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Anglo-Saxon Period 449 - 1066.

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Presentation on theme: "Anglo-Saxon Period 449 - 1066."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anglo-Saxon Period

2 Invasion of Britian on Celts AD 449

3 Anglo-Saxon Invasion of Britian
Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and other Germanic tribes Seafaring warriors

4 Vengeance and Bloodshed

5 Anglo-Saxon Settlement
of Britian

6 The Spread of Christianity
Around A.D. 400 Christian monks settle in Britain Christianity and Anglo-Saxon culture co-exist By A.D. 699 British pagan religions replaced by Christianity QUESTIONS The main text of the Lindisfarne Gospels (7th century) is written in Latin, the designs are influenced by Celtic art, and the marginal notes are written in Anglo-Saxon (Old English). What does that tell us about early Christianity? [Possible response: The spread of Christianity encouraged cross-cultural exchange.] BACKGROUND Ireland began a golden age during the 5th century. Unlike England, Ireland was not overrun by invaders. Then, in 432, the whole of Celtic Ireland was converted to Christianity by a Romanized Briton named Patricius (Patrick). From 432 to 750, while Europe and England sank into constant warfare, Ireland experienced a golden age. Monasteries in England served as centers of learning just as they would in the Middle Ages. The monks preserved not only the Greek classics but also some of the great works of popular literature such as Beowulf, which was first written down around A.D Due to the Christian elements in the epic, scholars believe the poet who wrote down the version of Beowulf we have today was a monk.

7 The Danish Invasion Due to rising population and limited farmland, many Scandinavians (the Norse and the Danes) took to the seas—the Vikings. In 800, Danish raiders attacked Britain. The Norse settled in Northumbria, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. The Danes targeted eastern and southern England.

8 Viking Raids Sacked and plundered monasteries
Stole sacred religious objects Burned entire communities Murdered villagers Halted the growth of learning By the middle of the ninth century, most of England had fallen. The Vikings called their territory Danelaw.

9 Restored Viking Vessels

10 unifies Anglo-Saxons against the Danes. A.D. 878
King Alfred the Great unifies Anglo-Saxons against the Danes. A.D. 878

11 The Norman Invasion William of Normandy crosses the English Channel
1066 William of Normandy crosses the English Channel William defeats Anglo-Saxon army French replaces English as the language of the ruling class QUESTIONS: In what country is Normandy located? [France] How did the Norman Invasion (also called the Conquest) affect the English language? [Many English words are of French origin.] BACKGROUND King Harold Godwinson was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England. Although tapestry usually involves the weaving of thread, this tapestry is actually an embroidered band of linen, 231 feet long and 19 ½ inches wide. Of particular value to historians are the details of battle tactics and equipment depicted in the work. The Norman Invasion, Bayeux Tapestry

12 Living Quarters—Mead Halls
A reconstructed Anglo-Saxon home located in West Stow in Sussex, England Mead Hall center of life sleeping quarters dining area meeting place

13 The Scops The communal hall offered shelter and a place for council meetings. The communal hall was also a place for storytellers or bards (scops) who shared (orally) the stories of the Anglo-Saxons and their gods and heroes. The Anglo-Saxons valued storytelling as equal to fighting, hunting, and farming. A line of Anglo-Saxon or Old English poetry is characterized by four main stresses and is divided in half by a pause (caesura [si-zhoor-uh]).

14 Sutton Hoo Cemetery located in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England
Discovered in 1939 Burial ship of an Anglo-Saxon king Burial site contained 41 items of solid gold and 37 gold coins

15 7th century helmet Reconstructed from hundreds of corroded iron fragments

16 Characteristics of the Anglo-Saxons
Hard fighters and bold sea warriors Admired physical strength, bravery, loyalty, fairness, and honesty Great love of personal freedom Boastful, reckless, cruel, and bloodthirsty Enjoyed conflict, swimming matches, horse races, banqueting, drinking mead, singing songs, and storytelling Also flyting, a conflict of wits between two warriors where each praises his own deeds and belittles the other’s

17 Anglo-Saxon Beliefs Pagan, polytheistic
Very pessimistic view of life (due to the ever-present dangers of death by accident or warfare) Human life in the hands of fate (wyrd) Did not believe in an afterlife Immortality only earned through heroic actions Sharp contrast to the Christian belief in an individual’s free will

18 Anglo-Saxon Beliefs (con’t)
The early Anglo-Saxons worshipped ancient Germanic or Norse gods: Odin/Woden: chief of the gods, god of death, poetry, and magic Fria: Woden’s wife and goddess of the home Tiu: the god of war and the sky Thunor/Thor: god of thunder and lightening Frijz/Frigga: queen of the heavens The names of these gods survive today in our words Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday The dragon: personification of evil and death and the protector of treasure (the grave mound); also associated with the Vikings

19 Anglo-Saxon Manuscript

20 Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms Map from C. Warren Hollister,
The Making of England, p. 64

21 Video: English~A Living Language
& Anglo-Saxon Riddles

22 The Beowulf Legend Beowulf is an epic, a long, heroic poem, about a great pagan warrior renowned for his courage, strength, and dignity. Story isn’t about the English—it’s about the Danes and the Geats. So what’s it doing in England? Beowulf is the national epic of England, because it is was the first such work composed in the English language. The poem presents the values of a warrior society, dignity, bravery, and prowess in battle.

23 Characteristics of Invaders
Ancestral Tribes of Clans

24 Anglo-Saxon Brooch Anglo-Saxon pendant probably made in the 7th century AD found in garden soil at Sacriston, County Durham. made of solid gold with a goldwire or filigree decoration.

25 Additional Anglo-Saxon Artifacts
Anglo-Saxon rings, Anglo-Saxon pommel,

26 King Offa’s Dyke approximately 170 miles long running north and south
continuous wall except for river crossings built in the late 8th century

27 Construction Earth Embankment No fancy stonework No garrisoned posts
12 foot wide ditch on Welsh side Height ranges from 10 to 60 feet

28 Monument to Power Perhaps this dyke was a defense against raiders from Wales. Perhaps it served as a permanent boundary between Mercia and Wales. Perhaps it was a boundary monument to remind the Welsh of King Offa’s power and control.

29 Anglo-Saxon Cross Shaft
Location: St. Peter Advincula Church, Glebe Street, Stoke Re-erected on its modern base in 1935, the fragment of 10th Century Anglo-Saxon stone cross shaft had been used as a door lintel in the church until its discovery by a gravedigger in 1876. The square sectioned top of the cylindrical shaft has a different decorative motif on each face. However part of the side key pattern has been cut away, probably to allow its use as the church's door lintel.S

30 Acknowledgements Anglo-Saxon England. 27 June 2004 <>. Regia-Angloplum. “Arms and Armour-Part 8-Shields.” 27 June 2004 Map of Gradual Takeover of England by Anglo-Saxons. 27 June 2004 Durnham County Council. 27 June The British Museum: Education Department. 27 June King Arthur and the Anglo-Saxon Wars. 27 June The Arador Library. 28 June The Potteries Museum: Art Gallery. 27 June 2004 Pfordresher, John, Gladys V. Veidemanis, and Helen McDonnell, eds. England in Literature. Glenview: Scott, Foresman, 1989.

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