Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 A Revolution in Politics: The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 19 A Revolution in Politics: The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon
Map 19.1: North America,
The American Revolution Reorganization, Resistance, and Rebellion Britain’s victory in the Seven Years’ War 50% of adult male population can vote British raise taxes on colonists to increase revenue Indirect political representation in England “No taxation without representation” Boston Tea Party War for Independence Colonists were initially divided over revolting against Britain Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776 Declaration of Independence, 1776 Battle of Saratoga, 1777 Commitment of European aid Battle of Yorktown, 1781 Surrender of Cornwalis Peace of Paris, 1783
The American Revolution (cont) French support Aided colonists with money and troops French army and navy helped the colonists defeat British General Cornwallis at Yorktown Forming a New Nation Articles of Confederation, Constitution, 1789 Bill of Rights, 1791 Checks and Balances Impact of the American Revolution on Europe Concept of freedom Concept of rights French army and navy officers brought American political and moral ideas back to Europe
Possible Test Question When the American Revolution began, Almost all of the colonists were united in favor of independence. Almost all of the colonists were against independence, but were soon convinced by the propaganda of a small elite group. The colonists feared the kind of blood-bath that had engulfed France during the French Revolution. The Loyalists argued in favor of separation from Great Britain. The colonials were deeply divided among themselves about revolting against Britain.
Possible Test Question The colonists won their war for independence due to Generous military and financial aid from various European states, especially France. The collapse of the English colonial system. Apathy of the English military. Flaws in the English mercantile system. B and C.
Possible Test Question A key conduit of “enlightened” American political and moral ideas back to Europe was formed by Returning British prisoners of war. The hundreds of literate and influential French army and navy officers who had fought on the American side during the Revolutionary War. European nobles returning from expeditions to the new American frontier. Missionary priests returning from evangelical campaigns deep in the U.S. back country. Official proclamations sent to the governments of Europe by George Washington and other Americans.
Background to the French Rev Social Structure of the Old Regime First and Second Estates dominated society First Estate = clergy (130,000) Owned 10% of land Exempt from France’s chief tax Second Estate = nobility (350,000) Owned 25-30% of the land Exempt from taille or tax French economy was growing in the 18 th century, but money was not distributed to equal segments of society.
The Third Estate Commoners Peasants = 75-80% of the population Peasants own 35-40% of the land Serfdom was over, but peasants still paid to use village facilities such as flour mill, community oven, Paid taxes Skilled artisans, shopkeepers, and wage earners Bourgeoisie (middle class) (8% or 2.3 million) Own 20-25% of the land Merchants, industrialists, bankers, lawyers, doctors, writers Similarities between wealthier bourgeoisie and nobility
Possible Test Question By the eighteenth century, the French bourgeoisie and nobility were Growing further apart in social status. Increasingly less distinguishable from each other. Rapidly losing social status to the third estate. Openly hostile and frequently involved in street battles. Almost completely dominated by the clergy of the First Estate.
The Three Estates
Other Problems Facing the French Monarchy Bad Harvests (1787 and 1788) Food shortages & rising price of food (bread) Poverty One-third of the population was poor Ideas of the Philosophes Criticism of privileges of the clergy and nobility Enlightenment writers (especially Rouseau) were influential Failure to Reform Obstruction of reform by the French Parlements Financial Crisis (immediate cause of French Revolution) Mounting debt Calonne’s “assembly of notables” (1787) (nobles, prelates, magistrates) Refused to cooperate with the king Summoning of the Estates General (1789) Virtually consenting that public approval was necessary to raise taxes
Possible Test Question The most immediate cause of the French Revolution was The government’s failure to resolve its debts and other economic problems. The blocking of attempted reforms by the French Parlements. The radical calls of the philosophes for reform. Louis XVI’s rejection of the cahiers de doleances. Violent uprisings by the common people who were demanding political and economic equality.
From Estates-General to a National Assembly 300 delegates each to the First and Second Estate Approx. 90 of the nobles were liberal minded (Enlightenment) 600 delegates to the Third Estate Strong legal and urban presence Cahiers de doléances (statements of local grievances) Advocated a regular constitutional government that would abolish fiscal privileges of the church and nobility
Possible Test Question In 1789, the Estates-General was Louis XVI’s parliamentary body often consulted by the king. In unanimous agreement that only radical changes could solve France’s problems. Dominated by the first estate composed mostly of urban lawyers. Unanimously in agreement about the necessity of immediately creating a “National Assembly.” Divided over the issue of voting by “orders” or by “head.”
Possible Test Questions The cahiers de doleances called for Abolishing the fiscal privileges of the church and nobility. The abolition of the Estates-General. The royal execution of all rebels in France. Universal voting privileges for all French people. The beheading of Louis XVI.
Estates General meets May 5, 1789 Question of voting by order or head Third Estate wanted to vote by head (double the representatives) Third Estate wanted to make a single chamber legislature Abbé Sieyès “What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been thus far in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something.” Sieyes desired the Third Estate to have a voice in the Estates General
Third Estate June 17, 1789 – Declares itself a National Assembly and decides to draw up a constitution Doors were locked to the meeting place so they met at an indoor Tennis Court Tennis Court Oath, June 20 Would continue to meet until they had a French Constitution Intervention of the Common People Attack on the Bastille, July 14 (arsenal & prison) Peasant rebellions, July 19-August 3 Collapse of Royal Authority – saved the National Assembly Great Fear - fear of invasion by foreign troops aided by an aristocratic plot Led to formation of more citizen militias French Revolutionary slogan “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!”
The Tennis Court Oath
Destruction of the Old Regime Seigneurial (manorialism) rights abolished, August 4, 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen August 26 Listed basic liberties Called for an end to aristocratic privileges Gave women increased rights but not political rights Drew from the American Declaration of Independence Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, 1791 Wanted equal rights for women in politics Was ignored by the men The Women’s March to Versailles October 5, 1789 Oct. 6, 1789 Return of the king to Paris
Possible Test Question The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Was drawn up by the monarchy to limit freedoms. Was rejected by those influenced by the Enlightenment. Owed much to the ideas of the American Declaration of Independence. Allowed for aristocratic privileges to endure in France. Was an anti-Lockean document.
Possible Test Question The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen Became law by popular vote of the National Assembly. Was ignored entirely by the males in the National Assembly who did little to improve the lot of women in French society. Caused massive riots in its defense by ordinary men and women, especially in cities. Was fully accepted by the crown and its ministers and then became enforceable law. Was harshly criticized by Mary Wollstonecraft as not being sufficiently revolutionary.
Accomplishments of the National Assembly Issue the Declaration of the Rights of Man Civil Constitution of the Clergy Reform of French voting procedures Abolishment of divine right monarchy
Destruction of the Old Regime (cont) The Catholic Church Civil Constitution of the Clergy, July, 1790 Clergy were to take an oath of allegiance to the Civil Constitution 54% did, creating a religious opposition to the revolution A New Constitution Establishment of a constitutional monarchy with real power residing in the Legislative Assembly Administrative restructuring Opposition from Within Growth of opposition to new order Clergy Peasants Radical political clubs Jacobins Continuing financial pressure Composition of Legislative Assembly Clerics and nobles were gone Most members were land owning men and lawyers
Possible Test Question What type of government was established in France by 1791? Dictatorship Republic Democracy Constitutional monarchy socialist
Opposition from Abroad Declaration of Pillnitz (1791) Austria & Prussia wanted other European nations to help strengthen Louis XVI’s hold on the monarchy Declaration of war on Austria, April 20, 1792 Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria Early course of the war France lost many early battles in the war The tide of the war will change with the rise of nationalism and a young general named Napoleon
The Radical Revolution National Convention, September 1792 Appointed Georges Danton as minister of justice Universal male suffrage Abolition of the monarchy, September 21 Sans-culottes sought revenge on those who had aided the king Sans-culottes – ordinary patriots without fine clothes (without pants) Domestic Crisis Factions of the Jacobins Girondins (provinces) The Mountain (city of Paris) Execution of Louis XVI, January 21, 1793 The Commune represented the city’s artisans and shopkeepers Stormed the national convention & executed leading Girondins Counterrevolution Peasants of Vendee repudiated the authority of the convention The Vendean Rebellion favored the King & the clergy Vendee – peasants who revolted against the military draft
Foreign Crisis Informal coalition of Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, & the Dutch Republic were against France Committee of Public Safety Given power to curb anarchy & counterrevolution at home Led by Danton and Robespierre Military losses Mounted A Nation in Arms Universal mobilization of the nation Rise of Nationalism Raised the largest army in European history The main accomplishment of the National Convention was preserving the Revolution from being destroyed by foreign enemies
Citizens Enlisting in the New French Army
Map 19.2: The French Conquests during the Revolutionary Wars
The Reign of Terror & Its Aftermath Committee of Public Safety and Reign of Terror July 1793-July 1794 Vendée – areas of rebellion had the highest death rate Terror demonstrated no class prejudice Majority of the victims were from the peasant and laboring classes Went after Royalists, Girondins, Vendee “Republic of Virtue” Price controls Used goods requisitioned from the country for the cities Women Although women contributed to the revolution, they were still limited politically
Possible Test Question During the Reign of Terror, the majority of the victims were Nobles. Clergy. Middle class. Peasant and laboring classes. The bourgeoisie.
Dechristianization and a New Calendar New calendar Word saint was removed from streets Renamed months & Days (10 Day week) Removed Christian holidays Dechristianization failed because France was still a Catholic country Created more enemies than friends Equality and Slavery Revolt in Saint Dominigue (Haiti) Slave revolt was put down but started up again forming the first independent state in Latin America – Haiti Inspired by the ideals of the Revolution Decline of the Committee of Public Safety Execution of Maximilien Robespierre, July 28, 1794 Opposition grew out of fear that they were not safe while Robespierre was free to act His death brought an end to the radical stage of the French Revolution
Possible Test Question In regard to religion, the National Convention Took measures to strengthen the Roman Catholic Church. Issued an edict allowing for total religious freedom. Took measures to dechristianize the republic. Made the republic completely atheistic. Expelled the Jews from France.
Revolt in Saint Dominique (Haiti)
Reaction and the Directory Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory Curtails much of the Terror’s policies Shut down the Jacobin club and limits the power of the Committee of Public Safety Conservative turn of the Revolution Churches reopened Laissez-faire policies adopted Constitution of 1795 Council of Elders (upper house) elects 5 members to act as executive authority or Directory Army was used to disperse an insurrection Showed that the Directory needed to rely on the military for survival
Age of Napoleon Rise of Napoleon Born in Corsica, 1769 Commissioned a lieutenant, 1785 Promoted to brigadier general, 1794 Saved the National Convention from a Parisian mob, 1795 Victory in Italy, 1797 Defeat in Egypt, 1799 Coup d’etat, 1799 (military takeover of government)
Rise of Napoleon Born as both a child of Enlightenment thought and of the French Revolution Initially disliked by fellow officers and soldiers because he was short and had an Italian accent Well read in Enlightenment thought and military history Married Josephine, the wife of a guillotined general Rose quickly in the military ranks by defeating the armies of France’s enemies
The Republic and the Empire Republic of France proclaimed, 1799 First Consul – controlled the executive branch First Consul for life, 1802 Crowned Emperor Napoleon I, 1804 Domestic Policies of Emperor Napoleon Napoleon and the Catholic Church Concordat of 1801 ended tension with the church Stabilized Napoleon’s regime Church land was not returned Catholicism was not reinstated as the state religion
Possible Test Question The Concordat Allowed for reforms in the French military. Reestablished the Catholic Church and gave the pope limited authority in France. Was part of Napoleon’s Civil Code. Reformed the French civil service. Established an absolute separation of church and state in France.
A New Code of Laws Code Napoleon (Civil Code) Equality of all citizens before the law Right of individuals to choose their professions Religious toleration Abolition of serfdom and feudalism Property rights protected Outlawed trade unions Restored fathers control over their families Divorce was more difficult to obtain Husbands controlled property rights Civil Code reaffirmed the ideals of the Revolution while creating a uniform legal system
The French Bureaucracy Centralization of administration Prefects appointed by Napoleon supervised local government Taxes were collected by professional collectors Tax collection became systematic & efficient Everyone paid taxes Balanced budget in 1802 Appointed people in civil or military office based on demonstrated ability Napoleon created nobles from military & civil officers 22% of Napoleon’s aristocracy came from the nobility of the old regime & 60% were of Bourgeois origin
Growing despotism (Benevolent Despotism) He destroyed & preserved aspects of the Revolution Opened up careers based on talent Preserved equality Created a new aristocracy Strong protection to property rights Use of conscription for the military Suspended freedom of press Shut down 60 of 73 newspapers All manuscripts must be approved by the government before being published Government police opened mail Exiled writer Germaine de Stael for her criticism of his despotic rule
The Coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon’s Empire and the European Response Peace of Amiens, 1802 (temporary peace) Renewal of war, 1803 Military victories, Napoleon’s Grand Empire Composed of 3 different parts and united under Napoleon (French Empire, dependent states, allied states) Failure of the Grand Empire Problems: Great Britain and Nationalism Survival of Britain Seapower Continental System, – block British good from Europe Nationalism – spread nationalism to conquered territory, resulting in uprisings
Possible Test Question Napoleon’s Grand Empire Was composed of three different parts but united under the rule of Napoleon. Revived the power of the nobility and clergy in all its states. Included all of Europe with the defeat of Britain in Had no long-standing impact on the conquered countries. Was abolished by the Directory in 1799.
Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808
Map 19.3: Napoleon’s Grand Empire
The Fall of Napoleon Invasion of Russia, 1812 Invaded over their refusal to follow the Continental System 600,000 soldiers attacked, 40,000 made it out alive Defeat of Napoleon, April 1814 Exiled to island of Elba Island off the coast of Italy Escape from Elba, 1815 Raised an army Battle of Waterloo, June 18, 1815 Exiled to St. Helena Small island in the South Atlantic (between South America and Africa) Napoleon died 6 years later
Possible Test Question Napoleon met his final defeat at the Battle of Leipzig. Borodino. Trafalgar. Austerlitz. Waterloo.