Presentation on theme: "Philosophy It’s not about you It’s not about the parents It’s not about the manager or coach It’s not even really about baseball It’s about."— Presentation transcript:
Philosophy It’s not about you It’s not about the parents It’s not about the manager or coach It’s not even really about baseball It’s about kids and character development using baseball as a tool Rule 1.01: Baseball is a game…
Areas of the field Fair territory: the area between (and including) the foul lines, up to the home- run fence. Foul territory: the area outside the foul lines but inside the fences. Live ball territory: Fair territory plus foul territory. Dead ball territory: the area beyond the fences, in the dugouts, or other field- specific areas.
Pregame: Gear Plate UmpireField Umpire Hat Shirt Slacks Belt Indicator Water Ball bag Mask Chest Protector Shin Guards Cup Plate shoes Hat Shirt Slacks Belt Indicator Water Cleats/Turf shoes Red Flag Plate gear in the car!
Pregame: Partner Meet 30 minutes before the game. Discuss your game plan: Coverage—who’s looking for what. Signs: Infield fly, #outs, count, 1 st -to-3 rd, etc. What you’re working on improving; ask your partner to help you watch. Do this every single game. Be done by 15 minutes before game time.
Why the partner meeting is important: We want to have an odd number of umpires making a call. We really don’t like it when this happens: The pre-game meeting to review responsibilities can avoid this…
Pregame: Field Bases Safety Double first Foul lines Pitcher’s mound/rubber Home run fence Rainouts
Pregame: Teams Adults may not warm up pitchers Before a game During a game After a game Players standing near the bat during fielding practice must wear a catcher’s helmet. Teams should leave their gear out of bags ready for inspection while they take infield practice.
Pregame: Equipment Bats BPF 1.15! (“fastpitch softball” for softball) No exception list this year! Batting helmets: look for cracks Catcher’s gear Dangling throat guard Gloves Uniforms Jewelry: watches, bracelets, earrings, necklaces, etc.
Pregame: Plate meeting Umpires and 2 managers (only!) Quick! Start 5 minutes before game time. Collect lineups Umpires control the game starting at this point Brief synopsis of ground rules (specific to the field) Get game balls Confirm that all players are legal and properly equipped Expectations: Hustle between innings (warmup catchers!) Respect for players and umpires Warmup areas
Starting the game 9 or more players on each team. Fielders (except catcher) in fair territory. Batter in the box. No one on deck. All other offensive players in dugout. Base coaches Can be players! With helmets! One adult in the dugout always! 3-coach limit Defensive manager location
Live ball/Dead ball Ball becomes live when the umpire points at the pitcher and says “Play!” Wait until the pitcher has the ball on the rubber. Wait until fielders are in fair territory. Wait until runners are on the correct bases. Usually wait for a batter to be ready. Ball becomes dead when the umpire says “Time” or “Foul.” Sometimes it’s implied or obvious. Nothing can happen when the ball is dead. Almost. No one except the umpire can call time. The offense will not be granted time-out to confer with a player more than once per inning (except for injury).
The Windup… Two legal pitching positions: set and windup. Softball has one legal position/motion. Illegal pitches: Quick pitch (batter not reasonably ready) Pitching while not in contact with the rubber Penalty for illegal pitch: Ball. Ignored if batter reaches 1 st and all runners advance. The pitcher does not have to come to a stop (60’ diamond)
…and the Pitch It’s a strike if: The batter attempts to hit the ball and misses. The batter hits a foul with less than two strikes. Any part of the ball crosses any part of the strike zone before hitting the ground. Otherwise, it’s a ball If the pitch hits the batter, it’s a dead ball. Usually, the batter goes to 1 st. If he was swinging or hit in the strike zone, it’s a strike. If he doesn’t try to get away (leans into it), it’s a ball.
Bunts A bunt is a batted ball not swung at, but intentionally met with the bat. If a bunt goes fair, it’s just like any other batted ball. If a bunt goes foul, it’s a foul ball. If there were two strikes, the batter is out. If the batter holds the bat out to bunt but doesn’t move it toward the ball, it’s not an attempt (and thus not a swinging strike).
Defensive Interference If any fielder interferes with the batter’s ability to hit the ball, it’s interference. Usually it’s the catcher. If the bat touches the glove during the pitch, it’s interference Can be a fielder trying to get in the batter’s vision or yelling “swing!” as well. When this happens, umpire says “that’s interference” but lets the play develop. Ignored if: The batter reaches 1 st and all runners advance. The offensive manager prefers the play. Otherwise, the batter gets 1 st and other runners return unless forced.
End of an at-bat Three strikes: an out Four balls: a walk Hit by pitch (when awarded 1 st ) Batter interferes with play at plate or throw by catcher: batter is out Defensive interference: given 1 st Hits the ball into play: the fun stuff starts happening!
Fair or Foul? If the ball is in flight until after 1 st /3 rd, it depends on where it first touches a person, an object or the ground. If the ball settles or is touched before it passes 1 st /3 rd, it depends on where it is touched or settles. “Touched” means by a person or a foreign object. There are no foreign objects in fair territory. If the ball bounces before 1 st /3 rd, but passes the base before it’s touched, it depends on where the ball is when it passes the front edge of the base.
Catch or No-Catch? It’s a catch when the ball is in flight and the fielder shows: Secure possession of the ball in the hand or glove. Complete control of the ball. Voluntary release of the ball. It’s a no-catch once the ball is no longer in flight: It has hit the ground. It has hit the fence or any other object. It has touched any person other than a fielder. When it’s a catch, the batter is out. It can be a catch in foul territory (ball stays live).
Plays on the BR at 1 st He’s out if he’s tagged before reaching 1 st. With ball securely held in a hand With a hand or glove securely holding the ball He’s out if 1 st is tagged before he reaches it. With any part of the fielder’s body with the ball securely held in the fielder’s hand or glove. He’s protected if he runs straight through 1 st and returns. He can turn either way! He loses protection if he makes a move toward 2 nd
How a Runner Can Be Put Out Runner is tagged while off a base. Runner or next base is tagged when runner is forced. Runner passes a preceding runner. With a fielder waiting to make a tag, runner goes more than 3 feet to the side of a line from the runner to the base. Runner abandons the bases. Runner slides headfirst while advancing Runner fails to either slide or attempt to get around a fielder waiting to make a tag Missed touching a base (appeal play: later). Failing to retouch after a catch (appeal play: later). Interference (later).
Angle over distance!
Force Plays A force starts when a batter hits a fair ball. A runner is forced if he must advance to make room for the BR going to 1 st, or for another runner who is himself forced. A force ends when the runner in question reaches the next base or when a following runner is put out. Example: R1, R3. When the batter hits the ball, R1 is forced to 2 nd, but R3 is not forced. If the BR tries for 2 nd, R1 is not forced to 3 rd. If the BR is put out at 1 st, the force on R1 is removed. A forced runner can be put out either by tagging the runner or by tagging his next base. To tag the base, the fielder needs possession of the ball (in hand or glove) and contact with the base.
Tag plays Unless forced, runners can only be put out by being tagged. A tag requires control of the ball by the fielder. A tag may be made with the ball itself or with the glove when the ball is inside. If the ball comes out during the tag, the fielder didn’t have control.
Infield Fly Runners on 1 st and 2 nd (and maybe 3 rd ). 0 or 1 out. A ball hit high in the air Catchable with ordinary effort by an infielder. Judge that the fielder looks comfortable under the ball. When the ball peaks, call “Infield fly: Batter’s out!” Removes the force play, even if the ball drops. The point is to protect the offense from a double play. Runners can run. They have to retouch if the ball is caught. If the ball is not caught and would be foul, it’s just a foul. “Infield fly if fair!” If you forget AND the defense turns a double play, fix it.
Scoring runs Usually, a run scores when a runner touches 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd and home in order. No runs can score on a play involving the 3 rd out on the batter before reaching 1 st or a force play. Tagging a forced runner is a force play. If the 3 rd out is not a force, runs count if the runner touches the plate before the tag happens. Appeals covered later…
Incomplete games When a game is shortened (due to, e.g., time or weather), an incomplete inning might be discounted. If the visitors tied the game in the incomplete inning, and the home team did not score. If the visitors took the lead in the incomplete inning, and the home team did not at least tie the score. Note that only the home team can benefit by this. Never roll back more than one inning. If the game is shorter than 4 (3 ½ if the home team leads) innings, or is tied, it’s suspended.
Timing rules RNLL Majors and Coast: no time limit unless a group shows up to claim the field in the next slot. When there’s a time limit: No new inning after 2:00 from the start time ○ A new inning starts the moment the third out is made. No new batter after 2:15 from the start time. Avoid hitting time limits by limiting time between innings.
Balls out of play When a ball enters dead ball territory or becomes lodged (in catcher’s or umpire’s gear), the umpire calls “Time” and moves runners depending on how the ball got there. Foul ball: runners return to their TOP bases. Fair ball and it goes over the home run fence before touching anything except a fielder: four bases. Any other fair ball: two bases from TOP. Thrown by a fielder (or a batted ball intentionally deflected): two bases from TOT. First play by an infielder, TOP. Unless the batter and all runners have advanced a base. Pitched: one base from TOP. If it’s ball four, the batter gets 1 st only. A fielder with the ball falls in dead-ball territory: one base
Disappearing ball trick
Leaving Early On 60’ diamonds, runners must maintain contact with their bases during a pitch. Requirement starts when ALL of these are true: Pitcher has ball and is in contact with the rubber Catcher has his mask on and is behind the plate facing the pitcher The runner is not currently advancing. Requirement ends when EITHER: The pitcher disengages the mound The pitch reaches the batter
Leaving Early: Penalty If any runner leaves early, all runners left early. When the play is over and nothing else is going to happen, call time. If the batter hit the ball, the plate umpire judges the base value of the hit. Don’t give the batter extra bases because of errant throws or because he advanced while a play happened. Be guided by where the batter was when the ball was thrown back to the infield. All outs stand. Return all runners to their starting bases unless this would push the batter further back than the value of his hit.
Leaving Early: Examples R1, R3. Wild pitch. R3 scores; R1 safe at 2 nd. R1, R3. Batter walks. R3 scores on the throw back to F1. R1, R3. Batter singles; R3 scores, R1 to 3 rd. R1, R3. Wild pitch. R3 out at home; R1 safe at 2 nd. R1, R2, R3. Batter grounds to CF and takes 2 nd when the throw goes home without a cutoff; throw puts R2 out. R1, R2, R3. Batter doubles; runners all score. Batter thrown out at 3rd. R1, R2, R3. Batter singles; R2 in rundown and out at home. R1 ends up on 3 rd ; BR ends up on 2 nd. R1, R2, R3. Bottom of 6 th, visitors ahead by 2. 2 outs. Batter triples; runners all score. Batter thrown out at home.
Appeal Plays Runners are required to touch all bases when advancing (even when awarded bases). Runners are required to touch all bases when retreating (unless the ball is dead). Runners are required to retouch the base they occupied at TOP after the defense first touches the ball if a catch is made. If the defense appeals successfully, the runner will be called out.
Appeal Plays: Prerequisites The defense (not the umpire or the scorekeeper) notices that a runner failed to touch or retouch a base as required. The umpire also saw the violation (though he didn’t call attention to it). The defense has not made a pitch or attempted a play since things settled down. If the ball is thrown out of play during an appeal attempt, no appeals will be allowed. If the play ended an inning, at least one fielder remained in fair territory. The ball is live. The defense tags either the base where the violation occurred.
Appeal plays and scoring Of course, a runner called out on appeal can’t score. If the appeal made the third out, any runners who scored after the guilty runner also can’t score. If the appeal made the third out and was about the batter missing 1 st, no one can score. If the appeal made the third out and was about a runner missing a base to which he was forced, no one can score. Otherwise, it’s a timing play based on when the runner touches the plate and the fielder makes the appeal. Sometimes an appeal can result in a fourth out; the defense can choose the most advantageous one.
Interference: Types A runner or coach prevents a defender from fielding a batted ball. A runner (or BR) is hit by a batted ball in fair territory. Unless immediately behind an infielder who misses the ball, and there are no other infielders with a play. Unless the ball has touched a fielder. Unless the ball hits the BR who still has one foot on the ground in the batter’s box: this is a foul ball. A runner (or BR) intentionally deflects a ball in foul territory. A runner intentionally touches or prevents the catch of a thrown ball. A batter steps over the plate and hinders the catcher’s throw on a stealing runner. A batter hinders the defense in a play on a runner stealing home. A base coach physically assists a runner arriving at or leaving a base. The batter runs in fair territory or more than 3 feet in foul territory in the second half of the path to 1 st and hinders the fielder receiving the throw at 1 st (running lane violation).
Interference: Penalty Usually the ball is dead. Exception: not on base-coach assistance. Exception: delayed on batter interfering with catcher’s throw. If the throw puts the runner out, ignore the interference. Usually the culprit is out. Exception: if it was intentional and prevented a double play, the batter is also out. If the batter was the culprit, then the most advanced runner is the second out. Exception: If a base coach or a runner already out was the culprit, the runner on whom the play was being attempted is out. Usually all runners return to their last base at the time of the interference. Exception: if the ball was hit into play and the batter hasn’t reached 1 st (and the batter wasn’t the culprit), the batter is awarded 1 st and runners forced to advance do so.
Substitutions Continuous Batting Order (4.04) If a batter is injured, bring up the next batter Next batter assumes the count If a runner is injured, find the most recent batter who is not currently on base. An injured player who recovers may return An injured player who does not recover is skipped in the batting order without penalty.
Pitching substitutions A new pitcher gets 8 warmup pitches, or 1 minute. Returning pitchers only need 5, depending on hustle. Each pitcher must face at least one batter before being removed, including the starting pitcher on the lineup. The pitcher must be replaced after the 3 rd visit in an inning or the 4 th visit in a game. A visit is a time-out granted for the manager or a coach to confer with any defensive player. When the pitcher is being replaced, a visit is not charged to the new pitcher. In case of injury, the umpire should monitor the discussion and not charge a visit as long as the only topic is the injury.
Pitch counts Pitchers must be replaced after 85 pitches in a day 75 pitches for 9-year-olds and 10-year-olds. Pitchers may finish the current batter when the limit is reached. Pitchers must not pitch again for a time, depending on how many pitches were thrown: 66+:4 days 51-65:3 days 36-50:2 days 21-35:1 day 0-20:0 days (may not pitch the same day) After throwing 41 pitches in a day, the player may not catch. NEW: After catching 4 innings, can’t pitch that day.
Obstruction When a fielder without the ball and not in the act of fielding a batted ball impedes the progress of a runner. Only one fielder is protected on a batted ball (the umpire decides which one) A deflected ball within a step and a reach is still “fielding a batted ball.” Further is “chasing a ball” and not protected. Fake tags are always obstruction; fake catches and throws are OK.
Obstruction: type A When a runner is obstructed while a play is being made on him. When the BR is obstructed on his way to 1 st with the ball in the infield. Penalty: call “time” and put all runners where you think they would have gotten without the obstruction. The obstructed runner MUST be awarded at least one base beyond the one he last occupied. Type “A” most often happens in rundowns, pickoffs, and plays at the plate.
Obstruction: type B When a play is not being made on the obstructed runner. The play is allowed to continue; the umpire decides where the runner would have gotten without the obstruction. Decide based on what’s happening with the ball at the time of the obstruction. When the play is over, call time and award bases if necessary. If the runner advances past the base he would have been awarded, he can be tagged out.
Batting out of order BOO is an appeal. The umpires (and scorekeeper) never call attention to a batting order infraction. Question 1: Who is the proper batter? Hint: He’s the one after the last batter… Question 2: When did the appeal happen? While the improper batter is still at bat? ○ Just bring up the proper batter with the current count. After the first pitch to another batter after the improper one? ○ It’s too late. The improper batter is now legalized. After the improper batter has finished the at-bat, but before the next pitch? ○ The proper batter is out. Whatever happened on the final pitch is nullified. The batter after the one called out is now due up. If the third out of an inning is made on a runner without the batter hitting the ball (i.e. caught stealing), the same batter is due up again in the next half-inning.
BOO: example Order is A-B-C-D-E-F. We start with A on 3 rd, B on 1 st. No outs. C should be up, but D bats instead. If either manager notices: C takes over. D flies out, runners don’t advance. C comes to the plate. If the defense appeals: C is out and D’s out is erased; D is up again. C swings and misses at the first pitch. B steals 2 nd. Again, if either manager notices: E steps in and assumes the count. C walks, loading the bases. E comes to the plate. Now if the defense appeals: E is out and F is up. B stays on 2 nd. E takes a pitch. Once more, if either team notices: D steps in and assumes the count. E hits a fly ball to CF; error charged to F8; A scores and we now have B on 3rd, C on 2nd and E on 1st. Finally, the defensive manager appeals that E batted out of order. D is called out; runners are returned to TOP.
BOO: humor ** This really happened. Bottom of 6 th. Visitors ahead by 2. A bats, grounds out. C (the stud) comes to the plate and hits a solo home run. B comes to the plate. After two pitches, defensive manager comes out and says that C batted out of order. PU explains that the first pitch to B legalized C. Manager never says anything about B, so he keeps batting. B walks. D comes to the plate. Nobody says nuthin’. D takes a ball. Offensive manager calls time, tells the PU “Sorry, we messed up the order. C should be up now.” C comes back to the plate with a 1-0 count. Lots of folks yelling, stuff like “he can’t be allowed to bat twice.” One defensive coach ejected for vocabulary issues. C hits another home run (2-for-2 with 3 RBIs in the inning isn’t bad…), and nobody can do anything about it because he’s the proper batter. Home team wins by 1 run.
Ejections Any umpire can eject a player, manager or coach for unsportsmanlike conduct. Ejections carry an automatic 1-game suspension. Ejected adults must leave the facility (drive away). Ejections require a written report to the board within 24 hours. Ejected players may sit in the dugout if a parent is not present. They may not take any part in the game: warming up pitchers, being a base coach, etc. Behavior: when it’s personal or threatening “That’s a terrible call” vs. “You’re a terrible umpire.” Throwing equipment in protest (including hats and helmets). Any contact with the umpire during a disagreement. Any spiteful words to the opposing team. Any unacceptable conduct by an adult directed at his own team. Physical contact between players: when it’s malicious Watch for the player who knows the collision is coming. Any obscene language.
How to help your partner
Protests A manager may protest a game if he believes the umpire has misapplied the rules. Judgment is not protestable. When the protest is lodged, the umpires should confer and make sure they’re applying the right rule. If not, they can fix it. If the umpires don’t agree to change their ruling, the scorekeeper notes the point of protest. The game goes on. A protest committee will deal with the situation later.
Funny Rules: Detached Equipment Fielders may not intentionally use their uniform or equipment (hats, shirts, etc.) removed from its usual place to gain control of the ball. Penalty: runners advance. Pitched ball: one base Thrown ball: two bases Batted ball: three bases Batted ball that would have been a home run: four bases Don’t call time. Runners can advance further, at their own risk.
Funny Rules: Umpire Interference A fair ball hits an umpire in fair territory before touching a fielder and before passing the infielders Ball is dead. Batter is awarded 1 st. Runners return unless forced. Should never happen on a 60’ diamond. The catcher tries to make a throw to put out a stealing runner after catching the pitch cleanly, but can’t do so because of the plate umpire. Ball is dead. Runners return. If the throw gets the runner out, ignore the interference.
Funny Rules: Spectator Interference Someone not in the game reaches into live ball territory and touches the ball or hinders a fielder. The ball is dead. The umpire figures out what would have happened (outs, bases run, etc.) and declares it so.
Funny Rules: 7.13(c) Bases are loaded At least one runner leaves early The batter hits the ball, but it stays in the infield No outs are recorded Rule: BR is limited to 1 st ; R1 to 2 nd ; R2 to 3 rd. R3 goes back to the dugout without scoring and without recording an out.
Funny Rules: Batter’s box Before a pitch, the batter must have both feet entirely within the batter’s box (including the lines) When hitting the ball, the batter may not have a foot on the ground entirely outside the lines of the box. If the batter contacts the ball Don’t be picky! If this needs to be called, it’ll be obvious.
Funny Rules: Automatic Strike If a batter refuses to get in the box, the umpire will call time and declare a strike. “Let’s go—batter in the box!” (A few seconds pass with no action) “Time! That’s a strike! We have 1 ball and 1 strike.” “Play! Batter in the box!” (A few seconds pass with no action) “Time! That’s a strike! We have 1 ball and 2 strikes.” “Play! Batter in the box!” (Batter gets a clue and gets ready to hit).
Funny Rules: Dislodged bases The runner who dislodges a base can’t be put out if he doesn’t attempt to advance further. Following runners are safe where the base belongs OR where it actually is. Call time and fix the base when the play is over.
Funny Rules: Foul tips A foul tip is a pitched ball that goes “sharp and direct” from the bat to the catcher’s hand or glove, and is caught. Rule: A foul tip is not a foul ball. It’s also not a catch. It’s just a swinging strike, as if it hadn’t hit the bat at all. DO NOT say “foul tip.” Just make the signal. A ball that touches the hand or glove, then bounces off the catcher’s gear before being caught is still a foul tip. A ball that touches the catcher’s gear or the umpire before the hand or glove is just a foul ball.
Funny Rules: Intentional drop Similar to an infield fly, this is designed to prevent an “unearned” double-play. R1 (and maybe R2 and maybe R3) A fly ball or a line drive. A fielder touches the ball in flight and intentionally drops it to the ground. If he lets it drop without touching it first, it’s OK. Rule: Call time; the BR is out. All other runners return to their TOP bases.
Funny Rules: 9.01(c) “Each umpire has authority to rule on any point not specifically covered in these rules” This is an escape clause for the truly unexpected and is rarely used.