3The American Revolution Reorganization, Resistance, and RebellionBritain’s victory in the Seven Years’ War50% of adult male population can voteBritish raise taxes on colonists to increase revenueIndirect political representation in England“No taxation without representation”Boston Tea PartyWar for IndependenceColonists were initially divided over revolting against BritainThomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776Declaration of Independence, 1776Battle of Saratoga, 1777Commitment of European aidBattle of Yorktown, 1781Surrender of CornwalisPeace of Paris, 1783
4The American Revolution (cont) French supportAided colonists with money and troopsFrench army and navy helped the colonists defeat British General Cornwallis at YorktownForming a New NationArticles of Confederation,Constitution, 1789Bill of Rights, 1791Checks and BalancesImpact of the American Revolution on EuropeConcept of freedomConcept of rightsFrench army and navy officers brought American political and moral ideas back to Europe
5Possible Test Question When the American Revolution began,Almost all of the colonists were united in favor of independence.Almost all of the colonists were against independence, but were soon convinced by the propaganda of a small elite group.The colonists feared the kind of blood-bath that had engulfed France during the French Revolution.The Loyalists argued in favor of separation from Great Britain.The colonials were deeply divided among themselves about revolting against Britain.
6Possible Test Question The colonists won their war for independence due toGenerous military and financial aid from various European states, especially France.The collapse of the English colonial system.Apathy of the English military.Flaws in the English mercantile system.B and C.
7Possible Test Question A key conduit of “enlightened” American political and moral ideas back to Europe was formed byReturning British prisoners of war.The hundreds of literate and influential French army and navy officers who had fought on the American side during the Revolutionary War.European nobles returning from expeditions to the new American frontier.Missionary priests returning from evangelical campaigns deep in the U.S. back country.Official proclamations sent to the governments of Europe by George Washington and other Americans.
8Background to the French Rev Social Structure of the Old RegimeFirst and Second Estates dominated societyFirst Estate = clergy (130,000)Owned 10% of landExempt from France’s chief taxSecond Estate = nobility (350,000)Owned 25-30% of the landExempt from taille or taxFrench economy was growing in the 18th century, but money was not distributed to equal segments of society.
9The Third Estate Commoners Peasants = 75-80% of the populationPeasants own 35-40% of the landSerfdom was over, but peasants still paid to use village facilities such as flour mill, community oven,Paid taxesSkilled artisans, shopkeepers, and wage earnersBourgeoisie (middle class) (8% or 2.3 million)Own 20-25% of the landMerchants, industrialists, bankers, lawyers, doctors, writersSimilarities between wealthier bourgeoisie and nobility
10Possible Test Question By the eighteenth century, the French bourgeoisie and nobility wereGrowing further apart in social status.Increasingly less distinguishable from each other.Rapidly losing social status to the third estate.Openly hostile and frequently involved in street battles.Almost completely dominated by the clergy of the First Estate.
12Other Problems Facing the French Monarchy Bad Harvests (1787 and 1788)Food shortages & rising price of food (bread)PovertyOne-third of the population was poorIdeas of the PhilosophesCriticism of privileges of the clergy and nobilityEnlightenment writers (especially Rouseau) were influentialFailure to ReformObstruction of reform by the French ParlementsFinancial Crisis (immediate cause of French Revolution)Mounting debtCalonne’s “assembly of notables” (1787) (nobles, prelates, magistrates)Refused to cooperate with the kingSummoning of the Estates General (1789)Virtually consenting that public approval was necessary to raise taxes
13Possible Test Question The most immediate cause of the French Revolution wasThe government’s failure to resolve its debts and other economic problems.The blocking of attempted reforms by the French Parlements.The radical calls of the philosophes for reform.Louis XVI’s rejection of the cahiers de doleances.Violent uprisings by the common people who were demanding political and economic equality.
14From Estates-General to a National Assembly 300 delegates each to the First and Second EstateApprox. 90 of the nobles were liberal minded (Enlightenment)600 delegates to the Third EstateStrong legal and urban presenceCahiers de doléances (statements of local grievances)Advocated a regular constitutional government that would abolish fiscal privileges of the church and nobility
15Possible Test Question In 1789, the Estates-General wasLouis XVI’s parliamentary body often consulted by the king.In unanimous agreement that only radical changes could solve France’s problems.Dominated by the first estate composed mostly of urban lawyers.Unanimously in agreement about the necessity of immediately creating a “National Assembly.”Divided over the issue of voting by “orders” or by “head.”
16Possible Test Questions The cahiers de doleances called forAbolishing the fiscal privileges of the church and nobility.The abolition of the Estates-General.The royal execution of all rebels in France.Universal voting privileges for all French people.The beheading of Louis XVI.
17Estates General meets May 5, 1789 Question of voting by order or headThird Estate wanted to vote by head (double the representatives)Third Estate wanted to make a single chamber legislatureAbbé Sieyès “What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been thus far in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something.”Sieyes desired the Third Estate to have a voice in the Estates General
18Third EstateJune 17, 1789 – Declares itself a National Assembly and decides to draw up a constitutionDoors were locked to the meeting place so they met at an indoor Tennis CourtTennis Court Oath, June 20Would continue to meet until they had a French ConstitutionIntervention of the Common PeopleAttack on the Bastille, July 14 (arsenal & prison)Peasant rebellions, July 19-August 3Collapse of Royal Authority – saved the National AssemblyGreat Fear - fear of invasion by foreign troops aided by an aristocratic plotLed to formation of more citizen militiasFrench Revolutionary slogan “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!”
20Destruction of the Old Regime Seigneurial (manorialism) rights abolished, August 4, 1789Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenAugust 26Listed basic libertiesCalled for an end to aristocratic privilegesGave women increased rights but not political rightsDrew from the American Declaration of IndependenceOlympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, 1791Wanted equal rights for women in politicsWas ignored by the menThe Women’s March to VersaillesOctober 5, 1789Oct. 6, 1789 Return of the king to Paris
21Possible Test Question The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the CitizenWas drawn up by the monarchy to limit freedoms.Was rejected by those influenced by the Enlightenment.Owed much to the ideas of the American Declaration of Independence.Allowed for aristocratic privileges to endure in France.Was an anti-Lockean document.
22Possible Test Question The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female CitizenBecame law by popular vote of the National Assembly.Was ignored entirely by the males in the National Assembly who did little to improve the lot of women in French society.Caused massive riots in its defense by ordinary men and women, especially in cities.Was fully accepted by the crown and its ministers and then became enforceable law.Was harshly criticized by Mary Wollstonecraft as not being sufficiently revolutionary.
23Accomplishments of the National Assembly Issue the Declaration of the Rights of ManCivil Constitution of the ClergyReform of French voting proceduresAbolishment of divine right monarchy
24Destruction of the Old Regime (cont) The Catholic ChurchCivil Constitution of the Clergy, July, 1790Clergy were to take an oath of allegiance to the Civil Constitution54% did, creating a religious opposition to the revolutionA New ConstitutionEstablishment of a constitutional monarchy with real power residing in the Legislative AssemblyAdministrative restructuringOpposition from WithinGrowth of opposition to new orderClergyPeasantsRadical political clubsJacobinsContinuing financial pressureComposition of Legislative AssemblyClerics and nobles were goneMost members were land owning men and lawyers
25Possible Test Question What type of government was established in France by 1791?DictatorshipRepublicDemocracyConstitutional monarchysocialist
26Opposition from Abroad Declaration of Pillnitz (1791) Austria & Prussia wanted other European nations to help strengthen Louis XVI’s hold on the monarchyDeclaration of war on Austria, April 20, 1792Legislative Assembly declared war on AustriaEarly course of the warFrance lost many early battles in the warThe tide of the war will change with the rise of nationalism and a young general named Napoleon
27The Radical Revolution National Convention, September 1792Appointed Georges Danton as minister of justiceUniversal male suffrageAbolition of the monarchy, September 21Sans-culottes sought revenge on those who had aided the kingSans-culottes – ordinary patriots without fine clothes (without pants)Domestic CrisisFactions of the JacobinsGirondins (provinces)The Mountain (city of Paris)Execution of Louis XVI, January 21, 1793The Commune represented the city’s artisans and shopkeepersStormed the national convention & executed leading GirondinsCounterrevolutionPeasants of Vendee repudiated the authority of the conventionThe Vendean Rebellion favored the King & the clergyVendee – peasants who revolted against the military draft
28Foreign Crisis Foreign Crisis A Nation in Arms Informal coalition of Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, & the Dutch Republic were against FranceCommittee of Public SafetyGiven power to curb anarchy & counterrevolution at homeLed by Danton and RobespierreMilitary losses MountedA Nation in ArmsUniversal mobilization of the nationRise of NationalismRaised the largest army in European historyThe main accomplishment of the National Convention was preserving the Revolution from being destroyed by foreign enemies
31Map 19.2: The French Conquests during the Revolutionary Wars
32The Reign of Terror & Its Aftermath Committee of Public Safety and Reign of TerrorJuly 1793-July 1794Vendée – areas of rebellion had the highest death rateTerror demonstrated no class prejudiceMajority of the victims were from the peasant and laboring classesWent after Royalists, Girondins, Vendee“Republic of Virtue”Price controlsUsed goods requisitioned from the country for the citiesWomenAlthough women contributed to the revolution, they were still limited politically
33Possible Test Question During the Reign of Terror, the majority of the victims wereNobles.Clergy.Middle class.Peasant and laboring classes.The bourgeoisie.
34Dechristianization and a New Calendar Word saint was removed from streetsRenamed months & Days (10 Day week)Removed Christian holidaysDechristianization failed because France was still a Catholic countryCreated more enemies than friendsEquality and SlaveryRevolt in Saint Dominigue (Haiti)Slave revolt was put down but started up again forming the first independent state in Latin America – HaitiInspired by the ideals of the RevolutionDecline of the Committee of Public SafetyExecution of Maximilien Robespierre, July 28, 1794Opposition grew out of fear that they were not safe while Robespierre was free to actHis death brought an end to the radical stage of the French Revolution
35Possible Test Question In regard to religion, the National ConventionTook measures to strengthen the Roman Catholic Church.Issued an edict allowing for total religious freedom.Took measures to dechristianize the republic.Made the republic completely atheistic.Expelled the Jews from France.
37Reaction and the Directory Thermidorian Reaction and the DirectoryCurtails much of the Terror’s policiesShut down the Jacobin club and limits the power of the Committee of Public SafetyConservative turn of the RevolutionChurches reopenedLaissez-faire policies adoptedConstitution of 1795Council of Elders (upper house) elects 5 members to act as executive authority or DirectoryArmy was used to disperse an insurrectionShowed that the Directory needed to rely on the military for survival
38Age of Napoleon Rise of Napoleon Born in Corsica, 1769 Commissioned a lieutenant, 1785Promoted to brigadier general, 1794Saved the National Convention from a Parisian mob, 1795Victory in Italy, 1797Defeat in Egypt, 1799Coup d’etat, 1799 (military takeover of government)
39Rise of NapoleonBorn as both a child of Enlightenment thought and of the French RevolutionInitially disliked by fellow officers and soldiers because he was short and had an Italian accentWell read in Enlightenment thought and military historyMarried Josephine, the wife of a guillotined generalRose quickly in the military ranks by defeating the armies of France’s enemies
40The Republic and the Empire Republic of France proclaimed, 1799First Consul – controlled the executive branchFirst Consul for life, 1802Crowned Emperor Napoleon I, 1804Domestic Policies of Emperor NapoleonNapoleon and the Catholic ChurchConcordat of 1801 ended tension with the churchStabilized Napoleon’s regimeChurch land was not returnedCatholicism was not reinstated as the state religion
41Possible Test Question The ConcordatAllowed for reforms in the French military.Reestablished the Catholic Church and gave the pope limited authority in France.Was part of Napoleon’s Civil Code.Reformed the French civil service.Established an absolute separation of church and state in France.
42A New Code of Laws Code Napoleon (Civil Code) Equality of all citizens before the lawRight of individuals to choose their professionsReligious tolerationAbolition of serfdom and feudalismProperty rights protectedOutlawed trade unionsRestored fathers control over their familiesDivorce was more difficult to obtainHusbands controlled property rightsCivil Code reaffirmed the ideals of the Revolution while creating a uniform legal system
43The French Bureaucracy Centralization of administration Prefects appointed by Napoleon supervised local governmentTaxes were collected by professional collectorsTax collection became systematic & efficientEveryone paid taxesBalanced budget in 1802Appointed people in civil or military office based on demonstrated abilityNapoleon created nobles from military & civil officers22% of Napoleon’s aristocracy came from the nobility of the old regime & 60% were of Bourgeois origin
44Growing despotism (Benevolent Despotism) He destroyed & preserved aspects of the RevolutionOpened up careers based on talentPreserved equalityCreated a new aristocracyStrong protection to property rightsUse of conscription for the militarySuspended freedom of pressShut down 60 of 73 newspapersAll manuscripts must be approved by the government before being publishedGovernment police opened mailExiled writer Germaine de Stael for her criticism of his despotic rule
46Napoleon’s Empire and the European Response Peace of Amiens, 1802 (temporary peace)Renewal of war, 1803Military victories,Napoleon’s Grand EmpireComposed of 3 different parts and united under Napoleon (French Empire, dependent states, allied states)Failure of the Grand EmpireProblems: Great Britain and NationalismSurvival of BritainSeapowerContinental System, – block British good from EuropeNationalism – spread nationalism to conquered territory, resulting in uprisings
47Possible Test Question Napoleon’s Grand EmpireWas composed of three different parts but united under the rule of Napoleon.Revived the power of the nobility and clergy in all its states.Included all of Europe with the defeat of Britain in 1805.Had no long-standing impact on the conquered countries.Was abolished by the Directory in 1799.
50The Fall of Napoleon Invasion of Russia, 1812 Invaded over their refusal to follow the Continental System600,000 soldiers attacked, 40,000 made it out aliveDefeat of Napoleon, April 1814Exiled to island of ElbaIsland off the coast of ItalyEscape from Elba, 1815Raised an armyBattle of Waterloo, June 18, 1815Exiled to St. HelenaSmall island in the South Atlantic (between South America and Africa)Napoleon died 6 years later
51Possible Test Question Napoleon met his final defeat at the Battle ofLeipzig.Borodino.Trafalgar.Austerlitz.Waterloo.