B = Batter – while in the batter’s box BR=Batter-Runner – before securing 1 st R=Runner
B Becomes a BR B legally hits a fair ball Walked on 4 balls Catcher obstruction Fair batted ball strikes a runner OR their attached equipment or clothing
Walks Dead ball and runners advance, if forced Walked males in coed are awarded 2 nd base (still must touch 1 st base (defense can appeal)) Female has option to walk or bat if there are 2 outs Intentional walks: Defense can notify the umpire of their intent to walk the batter Batter is awarded 1 st base If 2 batters are to be walked back-to-back, the 2 nd walk may not be administered until the 1 st walked batter touches 1 st base If the umpire allows both walks at the same time, an appeal is not honored on the 1 st batter if he misses 1 st base.
With R1 on 3B, R2 on 2B, and R3 on 1B, B4 receives ball four. R1 fails to touch home plate. Can R1 be declared out on a proper appeal?
Yes, since B4 became the BR on ball four, all bases must be touched because a force out situation exists.
Catcher Obstruction Catcher “obstructs” B’s attempt to hit the ball: If B hits the ball and is safe at 1 st base, AND all runners have advanced at least one base, obstruction is cancelled. If B hits the ball and is NOT safe at 1 st base, OR all runners have not advanced at least one base, the offense is given the option of taking the result of the play, or enforcing obstruction by awarding the batter first base and advancing all runners, if forced. If the catcher steps on or in front of home plate without the ball and prevents B from hitting the ball, B is awarded 1 st base and all other runners advance 1 base, if forced
With R1 on 2B, the catcher obstructed B2 who hits a fly ball to left field and safely reaches 2B when the throw is made to third base retiring R1 at third base.
The obstruction penalty is invoked and the offensive manager has the option of taking the result of the play, or enforcing obstruction by awarding the batter 1 st base and returning R1 to 2 nd base.
INTERFERENCE If a fair batted ball strikes an umpire or runner OR their attached equipment or clothing, you could have: INTERFERENCE The act of an Offensive Player that impedes, hinders, or confuses a defensive player attempting to execute a play (e.g. physical contact, verbal distraction, visual distraction, etc.) Contact is not necessary.
A Fair Ball Strikes... If a fair batted ball strikes an umpire or runner OR their attached equipment or clothing and: After touching any fielder including the PitcherLive ball After passing a fielder other than the pitcher and no other fielder had an opportunity to make an out Live ball Before passing a fielder other than the pitcher and contacts a runner off the base INTERFERENCE Dead ball Out – Runner struck is out BR is awarded 1 st base Runners advance, if forced If not forced, Runners return to the base reached prior to the interference
A Fair Ball Strikes... (cont’d) If a fair batted ball strikes the umpire/runner OR their attached equipment or clothing and: After passing a fielder and another fielder has the opportunity to make an out INTERFERENCE Dead ball Runner is out BR is awarded 1 st base Runners advance, if forced Runners return to the base reached prior to the interference, if not forced Touches a runner on the baseRunner is NOT out Ball is live OR dead, depending on the position of the fielder closest to the base –Live if fielder is positioned in front of base –Dead if fielder is positioned behind base.
A Fair Ball Strikes... (cont’d) If a fair batted ball strikes the umpire/runner OR their attached equipment or clothing and: Contacts an umpire before passing a fielder other than the pitcher Only in a two-man system used in FAS for tournament play only. Dead ball BR is awarded 1 st base Runners advance, if forced Runners return to the base reached prior to the interference, if not forced
With R1 on 1B, B1 hits a ground ball halfway between 1 st and 2 nd which hits the runner, after the ball passed the 1 st baseman but before it passed the 2 nd baseman who could still make a play on the ball.
With R1 on 1B, B hits a ground ball halfway between 1 st and 2 nd which hits the runner, after the ball passed the 1 st baseman but before it passed the 2 nd baseman who could still make a play for an out. The ball is dead. The runner is out. The BR is awarded first base. Note: If the 1 st baseman had no play on the ball for an out, then the ball is live and play continues.
BR is Out Put out prior to reaching 1 st base Caught fly ball Enters the dugout before touching 1 st base EXCEPT – Home Run Runs outside the 3’ lane before 1 st base and interferes with the fielder taking a throw at 1 st base EXCEPT – When throw coming from foul territory, defense uses orange and BR can use white
B1 hits a ground ball to F4 who throws to F3 in time to retire B1, but B1 crashes into F3 causing F3 to drop the ball.
B1 is out, since F3 established a catch. Dropping the ball as a result of the contact is something that happened after the out was made.
F3 has control of the ball in their right hand while lying on the ground and touches 1B with their left hand prior to the batter-runner reaching 1B.
The batter-runner is out. Note: If F3 touched the runner with his left hand instead of the base, the runner is safe.
BR is Out BR Interference: Runs outside the 3 foot lane Interferes with a fielder attempting to field a batted ball, Interferes with a fielder attempting to throw a ball, Gets in the way of a thrown ball while out of the batter’s box, Makes contact with a fairly batted ball before reaching 1 st base, Discarding their bat in the way of a defensive player. In any of these examples, if the interference is an attempt to prevent a double play, the runner closest to home plate is also called out.
INTERFERENCE BALL IS DEAD* OUT RUNNERS RETURN TO BASE LAST TOUCHED AT TIME OF INTERFERENCE. * EXCEPTION: UMPIRE INTERFERENCE IS A DELAYED DEAD BALL
Umpire’s Handling of Interference Immediate DEAD BALL Both hands high in the air in front of the body Interfering Player is ALWAYS OUT Other players can be out or must return to bases ASA DEAD BALL !!!
Umpire’s Handling of Interference –The umpire must determine if the interference occurred before or after the runner who interfered was put out and then apply the appropriate rule. –If before: the runner is out and the immediate trailing runner is also out; –If after: the runner is out and the runner closest to home is also out. –All other runners return to the last base touched at time of interference. ASA DEAD BALL !!!
Umpire’s Handling of Interference Runner interference on a deflected ball –Must be deemed intentional –The defensive player must have an opportunity to make an OUT – Ball is DEAD, runner is OUT, all other runners return. ASA DEAD BALL !!!
B1 hits the ball and it settles in the middle of the plate. F2 throws the ball to 1B and hits B1: a)In the left shoulder as B1 is straddling the foul line over fair territory and more than half way to 1B, b)On the right shoulder and B1 is completely inside the three foot lane, c)In the first thirty feet between home and 1B.
B1 hits the ball and it settles in the middle of the plate. F2 throws the ball to 1B and hits B1: a)In the left shoulder as B1 is straddling the foul line over fair territory and more than half way to 1B, b)On the right shoulder and B1 is completely inside the three foot lane, c)In the first thirty feet between home and 1B. In (a), B1 is out and the ball is dead. In (b) and (c), B1 is not out and the ball remains live.
BR is Out BR interferes with a play at home, the BR and the runner are both OUT When the batter-runner steps back toward home plate to avoid or delay a tag by a fielder. Intentionally dropped ball (unless a fielder actually caught a ball and then dropped it, there is no intentional dropped ball.)
Interference If a spectator interferes with the defense attempting to catch a fly ball: Dead ball, BR is out, and All runners are awarded the bases they would have reached.
R1 is on 3B. B2 hits a fair ground ball to F3 who fields the ball, and throws to F2 in an attempt to retire R1. The throw hits B2 in the hand which he was waving as a) he is running up the line toward 1B, or b) backing up toward home plate to avoid F3’s tag.
(a) and (b) The ball is dead. This is interference and both B2 and R1 are out. Note: If there were no runner on third, in (b), the ball is dead and B2 is out. R1 is on 3B. B2 hits a fair ground ball to F3 who fields the ball, and throws to F2 in an attempt to retire R1. The throw hits B2 in the hand which he was waving as a) he is running up the line toward 1B, or b) backing up toward home plate to avoid F3’s tag.
Double 1 st Base When a play is being made on the BR, the defense MUST use the white portion and the BR MUST use the orange portion. BR is OUT if they only touch the white portion. The defense and the BR can use either base when: A play is being made from foul territory, or An errant throw takes the defense off 1 st base into foul territory.
Double 1 st Base When BR is rounding 1 st base, they can touch either the white or orange portion. When R is tagging up, they can touch either the white or orange portion. If there is a force play at 1 st base and BR collides with the defense because they touched only the white portion: Dead ball, BR is out, and All runners must return to the last base occupied at the time of the interference.
Intentionally Dropping the Ball When an infielder intentionally drops a fair fly ball or line drive that could be caught with ordinary effort with 1 st, 1 st & 2 nd, 1 st & 3 rd, or bases loaded with 1 or 2 outs... Dead ball. B is out. Runners return to their base at the time of the pitch. Infield fly takes precedence over an intentionally dropped ball.
Touching Bases in Legal Order When a runner must return to a base, the bases must be touched in reverse order. Runner is out, if appealed. Not on a foul ball. 2 runners cannot occupy the same base. Runner who first legally occupied the base is entitled, unless forced to advance. 2 nd runner can be tagged by the defense. If runner is on base when a home run is hit, they DO NOT have to advance; they may go from the base directly to the dugout.
With 2 outs and R1 on 2B, R2 on 1B, B5 hits a double and both R1 and R2 score. R1 misses 3B, but returns to 3B just before an appeal is made.
Since R1 may not return to 3B after a following runner, R2, scores, R1 is out on the appeal and both runs are nullified.
Runners CAN Be Put Out Thrown ball or fair batted ball not blocked Caught fly ball When the ball is live or on awarded bases, the runner fails to touch a base before attempting to make the next base (upon appeal) After overrunning first base, the runner attempt to continue to second base.
Runners CAN Be Put Out Live ball: Hits an umpire or runner AFTER passing a fielder other than the pitcher and no other fielder has the opportunity to make an out, or Touched by any fielder and the runner did not intentionally interfere with the ball or the fielder attempting to field the ball. When a live ball becomes lodged in a defensive player’s uniform or equipment
R1 is on 1B and B2 hits a line drive that ricochets off F4’s glove to F9, who catches it. R1 leaves 1B for 2B after F4 touched the ball, but before F9 caught the ball.
B2 is out on the catch and this is a legal advance by R1.
Runners CAN NOT Be Put Out Forced to advance because of a walk or dead ball base award When a fielder without the ball obstructs the progress of an R or BR If interference occurs after obstruction, the interference trumps the obstruction Live ball is overthrown or blocked All runners are awarded 2 bases at the time of the throw Spectator interference on a fair batted or thrown ball (immediate dead ball)
Obstruction The act of a defensive team member: A.Who hinders or impedes a batter from striking at or hitting a pitched ball. B.Who, as a fielder, impedes the progress of a runner or batter-runner who is legally running the bases unless the fielder is: 1. In possession of the ball 2. In the act of fielding a batted ball NOTE: Contact is not necessary to impede the progress of the runner.
Obstruction Notes Occurs by the defense and signaled with delayed dead ball signal. An obstructed runner may NOT be called out between the 2 bases where obstructed. If put out prior to reaching the base which would have been reached, a dead ball is called and all runners awarded where they would have obtained without the obstruction, based on judgment of umpire. A fake tag is a form of obstruction and could be cause for ejection from the game.
OBSTRUCTION FIELDER MUST BE IN POSSESSION OF THE BALL TO BLOCK A BASE: As one coach so aptly stated, after this ruling was approved, Rather than teach to block the base, catch the ball, and then apply the tag, I will now have to teach to catch the ball, block the base and then apply the tag. Obstruction should be ruled if the fielder blocks the base without the ball.
Runners CAN NOT Be Put Out When a fielder intentionally contacts or catches a fair batted, thrown, or pitched ball with any part of the uniform or equipment that is detached from its proper place: Batted Ball (that would have gone over the fence for a home run) 4 base award to BR Batted Ball3 base award to BR at the time of the pitch Thrown Ball2 base award to BR at the time of the throw Pitched Ball1 base award to BR at the time of the pitch
Runners CAN NOT Be Put Out Fielder loses possession of the ball and the ball leaves live ball territory or becomes blocked All runners are awarded 1 base at the time the ball left live ball territory If a fair ball: Bounces over, rolls under, or goes through the fence, Deflects off a fielder and goes out of play in foul territory, or Deflects off a runner or umpire and goes out of play in foul territory. Then, dead ball and all runners are awarded 2 bases at the time of the pitch.
Runners CAN NOT Be Put Out If a fielder UNINTENTIONALLY carries a live ball out of live ball territory: Dead ball and all runners are awarded 1 base at the time the fielder left live ball territory. If a fielder INTENTIONALLY carries a live ball out of live ball territory: Dead ball and all runners are awarded 2 bases at the time the fielder left live ball territory.
With R1 on 3B and R2 on 2B, R1 is caught between 3B and home in a run down on an infield hit by B3. As R1 is attempting to regain 3B, F5 obstructs R1 and then tags R1 out. R2 was standing on 3B at the time of the obstruction.
The umpire should call “dead ball” and rule obstruction. R1 should be awarded 3B, R2 is returned to 2B and B3 should be on 1B.
F2 is standing in the path of R1, awaiting the throw from F8. R1 runs into F2 before the ball arrives. F2 retrieves the ball and tags the runner out.
Since F2 did not have possession of the ball at the time of the contact, obstruction is called, the ball is ruled dead and R1 is awarded home.
A Runner Must Return to Their Base After each pitch Foul ball Illegally batted ball Interference is called Intentionally dropped ball
The Runner is OUT Runner is off the base and tagged by a fielder. Out of the base path to avoid being tagged by a fielder. Force play. ANY offensive team member (other than the runner) physically assists a runner. If physically passes a preceding runner before that runner has been called out.
The Runner is OUT Runner does not tag up: Thrown to the base or Proper appeal. Runner fails to touch the bases in order: Thrown to the base or Proper appeal. BR attempts to advance to 2 nd base after overrunning 1 st base and is tagged off the base.
The Runner is OUT Runner misses the base and the defense properly appeals. Runner interferes with: Fielder attempting to field a batted ball, Fielder attempting to throw a ball, Thrown ball, or Defensive player (INTENTIONALLY) attempting to field a deflected ball Runner is hit with a batted ball while off the base.
The Runner is OUT Runner INTENTIONALLY kicks a fair ball the fielder missed. 3 rd base coach runs in the direction of home plate while the fielder is attempting to make a play and draws a throw home. Runner closest to home is out. Offensive team member(s) collect(s) around a base that a runner is advancing to in an attempt to confuse the defense. Runner closest to home is out.
The Runner is OUT Coach INTENTIONALLY interferes with the defense attempting to make a play. Runner closest to home is out. Runner declared out or just scored interferes with the defense attempting to make a play. Runner remains upright and collides into the fielder with the ball. Runner fails to keep in contact with the base until a pitched ball is batted or hits the ground or home plate.
The Runner is OUT Runner leaves the base and enters the dugout. Runner is positioned behind and not in contact with a base to get a running start on a fly ball. Runner leaves under the Shorthanded Rule. Batter has an illegal or non-approved bat. Batter also ejected and remains out in line-up.
With one out, R1 on 3B and R2 on 2B, B4 hits a fly ball to F7 who catches the ball. R1 leaves 3B before the ball is touched by F7 who then throws the ball into the stands in an attempt to retire R1 at home. R2 has reached 3B on F7’s throw and the umpire awards R2 home. After all play is completed, F5 appeals to the umpire that R1 left 3B early.
R1 is declared out, and the runs scored by both R1 and R2 are cancelled.
The Runner is OUT Following an offensive conference, if runners switch positions on the bases: Both runners are out AND Coach/Manager is ejected.
With no outs and R1 on 2B, R2 on 1B, B3 hits a high pop foul between home and 1B and the umpire yells “Infield Fly..If Fair”. F3 loses sight of the ball in the sun. The ball lands on foul ground without being touched and rolls into fair territory halfway between home and 1B. F1 picks up the ball and throws to F4 covering 1B, who tags R2 while off the base.
Since the umpire rules this an infield fly, B3 is out. R2 is out for being tagged off base.
The Runner is SAFE Runner tries to avoid interference with a fielder attempting to field a batted ball. Runner tries to avoid a fielder who is in the base path without the ball. If two fielders attempt to field a ball and the runner contacts the fielder that could not have made the play.
The Runner is SAFE Runner is hit with a batted ball after passing a fielder, but not the pitcher, and no other fielder has the opportunity to make a play. Runner is hit with a fair untouched batted ball over foul territory. Runner is hit with a touched batted ball and could not avoid contact.
With no outs and R1 on 2B, B3 hits a ground ball to F6 who muffs the ball. In (a) the ball remains in front of F6 and they are still able to make an out, or (b) the ball goes over F6’s shoulder. In both cases, R1 hits F6 unintentionally and continues to 3B safely.)
In (a) if F6 can still make an out, the umpire should call a dead ball and rule interference. In (b) F6 is no longer fielding the ball and is guilty of obstruction. Since R1 advanced safely to 3B, the obstruction is ignored.
The Runner is SAFE Runner is touched off the base: Ball is not securely held by the fielder, or Ball is in the “other” hand. Defense misses their opportunity to appeal. BR overruns 1 st base and returns directly to 1 st base. Runner is not given sufficient time to return to the base.
The Runner is SAFE Legal tag up. Hit by a batted ball while on the base (unless INTENTIONAL). Runner slides and dislodges a base (the base stays with the runner). Runner returns to a base missed or not tagged up properly.
With R1 on 3B, B2 hits a ball that strikes 3B and then caroms to foul territory where it strikes R1, who is advancing off 3B. F5 had no opportunity to make an out.
Courtesy Runners (CR) One PLAYER per half inning may have a courtesy runner and as often as that player requires during each half Any player on the roster may be used as a CR. A CR is officially in the game when they touch the base. If a CR’s turn at bat comes while on base, they will be out on the base and will bat.
Courtesy Runners For Coed and Corporate Coed: Males can run for males. Females can run for females OR males. A CR may be used for one male runner AND one female runner each half inning. For Seniors: Unlimited CRs each half inning. If a runner is replaced by a CR, they cannot be a CR for the remainder of the inning.
Courtesy Runners For Women’s Slow Pitch: Two (2) courtesy runners are allowed each half inning. For Women’s Fast Pitch: Unlimited courtesy runners per inning will be allowed for pitchers, catchers, pregnant players, and any player injured during the course of the game. The courtesy runner will be the person who made the last out in the current inning; or for the first batter of an inning, the last out of the previous inning; or someone not in the batting lineup.
With no outs, R1 on 2B, and a CR runs for R1. B4 flies out for the 1 st out; B5 hits a single and is on 1B, B6 strikes out for the 2 nd out. B7 is to come to bat, but is the CR at 2B.
CR/B7 is called out at 2B resulting in the third out, and will lead off the next inning.