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Creation and Ratification of the Constitution

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Presentation on theme: "Creation and Ratification of the Constitution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Creation and Ratification of the Constitution

2 The Convention Convenes
Meets in Philadelphia in the Pennsylvania State House, now called Independence Hall Intended to revise Articles of Confederation Instead decided to scrap the Articles and start over 75% of the men had been in the Continental Congress 55 delegates in all attend Meet in secrecy

3 The Convention Convenes
George Washington elected President of the Convention James Madison (VA) kept notes and does much of the writing of the Constitution Ben Franklin attends Thomas Jefferson and John Adams are notable absences from the conventions Both are Europe representing the country as ambassadors Jefferson is in France Adams is in England

4 Major Issues Addressed
Government strong enough to protect rights of the people but not too strong to be controlled Structure of Government Congressional Representation Slavery and population Regulation of Trade

5 Structure of Government
Three Branches of Government Executive: enforce the laws Legislative: make the laws Judicial: interpret the laws

6 Structure of Government Two Plans
Virginia Plan Bicameral Legislature Number of representatives in each house would be based on states population and/or wealth Legislature would have power to tax, regulate trade and make laws that states are unable to make

7 Structure of Government Two Plans
New Jersey Plan Single house Legislature Each state would have one vote Similar to Articles of Confederation Legislature would have power to tax, regulate trade and make laws that states are unable to make

8 Congressional Representation
Great Compromise Compromise between the Virginia and New Jersey plans for representation Legislature would be Bicameral Senate – 2 representatives per state House of Representatives – representation based on population

9 Regulation of Trade Congress would have power to regulate trade with foreign nations, amongst the states and with Native Americans Congress can tax imports Congress NOT allowed to tax exports Southern economy is based on exports of tobacco, cotton etc. Congress would not regulate the slave trade for at least 20 years – until 1808

10 Slavery and Population
Disagreement on how to count slaves as part of population for the purpose of taxation and representation South wanted slaves counted as population for representation but not taxation North wanted slaves counted for taxation but not population

11 Slavery and Population
Three-Fifths Compromise Every 5 slaves would count as 3 free persons when calculating population for taxation and for representation

12 Signing of the Constitution
September 17, 1787 Sent to states for ratification Had to have ¾ of states approval to become law of the land


14 Preamble “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

15 Approving the Constitution
Article VII - Ratification The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

16 Words we need to understand
Ratification – the act of giving formal approval or consent to When we talk about ratification it implies that the issue requires a vote for approval Convention – a meeting or formal assembly, as of representatives or delegates, for discussion of and action on particular matters of common concern.

17 Ratification in 1787 & early 1788
Ratification of the Constitution -- dates, states and votes -- Date State Votes Yes No 1 December 7, 1787 Delaware 30 2 December 11, 1787 Pennsylvania 46 23 3 December 18, 1787 New Jersey 38 4 January 2, 1788 Georgia 26 5 January 9, 1788 Connecticut 128 40 6 February 6, 1788 Massachusetts 187 168 7 April 26, 1788 Maryland 63 11 8 May 23, 1788 South Carolina 149 73

18 Constitutional Crisis
New Hampshire ratifies June 21, 1788 making the Constitution officially the new government, but… Big fight in both New York and Virginia, the 2 largest states (population), over ratification Each convention has large groups of Antifederalist delegates

19 Pro Constitution - Federalists
James Madison Alexander Hamilton John Jay

20 The Federalist Papers Published starting in October 1787
85 total essays published anonymously under the name PUBLIUS in New York Intended to gain support from ratification delegates to New York convention

21 The Federalist Papers Book form published in 1788
Scholars believe that Hamilton wrote 52, Madison wrote 28, and Jay 5 of the essays Still used today to explain what the writers of the Constitution meant Ad for purchasing of copies of the Federalist Papers

22 Anti Constitution - Antifederalist
Patrick Henry Leading patriot from Revolution He had refused to attend the Constitutional Convention “I smell a rat” Led the fight against ratification in Virginia Patrick Henry

23 Anti Constitution George Mason
Wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights (Virginia’s version of the bill of rights) in 1776 Attended the Constitutional Convention but refused to sign the final document

24 Opposition to the Constitution

25 Conflict Comes to an End
Ratification of the Constitution -- dates, states and votes -- Date State Votes Yes No 9 June 21, 1788 New Hampshire 57 47 10 June 25, 1788 Virginia 89 79 11 July 26, 1788 New York 30 27 George Washington becomes the nation’s 1st president April 30, 1789 12 November 21, 1789 North Carolina 194 77 13 May 29, 1790 Rhode Island 34 32

26 The Bill of Rights Amendment process - Process to make changes to the constitution as the needs of the country changed 1791 – first ten amendments to the constitution were created as the “Bill of Rights” Amendment Process Proposed in Congress 2/3 Congress vote yes ¾ state legislatures vote yes = APPROVED

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