Presentation on theme: "Origins of American Government ____________________ Government 2011 Mrs. Shepherd."— Presentation transcript:
Origins of American Government ____________________ Government 2011 Mrs. Shepherd
Sections Our Political Beginnings Colonial Discontent Declaration of Independence Articles of Confederation Constitutional Convention
Our Political Beginnings I.Basic Concepts of Government A.Ordered Government B.Limited Government C.Representative Government II.Important English Documents A.Magna Carta B.The Petition of Right C.The English Bill of Rights III.The English Colonies A.Royal Colonies B.Charter Colonies C.Proprietary Colonies
Basic Concepts of Government The earliest English settlers brought with them three ideas from British Government: Ordered Government -The colonists saw a need for an orderly regulated government. Many of the offices they established are still with us today: sheriff, coroner, justice of peace. Limited Government -The colonists believed that the government should not be too all powerful. They believed the government should be restricted in what they do and that individuals have rights the government may not restrict. Representative Government -They believed that the government should answer to the will of the people.
Important English Documents Magna Carta (1215) –King John was forced to sign this to limit the power of the monarchy. Determined the monarchy did not have absolute power. Petition of Right (1628) –King Charles I was forced by Parliament to sign. It further restricted the monarchs power and challenged the divine right of kings theory. English Bill of Rights (1688) –Signed by William and Mary. Included guarantee to fair and speedy trial, freedom from excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment, and restricted the monarchs taxing power.
The English Colonies The royal colonies were ruled directly by the English monarchy. The royal colonies were: NH, MA, NY, NJ, VA, NC, SC, GA. Each colony was ran by a governor who acted for the king and had a bicameral legislature. The King granted land to people in North America, who then formed proprietary colonies. The proprietary colonies were: MD, DE, PA. They were ran by a proprietor and had a bicameral legislature with the exception of PA who had a unicameral legislature. The charter colonies were mostly self-governed, and their charters were granted directly to the colonists. The charter colonies were: CT, RI. They had governors and a bicameral legislature but were allowed more freedoms from the king unlike the royal and proprietary colonies.
Colonial Discontent I.Britain’s Colonial Policies A.King George III B.French and Indian War II.Growing Colonial Unity A.Early Attempts B.The Albany Plan C.Stamp Act Congress III.The First Continental Congress IV.The Second Continental Congress A.Representatives B.First National Government V.The Declaration of Independence
Britain’s Colonial Policies Until the mid-1700s, the colonies were allowed a great deal of freedom in their governments by the English monarchy. In 1760, King George III imposed new taxes and laws on the colonists. These taxes became even stricter after the French and Indian War ( ). “No Taxation without Representation”
Growing Colonial Unity Early Attempts –In 1643, several New England settlements formed the New England Confederation. –Formed a “league of friendship” for defense against Native Americans. –Dissolved in The Albany Plan –In 1754, Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union, in which an annual congress of delegates (representatives) from each of the 13 colonies would be formed. –Discussed trade between the colonies and defense against Native Americans. Franklin wanted the colonies to have power to raise an army. –Colonies turned it down and refused to send to the king.
Growing Colonial Unity The Stamp Act Congress –Great Britain imposed the Stamp Act in the law required an official stamp on all legal documents, including newspapers. –In 1765, 9 colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York. –These delegates prepared the Declaration of Rights and Grievances against British policies and sent it to the king. –Parliament repealed the act but still taxed the colonies heavily and increased the troop presence in major cities. –The colonist began to form mobs and boycotted British goods. Boston Massacre (March 5, 1770) –Killed 5 people Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773)
First Continental Congress –In the Spring of 1774, the British passed the Intolerable Acts to punish the colonists –Delegates from every colony except GA met in Philadelphia for the 1 st Continental Congress. –The colonists sent a Declaration of Rights to King George III. –The delegates urged each of the colonies to refuse all trade with England until British tax and trade regulations were repealed, or recalled. –Eventually all colonies, including GA gave their support to the 1 st Continental Congress.
Second Continental Congress –Revolution began April 19, “Shot heard round the world.” Battles of Lexington and Concord. –May 10,1775- each of the 13 colonies sent representatives to this gathering in Philadelphia. –Most of the representatives were at the 1 st Continental Congress. Newcomers: Benjamin Franklin and John Hancock. Hancock was chosen President of the Congress. –The first order of business was to create an army and chose George Washington as commander in chief. –The Second Continental Congress served as the first government of the United States from 1776 to 1781.
Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence has three parts: statement of purpose (including a description of basic human rights) a list of specific complaints against King George III a statement of the colonists’ determination to separate from Great Britain. Written mostly by Thomas Jefferson. Borrowed ideas from VA Constitution. There was a 5 person committee. On July 4, 1776, Congress approved the final text of the Declaration. It wasn’t signed until August 2, changes made to the document. One of the changes was to remove the criticism of the British Slave Trade. SC signers: Edward Rutledge Arthur Middleton Thomas Lynch, Jr. Thomas Heyward, Jr.Edward RutledgeArthur MiddletonThomas Lynch, Jr.Thomas Heyward, Jr
Articles of Confederation I.Overview II.Powers III.Obligations IV.Weaknesses V.Need for a Stronger Government
Articles of Confederation On November 15, 1777, the Articles of Confederation were approved. It established “A firm league of friendship” among the states. Each state maintained “its sovereignty, freedom, and independence”
Articles of Confederation It was ratified (approved by all 13 states) on March 1, Powers: Congress (unicameral) was given the power to declare war, deal with national finance issues, and settle disputes among the States. Obligations: The States promised to obey Congress, and to respect the laws of the other States. Most other powers were retained by each State.
Articles of Confederation Weaknesses One vote for each state, regardless of size. Congress did not have power to tax. Congress could not regulate foreign and interstate trade. No executive branch. No national court. Amendments had to be voted unanimously. 9/13 vote to pass laws.
The need for a stronger government States bickered and wouldn’t support the newly formed government. They taxed each other’s goods and some banned trade. Economic chaos broke out. Shay’s Rebellion: Due to poor economic conditions, owners began to lose land and possessions because they couldn’t pay taxes and other debts. In the fall of 1786, Daniel Shays led an armed uprising that forced several state judges to close their courts. Early the next year, he led an unsuccessful attack against a federal arsenal. He was eventually forced to flee but his uprisings showed the weakness of the national government.
The need for a stronger government Representatives from Maryland and Virginia met at Mount Vernon, Virginia, in 1785 to discuss trade issues. The meeting was so successful that the Virginia General Assembly requested a meeting of all thirteen States, which eventually became the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
Constitutional Convention I.The Convention Begins A.Framers B.Organization C.Procedures II.Decisions and Compromises A.Virginia Plan B.New Jersey Plan C.Connecticut Compromise D.3/5 Compromise E.Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise III.Ratifying the Constitution A.Federalists v. Anti-federalists B.Progress towards Ratification C.Inaugurating the New Government
Framers All states except RI sent delegates to the Constitutional Convention. 55 delegates attended the convention. 6 had signed the Articles of Confederation. 8 signed the Declaration of Independence. 39 had served in the Confederation Congress. James Madison of Virginia is known as the “Father of the Constitution because he was the author of the basic plan that the Convention adopted.
Organization Met in Philadelphia May 25, 1787-September 17, 1787 George Washington was chosen as the President of the Convention. Simple majority of the states were needed to conduct business. Each state had one vote.
Procedures The delegates worked in secrecy to protect themselves from outside pressure. The present knowledge of the convention came from delegates journals. The best kept journal was kept by James Madison. They met 89 days. Originally they met to revise the Articles of Confederation. They then realized a new order of Government was needed. May 30 th they passed a resolution to replace the Articles of Confederation.
Decisions and Compromises The Virginia Plan –Designed by James Madison –Called for a government with three separate branches. – Congress would be bicameral with representation in both houses based on population. The House would be chosen by the people and the Senate would be chosen by the House. –Congress was given all the powers under the Articles and they were given power over the States. The New Jersey Plan –Designed by William Paterson –They were worried about the representation of the smaller states. They proposed a unicameral Congress with each state equally represented. They also proposed Congress have the power to tax and to regulate trade between states. –They also wanted an executive branch with more than 1 person.
Decisions and Compromises The Connecticut Compromise –It was agreed that Congress would be bicameral with House represented on population and the Senate had equal representation. –Often called the “Great Compromise.” The Three-Fifths Compromise –If the house was based on population, how would they count slaves? –It was settled that slaves counted as 3/5 a person which gave Southern states an edge in Congress. So to even things out, they were also forced to pay higher taxes. –Abolished by the 13th amendment. The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise –The South was worried about their agricultural products and Congress interference with the slave trade. –Denied Congress the power to tax exports or act on the slave trade for 20 years. It protected slave-holders.
Ratifying the Constitution Approved on 9/17/1787 and then the document was sent to the states for approval. 9 out of 13 states had to ratify it for it to go into effect. Two groups emerged over the debate to ratify the Constitution.
The Nation’s First 2 Political Parties Federalists –In favor of ratification. –Led by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton –Stressed the weaknesses of the Articles of Conf. Anti-Federalists –Against ratification –Led by John Hancock, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, Thomas Jefferson –Attacked the Constitution because: No Bill of Rights Central government too strong
Ratification Delaware - December 7, 1787 Pennsylvania - December 12, 1787 New Jersey - December 18, 1787 Georgia - January 2, 1788 Connecticut - January 9, 1788 Massachusetts - February 6, 1788 Maryland - April 28, 1788 South Carolina - May 23, 1788 New Hampshire - June 21, 1788 Virginia - June 25, 1788 New York - July 26, 1788 North Carolina - November 21, 1789 Rhode Island - May 29, 1790 The Constitution went into effect after New Hampshire ratified it. But the framers would not put it into effect without the support of the 2 most powerful states: NY and VA VA finally ratified after the support of George Washington. He persuaded Jefferson to sign. Hamilton and Madison published The Federalist, a collection of essays to persuade NY to ratify.
The New Government New York chosen as first temporary capitol. The newly chosen Congress met for the first time on March 4, 1789 on Wall Street at Federal Hall. On April 6, George Washington was unanimously elected President of the United States. April 30, Washington took the oath of office at Mt. Vernon Bill of Rights added to the Constitution.