% and Forestry 10%; Crop and livestock 70%, Fisheries 20% and Forestry 10%; 80% employment; 80% employment; Total agriculture land 18.1 million hectares; Total agriculture land 18.1 million hectares; 6.4 m ha are suitable for agriculture; 6.4 m ha are suitable for agriculture; Utilized 2.7 m ha, the rest 3.7 m ha for future expansion; and Utilized 2.7 m ha, the rest 3.7 m ha for future expansion; and Rice production 4.1 million MT (2001). Rice production 4.1 million MT (2001).

12 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Structure of Market

13 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Sources of Earning Rice cultivation and general crops; Rice cultivation and general crops; Animal husbandry; Animal husbandry; Fisheries; Fisheries; Forest and sub-forest products; Forest and sub-forest products; Wages labour; and Wages labour; and Other small business. Other small business.

14 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Employment and Wages Wage labour is extensive; Wage labour is extensive; Part time employment; Part time employment; Farm jobs decreased; Farm jobs decreased; Non-farm jobs raising not fast enough; and Non-farm jobs raising not fast enough; and Low income labour force increased. Low income labour force increased.

15 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Poverty and Living Standard Varity consumption of non-rice and non-food items; Varity consumption of non-rice and non-food items; Rich and poor consume almost same quantity of rice across both seasons; Rich and poor consume almost same quantity of rice across both seasons; Major problem that people are facing is natural disaster, such as flood and drought; and Major problem that people are facing is natural disaster, such as flood and drought; and The average loss is about one third of annual income from natural disaster. The average loss is about one third of annual income from natural disaster.

16 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Rural Economy Demand on resources from outside agrarian sector; Demand on resources from outside agrarian sector; Number of population is increased, but resources become less and less; Number of population is increased, but resources become less and less; Agriculture expansion is not fast enough, due to most of labour force move to urban area; and Agriculture expansion is not fast enough, due to most of labour force move to urban area; and Inefficiency market structure and information system. Inefficiency market structure and information system.

17 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Current Status of Nutrition 2.1. Nutritional Status of Children; 2.2. Nutritional Status of Mothers; 2.3. Micro Nutrient Deficiency; 2.4. Infant Feeding Practices;

18 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Nutritional Status of Children Underweight (weight-for-age)52.4% Underweight (weight-for-age)52.4% Stunted (height-for-age)56.4% Stunted (height-for-age)56.4% Wasted (weight-for-height)13.0% Wasted (weight-for-height)13.0%

19 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Nutritional Status of Mothers Low BMI (18.5 kg/m 2 )26.7% Low BMI (18.5 kg/m 2 )26.7% Underweight (<42.5 kg)42.5% Underweight (<42.5 kg)42.5% Stunted (<1.45 m)6.5% Stunted (<1.45 m)6.5%

20 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Micro Nutrient Deficiency; Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD); Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD); Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA);

21 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Vitamin A Deficiency (DAD) Night Blindness5.6% Night Blindness5.6% Bitot’s Spots0.6% Bitot’s Spots0.6%

22 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) Group 8-12 years12% Group 8-12 years12% Gross goiter rate17% Gross goiter rate17%

23 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) Non-pregnant women with hemoglobin Non-pregnant women with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dl69% Pregnant women with hemoglobin Pregnant women with hemoglobin <11.0 g/dl74%

24 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Infant Feeding Practices Breast Feeding; Complementary Feeding.

25 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Breast Feeding Practices (BFP) Mothers breast-fed their children over the age of 2 years 45.9%; Mothers breast-fed their children over the age of 2 years 45.9%; Mothers did not give colostrums to their children 76.4% Mothers did not give colostrums to their children 76.4% Mothers started breast feeding more than 2 days after delivery 56.7 %; Mothers started breast feeding more than 2 days after delivery 56.7 %; Initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour very low Initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour very low Women being breast feeding within 12 hours of delivery 30%; Women being breast feeding within 12 hours of delivery 30%; Average duration of Breast Feeding is 16 months; Average duration of Breast Feeding is 16 months; Males are breast fed slightly longer at 17.2 months; Males are breast fed slightly longer at 17.2 months; Girls are fed 16.7 months on average. Girls are fed 16.7 months on average.

26 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Complementary Feeding Practices (CFP) Mothers did not start CFP until their child was > 1 year of age15.6 %; Mothers did not start CFP until their child was > 1 year of age15.6 %; The age of starting CFP ranges widely from 3 months to >1 year of age; The age of starting CFP ranges widely from 3 months to >1 year of age; Mothers gave only rice soup with salt or sugar for CFP 84 %; and Mothers gave only rice soup with salt or sugar for CFP 84 %; and Mothers fed their children only once or twice per day 45.2 %. Mothers fed their children only once or twice per day 45.2 %.

27 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA National Nutrition Plan of Action (NNPA) The policy of the government; The policy of the government; The current situation of nutritional status of Cambodian People; and The current situation of nutritional status of Cambodian People; and Twelve prioritized areas for NNPA. Twelve prioritized areas for NNPA.

28 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA 28 Twelve prioritized areas for NNPA 1. Incorporating nutrition objectives, considerations and components into the policies and programmes of the other relevant sections; 2. Improving Household Food Security; 3. Protecting consumers through improved of food quality and safety; 4. Prevention and Treatment of infectious diseases; 5. Better infants and young child feeding; 6. Caring for the Socio-Economically Deprived and Nutritional vulnerable; 7. Controlling on micro nutrient programme; 8. Promoting appropriate diets and health lifestyles through nutritional education; 9. Operational Research, Assessment, analysis and Monitoring of the nutritional situation; 10. Water development for household consumption and irrigation; 11. Institutional Feeding (e.g. Prison, Orphanage Center, etc.); and 12. Human Resource Development in relevant government ministries and civil societies.

29 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Ongoing Programme for Food Security Action Against Hunger; Action Against Hunger; Special Programme for Food Security; Special Programme for Food Security; Community Action for Social Development; Community Action for Social Development; Food Insecurity Programme; Food Insecurity Programme; Gender Equality; and Gender Equality; and Others food security, poverty reduction and income generation programmes support by local and international NGOs, IOs, etc. Others food security, poverty reduction and income generation programmes support by local and international NGOs, IOs, etc.

30 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA Recommendation for Improvement of Food Security National Level (policy Level) 24 points of recommendation; National Level (policy Level) 24 points of recommendation; Local level (Province, District, Commune and Village) 23 points of recommendation; and Local level (Province, District, Commune and Village) 23 points of recommendation; and Household level 9 points of recommendation. Household level 9 points of recommendation.

31 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA 31 Thanks for your Attention


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