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Chapter 5 Toward Independence King George III Lady Liberty Crowning Defiant American Democracy.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Toward Independence King George III Lady Liberty Crowning Defiant American Democracy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Toward Independence King George III Lady Liberty Crowning Defiant American Democracy

2 5.2 Before 1763 Patriots (Whigs) Americans who believe that the colonies have the right to govern themselves. Loyalists (Torries) Americans who feel a deep loyalty to Great Britain. *By 1750 the colonies are bursting with growth. *Population now 1,000,000. *For over a century, colonies have learned to govern themselves. *Each colony elects its own assembly; each assembly passes laws and creates taxes. *Americans have more freedom to run their own lives than any people in Europe. Patriots (Whigs) Americans who believe that the colonies have the right to govern themselves. Loyalists (Torries) Americans who feel a deep loyalty to Great Britain. *By 1750 the colonies are bursting with growth. *Population now 1,000,000. *For over a century, colonies have learned to govern themselves. *Each colony elects its own assembly; each assembly passes laws and creates taxes. *Americans have more freedom to run their own lives than any people in Europe.

3 Test Prep. Before 1763, the American colonies had been… A) ruled with a firm hand by Parliament. B) left alone to govern themselves. C) heavily taxed by the British government. D) denied religious freedom by the king. Answer: B) left alone to govern themselves. Before 1763, the American colonies had been… A) ruled with a firm hand by Parliament. B) left alone to govern themselves. C) heavily taxed by the British government. D) denied religious freedom by the king. Answer: B) left alone to govern themselves.

4 5.2 Continued… Conflict in the Ohio Valley *Colonists want to move west across the Appalachian Mountains into the Ohio Valley. *1754 French build Fort Duquesne At present-day Pittsburgh. *Virginia governor chooses George Washington lead a militia to drive the French out. *This battle proves to be the first battle of The French and Indian War. Conflict in the Ohio Valley *Colonists want to move west across the Appalachian Mountains into the Ohio Valley. *1754 French build Fort Duquesne At present-day Pittsburgh. *Virginia governor chooses George Washington lead a militia to drive the French out. *This battle proves to be the first battle of The French and Indian War.

5 5.2 Continued… The French and Indian War *1755 Britain sends 1,400 British soldiers to Virginia to finish the job Washington had begun. *They are to clear the French out of the Ohio Valley. French do not give up easily. *War rages for seven years. *1759 British troops capture Canada. *This proves to be the turning point of the war. *1763 Britain and France sign a peace treaty. *France cedes (gives up) Canada to Great Britain. *Colonists feel proud to be British. The French and Indian War *1755 Britain sends 1,400 British soldiers to Virginia to finish the job Washington had begun. *They are to clear the French out of the Ohio Valley. French do not give up easily. *War rages for seven years. *1759 British troops capture Canada. *This proves to be the turning point of the war. *1763 Britain and France sign a peace treaty. *France cedes (gives up) Canada to Great Britain. *Colonists feel proud to be British.

6 Test Prep. Which was not a major effect of the French and Indian War? A) Reduced colonists’ need for protection against the French in Canada. B) Opened the Ohio Valley to settlement by removing Native Americans. C) Led Parliament to tax the colonies to help pay off Britain’s war debt. D) Greatly expanded Britain’s empire in North America. Answer: B) Opened the Ohio Valley to settlement by removing Native Americans. Which was not a major effect of the French and Indian War? A) Reduced colonists’ need for protection against the French in Canada. B) Opened the Ohio Valley to settlement by removing Native Americans. C) Led Parliament to tax the colonies to help pay off Britain’s war debt. D) Greatly expanded Britain’s empire in North America. Answer: B) Opened the Ohio Valley to settlement by removing Native Americans.

7 5.3 Early British Actions *1760 George III becomes new King of England. Proclamation of 1763 *To keep colonists and Indians from killing each other as settlers push westward, a line is drawn down the center of the Appalachian Mountains. Settlers told to stay east of that line. Colonists feel the king is acting like a tyrant. British government October 7, 1763 ignores colonists’ complaints; expands the British army in America to 7,500 troops. *1760 George III becomes new King of England. Proclamation of 1763 *To keep colonists and Indians from killing each other as settlers push westward, a line is drawn down the center of the Appalachian Mountains. Settlers told to stay east of that line. Colonists feel the king is acting like a tyrant. British government October 7, 1763 ignores colonists’ complaints; expands the British army in America to 7,500 troops.

8 Test Prep. While the Proclamation of 1763 was designed to promote peace, instead it… A) triggered wars between Indian groups. B) smelled of tyranny to many colonists. C) sparked a boycott of British goods. D) led to riots in colonial cities. Answer: B) smelled of tyranny to many colonists. While the Proclamation of 1763 was designed to promote peace, instead it… A) triggered wars between Indian groups. B) smelled of tyranny to many colonists. C) sparked a boycott of British goods. D) led to riots in colonial cities. Answer: B) smelled of tyranny to many colonists.

9 5.3 Continued… The Stamp Act of 1765 *Britain needs to raise funds to help pay off the large debt left over from the French and Indian War. *Prime Minister George Grenville proposes making the colonists buy stamps for every piece of paper they use. *Colonists feel this tax is unfair Notice of the Stamp Act since they have no representation in Parliament. *“No Taxation without representation!” *Loyalists refuse to buy stamps. *Patriot mobs (Sons of Liberty) Official Stamp Act seal attack tax collectors. HONI SOIT MAL Y PENSE *Parliament decides to repeal (cancel) “Shamed be he who thinks the Stamp Act several months later. evil of it.” The Stamp Act of 1765 *Britain needs to raise funds to help pay off the large debt left over from the French and Indian War. *Prime Minister George Grenville proposes making the colonists buy stamps for every piece of paper they use. *Colonists feel this tax is unfair Notice of the Stamp Act since they have no representation in Parliament. *“No Taxation without representation!” *Loyalists refuse to buy stamps. *Patriot mobs (Sons of Liberty) Official Stamp Act seal attack tax collectors. HONI SOIT MAL Y PENSE *Parliament decides to repeal (cancel) “Shamed be he who thinks the Stamp Act several months later. evil of it.”

10 Test Prep. What upset American colonists most about the stamp act? A) Colonists did not want to pay taxes to keep British troops in the colonies. B) The stamp tax raised the price of paper goods sold in the colonies. C) Colonists believed that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies. D) Parliament had not warned the colonies about the new stamp tax in advance. Answer: C) Colonists believed that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies. What upset American colonists most about the stamp act? A) Colonists did not want to pay taxes to keep British troops in the colonies. B) The stamp tax raised the price of paper goods sold in the colonies. C) Colonists believed that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies. D) Parliament had not warned the colonies about the new stamp tax in advance. Answer: C) Colonists believed that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies.

11 5.3 Continued… The Quartering Act *1765 Parliament passes act ordering colonists to provide British troops with housing and supplies (candles, firing, bedding, cooking utensils, salt, vinegar, and beer or cider). *Colonists protest this act as another tax. *Tempers rise on both sides of the Atlantic. The Quartering Act *1765 Parliament passes act ordering colonists to provide British troops with housing and supplies (candles, firing, bedding, cooking utensils, salt, vinegar, and beer or cider). *Colonists protest this act as another tax. *Tempers rise on both sides of the Atlantic.

12 5.4 The Townsend Acts *1767 New British Prime Minister Charles Townsend persuades Parliament to place taxes on certain goods the colonies import from Britain, including glass, paint, paper, and tea. A notice to the public from Simeon Coley regarding the duties imposed by Lord Townsend. Simeon Coley was a colonial silversmith. *1767 New British Prime Minister Charles Townsend persuades Parliament to place taxes on certain goods the colonies import from Britain, including glass, paint, paper, and tea. A notice to the public from Simeon Coley regarding the duties imposed by Lord Townsend. Simeon Coley was a colonial silversmith.

13 5.4 Continued… A boycott of British Goods *Boston Patriot Samuel Adams leads opposition to the Townsend Acts. *All of the colonies agree to boycott Samuel Adams (refuse to buy one or more goods from a single source) British goods. Repeal of the Townsend Acts *1770 new British Prime Minister Lord North persuades Parliament to repeal all of the Townsend duties (taxes) except one, the tax on tea. Punishment to tax collectors, 1770’s A boycott of British Goods *Boston Patriot Samuel Adams leads opposition to the Townsend Acts. *All of the colonies agree to boycott Samuel Adams (refuse to buy one or more goods from a single source) British goods. Repeal of the Townsend Acts *1770 new British Prime Minister Lord North persuades Parliament to repeal all of the Townsend duties (taxes) except one, the tax on tea. Punishment to tax collectors, 1770’s

14 Test Prep. The Townshend Acts and the Tea Act were… A) opposed as “taxation without representation” by most colonists. B) approved by most Patriots, but opposed by most Loyalists. C) failures because they raised the price of goods too high for colonists to buy. D) accepted and obeyed by all but a few hotheads in Boston. Answer: A) opposed as “taxation without representation” by most colonists. The Townshend Acts and the Tea Act were… A) opposed as “taxation without representation” by most colonists. B) approved by most Patriots, but opposed by most Loyalists. C) failures because they raised the price of goods too high for colonists to buy. D) accepted and obeyed by all but a few hotheads in Boston. Answer: A) opposed as “taxation without representation” by most colonists.

15 5.5 Boston Massacre Mob Violence Breaks Out *March 5, 1770 a crowd begins throwing rocks at British troops guarding the Boston Customs House. *Troops panic and open fire. *Five Boston citizens are killed in the massacre. Massacre or Self-Defense? *Patriots see the Boston Massacre as proof that the British should pull out all their troops from the colonies. *Loyalists see the massacre as proof that troops are needed more than ever to control the Patriots. *Murder trial is held; two troops found guilty of manslaughter. Mob Violence Breaks Out *March 5, 1770 a crowd begins throwing rocks at British troops guarding the Boston Customs House. *Troops panic and open fire. *Five Boston citizens are killed in the massacre. Massacre or Self-Defense? *Patriots see the Boston Massacre as proof that the British should pull out all their troops from the colonies. *Loyalists see the massacre as proof that troops are needed more than ever to control the Patriots. *Murder trial is held; two troops found guilty of manslaughter.

16 This is an actual notice of the trial of the soldiers accused of murdering five people in Boston on March 5, Notice the date on the bottom of the Page, MDCCLXX. Those are Roman numerals for the year one thousand, seven hundred and seventy. This is an actual notice of the trial of the soldiers accused of murdering five people in Boston on March 5, Notice the date on the bottom of the Page, MDCCLXX. Those are Roman numerals for the year one thousand, seven hundred and seventy.

17 Test Prep. The Boston Massacre was a… A) smallpox epidemic that killed a large number of Native Americans. B) noisy protest against the Stamp Act by the Sons of Liberty in Boston. C) fierce battle that took place in Boston during the French and Indian War. D) deadly riot between colonists and British troops stationed in Boston. Answer: D) deadly riot between colonists and British troops stationed in Boston. The Boston Massacre was a… A) smallpox epidemic that killed a large number of Native Americans. B) noisy protest against the Stamp Act by the Sons of Liberty in Boston. C) fierce battle that took place in Boston during the French and Indian War. D) deadly riot between colonists and British troops stationed in Boston. Answer: D) deadly riot between colonists and British troops stationed in Boston.

18 5.6 Boston Tea Party Tea Act of 1773 *Lowers the cost of tea that is sold by the British East India Company in the colonies. *Gives the British East India Company a monopoly (complete control) over tea sales in the colonies. *Colonists see this as another attempt to tax them without their consent. Tea Ships Arrive *December 16, 1773 about 50 men dressed as Mohawk Indians board three British ships and dump 90,000 lbs of tea overboard. *Boston Tea Party serves to excite and unify the Patriots even more. Tea Act of 1773 *Lowers the cost of tea that is sold by the British East India Company in the colonies. *Gives the British East India Company a monopoly (complete control) over tea sales in the colonies. *Colonists see this as another attempt to tax them without their consent. Tea Ships Arrive *December 16, 1773 about 50 men dressed as Mohawk Indians board three British ships and dump 90,000 lbs of tea overboard. *Boston Tea Party serves to excite and unify the Patriots even more.

19 5.7 The Intolerable Acts Parliament Punishes Massachusetts Angered by the Boston Tea Party, British Parliament passes a new series of laws in 1774 so harsh that many colonists consider them “intolerable.” First law closes Boston Harbor to all shipping until ruined tea is paid for. Second law places Massachusetts under British control. Third law says that British soldiers accused of murder will be tried in England, not in the colonies. More troops are sent to Boston to enforce the new laws. Parliament Punishes Massachusetts Angered by the Boston Tea Party, British Parliament passes a new series of laws in 1774 so harsh that many colonists consider them “intolerable.” First law closes Boston Harbor to all shipping until ruined tea is paid for. Second law places Massachusetts under British control. Third law says that British soldiers accused of murder will be tried in England, not in the colonies. More troops are sent to Boston to enforce the new laws.

20 5.7 Continued… The Colonies begin to Unite *Merchants in other cities show their support for Boston by closing their shops. *Virginia calls for a congress of delegates from all the colonies. The First Continental Congress *September 1774, 50 leaders from 12 colonies meet in Philadelphia. *Patrick Henry from Virginia declares, “I am not a Virginian, I am an American.” *Delegates agree to send a Carpenters Hall, respectful message to King Philadelphia George urging him to recognize their rights. *Delegates also call for a boycott of British goods until Parliament repeals the Intolerable Acts. *They also agree to meet the following May if the boycott doesn’t work. The Colonies begin to Unite *Merchants in other cities show their support for Boston by closing their shops. *Virginia calls for a congress of delegates from all the colonies. The First Continental Congress *September 1774, 50 leaders from 12 colonies meet in Philadelphia. *Patrick Henry from Virginia declares, “I am not a Virginian, I am an American.” *Delegates agree to send a Carpenters Hall, respectful message to King Philadelphia George urging him to recognize their rights. *Delegates also call for a boycott of British goods until Parliament repeals the Intolerable Acts. *They also agree to meet the following May if the boycott doesn’t work.

21 5.7 Continued… The Colonies Form Militias *In towns and cities throughout the colonies, Patriots appoint committees to enforce the boycott. *They also begin organizing local militias. *New England volunteers call themselves Minutemen because they can be ready to fight in just 60 seconds. *Rather than forcing the colonies to give in, the Intolerable Acts bring the two sides to the brink of war. The Colonies Form Militias *In towns and cities throughout the colonies, Patriots appoint committees to enforce the boycott. *They also begin organizing local militias. *New England volunteers call themselves Minutemen because they can be ready to fight in just 60 seconds. *Rather than forcing the colonies to give in, the Intolerable Acts bring the two sides to the brink of war.

22 Test Prep. The Intolerable Acts… A) forced the colonies to give in to Britain. B) united the colonies against Britain. C) divided the colonies against each other. D) turned the colonies against Boston. Answer: B) united the colonies against Britain. The Intolerable Acts… A) forced the colonies to give in to Britain. B) united the colonies against Britain. C) divided the colonies against each other. D) turned the colonies against Boston. Answer: B) united the colonies against Britain.

23 5.8 Lexington and Concord *Rather than consider the colonists’ complaints, King George refuses to answer their message. *April 1775 British General Gage orders 700 troops to Concord to seize the colonists’ supply of gunpowder and weapons. *Paul Revere and William Dawes ride through the countryside warning the colonists that the British were coming. *Minutemen meet the British at Lexington. Both sides open fire; eight colonists die, and the British march on to Concord. “If they mean to have war, let it begin here!” *Rather than consider the colonists’ complaints, King George refuses to answer their message. *April 1775 British General Gage orders 700 troops to Concord to seize the colonists’ supply of gunpowder and weapons. *Paul Revere and William Dawes ride through the countryside warning the colonists that the British were coming. *Minutemen meet the British at Lexington. Both sides open fire; eight colonists die, and the British march on to Concord. “If they mean to have war, let it begin here!” Paul Revere’s Ride

24 5.8 Continued… *British are in Concord by breakfast time. *Captain Isaac Davis marches his volunteers down to meet the British. *Both armies meet at Concord’s North Bridge. *Davis is killed with a bullet to the heart. *Minutemen stand their ground and fire back. Redcoats retreat in panic. *As British return to Boston, Minutemen Captain Davis fatally shot at Concord Bridge line the route and shoot them at every chance they get. By the end of the day 74 British soldiers are dead and another 200 are wounded or missing. *At Lexington and Concord, Americans prove they are not only willing to fight for their rights, they are willing to die for them. Minutemen firing on the British *British are in Concord by breakfast time. *Captain Isaac Davis marches his volunteers down to meet the British. *Both armies meet at Concord’s North Bridge. *Davis is killed with a bullet to the heart. *Minutemen stand their ground and fire back. Redcoats retreat in panic. *As British return to Boston, Minutemen Captain Davis fatally shot at Concord Bridge line the route and shoot them at every chance they get. By the end of the day 74 British soldiers are dead and another 200 are wounded or missing. *At Lexington and Concord, Americans prove they are not only willing to fight for their rights, they are willing to die for them. Minutemen firing on the British

25 Test Prep. The clashes between colonists and British troops at Lexington and Concord proved that… A) General Gage was a weak military leader. B) colonists no longer felt any loyalty to Great Britain. C) Americans were willing to fight for the right to govern themselves. D) militia troops were no match for well-trained British soldiers. Answer: C) Americans were willing to fight for the right to govern themselves. The clashes between colonists and British troops at Lexington and Concord proved that… A) General Gage was a weak military leader. B) colonists no longer felt any loyalty to Great Britain. C) Americans were willing to fight for the right to govern themselves. D) militia troops were no match for well-trained British soldiers. Answer: C) Americans were willing to fight for the right to govern themselves.

26 5.9 Chapter Summary *The French and Indian War leaves Britain with huge debts. *Parliament tries to deal with this by imposing new taxes and laws. *These actions divide the colonists into opposing camps. *Patriots want liberty *Loyalists urge obedience to Britain. *1774 Delegates meet at the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Send formal complaint to the King. Liberty poles used to promote patriotism *Patriots form militias to defend themselves. *At Lexington and Concord, Patriots show they would rather fight than give up their rights. *The French and Indian War leaves Britain with huge debts. *Parliament tries to deal with this by imposing new taxes and laws. *These actions divide the colonists into opposing camps. *Patriots want liberty *Loyalists urge obedience to Britain. *1774 Delegates meet at the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Send formal complaint to the King. Liberty poles used to promote patriotism *Patriots form militias to defend themselves. *At Lexington and Concord, Patriots show they would rather fight than give up their rights.


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