Presentation on theme: "Geographical area = 1,96,022 sq km Forest area = 18,999 sq km (9.7%) Forest cover= 15,152 sq km (7.7%) Geographical area = 3,42,239 sq km Forest area ="— Presentation transcript:
Geographical area = 1,96,022 sq km Forest area = 18,999 sq km (9.7%) Forest cover= 15,152 sq km (7.7%) Geographical area = 3,42,239 sq km Forest area = 32,494 sq km (9.5%) Forest cover= 16,367 sq km (4.8%) Geographical area = 491sq km Forest area = 204 sq km (45%) Forest cover= 169 sq km (34.1%)
DIRECTOR GCR CO(F) IT CELL ESTT. & HINDI SECTIO N STORE Forest Protection Agro- forestry & Extension Forest Ecology Forest Genetics & Tree Breeding Non Wood Forest Products 2 ACCO UNTS Silviculture PURCHASE AFRI Organizational Chart PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS SNo.Impact factorNos. of papersTotal% IndiaInternational 1 < > Total
Completed projects by up to :93 Completed projects ( ): 09 Ongoing projects: 34 ICFRE funded projects: 18 Externally aided ongoing projects: 08 Externally aided new projects : 05 Consultancy: 03 Project concluded during :64 COMPLETED AND ONGOING RESEARCH PROJECTS IN SNo.DivisionProjects concluded (Nos.) 1Forest Ecology Division15 2Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding Division10 3Forest Protection Division11 4Non Wood Forest Product Division7 5Silviculture Division15 6Agroforestry & Extention Division5 7Information Technology Cell1 Total64
Ailanthus excelsa, Colophospermum mopane, Cordia myxa, Prosopis cineraria and Ziziphus mauritiana are potential species for farmlands. At 5 years age reduction in wheat yield was less in P. cineraria: Z. mauritiana combinations. Canopy removal and root trenching had positive effects on crop and grass production. Out of 9 tree species & grass combinations tried, Ziziphus mauritiana + Cenchrus ciliaris based silvipastoral model was best followed by Ailanthus excelsa + C. ciliaris and Cordia gharaf + C. ciliaris. Densely sown grass adversely affect growth of trees, but provide higher total biomass. Sowing grass in strips promote plant growth, but total biomass yield reduces. Besides, studies have also been conducted on effect of tree density and crop sequences and potential tree species for agroforestry in dry regions T. undulata + V. radiata Z. mauritiana + C. ciliaris AGRI-SILVI AND SILVIPASTURE MODELS FOR DRY AREAS
REHABILITATION OF DEGRADED HILLS VariablesTrend after work initiation Run-off lossesDecreased (by 2.1% of total rainfall) Soil lossesDecreased (from 3.43 to 0.19 g l -1 ) Nutrient lossesDecreased Soil waterIncreased Soil bulk densityDecreased Fine earth fractionIncreased (greater in higher slope) Soil nutrients (NH 4 -N, NO 3 - N & PO 4 -P) Increased Soil carbon Decreased in lower slope and increased in upper slope Plant growthIncreased Herbaceous diversityIncreased (39 to 92 species) Regeneration diversityIncreased (22 to 42 species) Diversity of faunaIncreased Fodder availabilityIncreased Fuelwood availabilityIncreased Water availability Increased Soil formations stages Use of different rainwater harvesting devices and mixed plantation
BIODIVERSITY ASSESSMENT Plant biodiversity assessment in Hydrocarbon Project Area of Jalore & Barmer showed 144 plant species (15 tree species, 17 shrub species, 82 herb species and 30 grasses/ sedges) Survey of 123 sacred groves in Rajasthan revealed dominance of 26 tree and 25 shrub species. These are: A. pendula >P. juliflora >Salvadora oleoides> Capparis decidua> P. cineraria>Tectona grandis >Acacia leucophloea >Acacia nilotica>Butea monosperma>Ziziphus rotundifolia. There are 31 sub-types of forest in Rajasthan, where P. juliflora, A. pendula, Acacia tortilis, A. leucophloea, A. senegal, B. monosperma, P. cineraria, C. decidua, D. melanoxylon and M. emarginata were recorded in >10% forest block. Biological invasions P. juliflora of >30 cm, cm girth and saplings in varying density were observed in 47.2%, 46.3% and 30.9% sacred groves, whereas L. camara was recorded in 8.9% sacred groves. Invasive species P. juliflora and Lantana camara observed in 36.7% and 7.2% forest block distributed in 32 and 15 district, respectively in Rajasthan forests. P. juliflora has also been reported as new host for 15 species of insects belonging to orders-Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera and Hymenoptera from Rajasthan, India. P. juliflora can be utilized for rearing of cantharidin producing beetles Mylabris species.
CLIMATE CHANGE: CARBON IN RAJASTHAN FORESTS ComponentAbove-groundBelow-groundTotal Live biomass Herbaceous0.77- Dead material1.24- SIC SOC Total (million tons)305.19
Use of Gypsum (100 % soil GR), FYM and nitrogen enhanced growth (30-70%) depending upon treatments for all the plant species in Rajasthan. FYM + Wheat husk was best for black soil in Gujarat. Application of Phosphorus with FYM enhanced the plant growth and fruit yield in S. Persica. Zinc influenced seed size and no of seed/g were 45 in FYM + K 2 SO 4 (50 g K 2 O) treatment in Acacia ampliceps. There is overall improvement in soil properties (SOC, pH, EC) and biodiversity of the treated areas. REHABILITATION OF STRESS SITES Highest growth and biomass was recorded in E. rudis followed by Corambia tessellaris, E. camaldulensis and E. fastigata. Ground water level receded by 145 cm in E. rudis plot. In C. tessellaris, E. camaldulensis and E. fastigata, water level receded by 90 cm, 70 cm and 60 cm respectively. A. nilotica and T. aphylla showed higher tolerance towards salinity compared to E. camaldulensis. However, under water logging condition at shallow depth E. camaldulensis outperformed others.
Studies have been performed to refine and develop seed testing protocols of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, A. catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, E. camaldulensis, P. cineraria, Capparis decidua, Tectona grandis, Salvadora persica, Commiphora wightii ; and Other medicinal plant species Studies on seeds collected from Seed Stands / SPAs / SSOs / CSOs of important species of Gujarat State has also been taken up. Effects of seed size and pre-treatments on germination and performance have been studied in Acacia nilotica and Prosopis cineraria. STUDIES ON TRAITS & DEVELOPMENT OF SEED TESTING PROTOCOLS Work has also been done on various aspects of physiological changes of freshly collected Azadirachta indica seeds and stored seeds to prolong the viability and to increase germination percentage.
Cassia angustifolia (Senna) Commiphora wightii (Guggal), Aloe vera (Guarpatha), Catharanthus roseus (Sada Bahar), Withania somnifera (Aswagandha), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari ) Cassia angustifolia Established germplasm bank of 150 medicinal plants at AFRI model nursery Screened germplasm (204 sources) & more than 115 Plus plants of Jatropoha curcas for higher seed and oil yield and agri-techniques developed Correct harvesting period prescribed for Calotropis procera, Tribulus rajasthanensis, Pluchea lanceolata. Alkaloid contents were high in summer while steroids were high in winter in C. procera flower. Maximum content of secondary metabolite (sterols-2.65% & alkaloids-8.0%) was from ACZ- IA (Jaisalmer region). STUDIES ON MEDICINAL PLANTS GERMPLASM BANK PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES STANDARDIZATION OF SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES
21 clonal accessions were selected from Rajasthan and their performance and agritrial laid. Jaipur and Tonk accessions performed best. Germ plasm bank established. Developed low cost macro- and micro-propagation protocol and established field trial. Guidelines were prepared for seed germination and vegetative propagation. Out of 33 districts surveyed in Rajasthan, maximum Guggul population was in Barmer (58 plants/ per ha). So far no male plant was observed. Ethephon (a plant growth regulator) injection gave encouraging results, where Guggul plants are surviving even after three time gum exudations. Application of FYM has helped maintain plant survival. Plants are tapped thrice in four years. Their yield was ranging from 50.0 to 80.0 g per plant and they are surviving. Germplasm of Guggal was characterized by DNA marker studies. FINDINGS ON GUGGAL PROGRAMMES
PLANTING STOCK IMPROVEMENT Genetic Trials: Provenance (A. indica-47 and A. nilotica-31), progeny (A. indica-30, T. undulata- 40, Jatropha curcas-116 CPP, Prosopis cineraria-52 and Tectona grandis-28, Melia dubia-24) and clonal (E. camaldulensis-35, D. sissoo-30, Jatripha curcas-185, Commiphora wightii-22) trials established at different locations and evaluated. Established genetic resources: Selected CPTs, established SPAs, SSOs, CSOs and VMG for Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Reproductive biology, Oil and Azadirachtin content and fodder value studied for A. indica. DNA Marker and Gene Expression: DNA marker studies were carried out on Neem, Guggul, Rohida for studying genetic diversity, clonal fidelity tests and other desired genetic traits. Under gene expression studies, out of nine putative genes identified, three have possible role in abiotic stress physiology (a halophyte- Lepidium sativum). Demonstration Trials: A large scale field trials of tissue culture raised plants of Dendrocalamus strictus and Bambusa bambos were established and evaluated in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Six bamboo species were also tried for their performance where D. stricus showed maximum survival (77%), followed by B. bambos (58.3), B. valgeris (52.1), B. nutans (35.4) and B. tulda (30). Survial was minimum in D. asper plants (only 2%). Genetic evaluation: Genetics and inheritance of seed and growth traits investigated for western Indian Teak. Twelve elite parents of Tectona grandis were identified. Genetic estimates for pods and germination parameters of P. cineraria were estimated and its inheritance was investigated which was hitherto unknown
Growth and yield models (i.e., volume functions, site index equations, potential density, mortality and basal area projection models) developed for A. indica, E. camaldulensis, D. sissoo, T. undulata, A. nilotica and E. hybrid. Aboveground biomass equation for neem, volume equations for A. tortilis and generalized height-diameter equations for A. indica and Tecomella undulata have also been constructed and validated. Preliminary growth models developed for P. cineraria and A. excelsa trees. Common regression equations have been developed for predicting both above- ground and below-ground biomasses and carbon accounting of trees, shrubs, undershrubs and Euphorbias in Rajasthan. Tree and shrub species based equations have also been developed for Hardwickia binata, C. mopane, P. juliflora, L. pyrotechnica and Calligonum polygonoides for their biomass assessment. GROWTH & YIELD MODELLING AND REGRESSION EQUATIONS i.e., tree above-ground biomass (kg) = *D
Potential Famine Foods Potential Famine Foods: Bark, leaves, fruits and seeds Acacia leucophloea, Acacia nilotica and Prosopis cineraria contains 13.7% to 23.1% crude Protein Leaf protein concentrates: P Leaf protein concentrates: Prepared from Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera and Achyranthes aspera and can be used as famine foods. Oil extraction: Oil content in Salvadora oleoides seeds ranges from 39.5% to 44.8% and in S. persica from 38.4% to 45.3 % in different agro-climatic zones. In Azadirachta indica oil content ranges from 32.4% to 43.2%. Utilization of Lesser Known Timber species: Chemical treatment (CCA + 2% chloropyriphos) and seasoning has increased the life and damage to the woods of Prosopis juliflora, Acacia tortilis and Prosopis cineraria. Value added products like sofa set, utility box and pen stand etc. have been made from these woods. Potentials of Sandal Cultivation: Survey of sandal population in south and eastern Rajasthan indicated presence of its natural stands, where heartwood and oil content varies with place and age ranging from 0.9 to 3.0%. NTFPs: Survey conducted in Udaipur region showed that NTFP contribute 35-40% to the annual income of tribal families. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION & VALUE ADDITION OF NTFPs
INSECTS, PESTS AND DISEASES MANAGEMENT A check- list of 49 insect species associated with Tecomella undulata has been prepared. 105 species of butterflies (65 new) and 115 species (59 new) of moth (Lepidoptera) have been identified from Gir National Park. Besides, a checklist of total 220 species of lepidopteron fauna have also been prepared. Relative resistance of Neem provenances were tested against Patialus tecomella, where Bhaislana and Osian provenances were found the most resistant. Neem provenances from Palanpur and Jhansi exhibited the best resistance against neem weevil, Myllocerus tenuicornis. Use of Beauveria bassiana- a fungus and root decoction of Dhatura metel have been found very effective against Neem defoliator. Dhatura metel root extract was also found most effective in controlling the sap-sucking insects and semilooper (Achea janata) attacking on Mehndi. For rapid composting litter decomposing mycoflora have been isolated and identified. High percentage of canker formation observed in trees with girth >80 cm. The most effective systemic chemical found effective in its control was salicylic acid (10 mmol). Mycorhizal association About % greater growth recorded in VAM inoculated seedlings of Tecomella undulata, Prosopis cineraria, Azadirachta indica and Dalbergia sissoo. Indigenous strains of Glomus fasciculatum and G. aggregatum performed better than non- indigenous strains. Glomus multicaulae and Sclerocystis indica are new records from the region.
Root borer, Acanthophorous serraticornis Ganoderma lucidum BIOTIC FACTORS Depletion in water table Exploitation of water Tractorization Indiscriminate lopping ABIOTIC FACTORS Root treatment containing Bavistine (0.1%)+ Chloropyriphos (0.1%)+ Agromin ( 20 lt aqueous suspension per tree quarterly) ROOT TREATMENT KHEJRI MORTALITY (20-25%) Alternate Year lopping Two third lopping Young trees should not be lopped Silvicultural Management KHEJRI MORTALITY IN RAJASTHAN AND IT’S CONTROL MEASURES
1Prosopis cineraria based agroforestry for hot arid region of Gujarat and Rajasthan 2Use of surface vegetation in sand drifts control and sand dune stabilization of hot arid region 3Rehabilitation of degraded land through seed sowing to increase land productivity and combat desertification 4Rehabilitation of degraded hills through afforestation and rainwater harvestings 5Enhancing productivity of arid salt affected soils through afforestation techniques 6Utilization of wastewater in afforestation to increase aesthetic value and fuelwood supply in suburban areas of desert cities 7Reclamation/rehabilitation of waterlogged soil in canal command area of IGNP using principle of biodrainage 8Mulching and weeding for conservation of soil moisture and enhancing plant growth 9Micro-catchments for plantation establishment 10Silvipastoral approach for augmenting the fodder availability during lean seasons in arid regions 11Growth and yield models for some forest plantations in Rajasthan and Gujarat for their sustainable management 12Isolation and mass multiplication of VAM for improvement of planting stock in forest nurseries 13Seed germination protocol for Capparis decidua 14Post harvest treatment and enhancement of germination of seed of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari (guggal) 15Development of refined technology for in vitro propagation of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari (guggal) 16Development of grafting technique for clonal propagation of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. 17Optimum harvesting time of important medicinal plants of Rajasthan for their secondary metabolites 18Protein rich food supplements for desert population TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED BY AFRI
EIA of the project 'Integrated Watershed Development Project in Sunel Watershed of Pirawa Panchyat Samiti District Jhalawar, Rajasthan. Ecological and environmental assessment in the onshore area of RJ-ON-90/2 block, Rajasthan. Evaluation study on the programme development of community silvi-pasture through people initiatives in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan. Baseline survey study on biological diversity in Mangala, Sarswati and Rageshwari Areas of Rajasthan Hydro Carbon Project. Evaluation of the plantation work on Gaurav path developed by the Jodhpur Development Authority. Survey and characterization of soils & vegetation in the proposed land for IIT Rajasthan on Jodhpur – Nagaur Road. Project document for erection of mega-shelterbelts in Western Rajasthan. Preparation of baseline data on vegetation diversity and soil for IIM Udaipur Campus. Report on species suitability for biomass energy plantation and production. Submitted to Department of Forests, Government of Rajasthan & Banswara Biomass Energy Pvt. Ltd., Banswara, Rajasthan. CONSULTANCIES
Thrust Research Activities 1 Economic impact of desertification and strategies (including sequential restoration) to mitigate it. Developing package of practices to enhance productivity of degraded lands through multidisciplinary approaches like ecology, silviculture, biofertilizers, genetics including biotechnological tools. Designing effective mechanism to manage insect pests and diseases associated in forest nurseries, plantations and natural forests. Studies on nano particles produced either intra- or extracellular and their application. Phyto-chemical evaluation, value addition and development of packages for various food, NTFPs and medicinal plants. Survey and study on availability and collection of NWFPs and its role in socio-economic status of local people. 2 Examining the climate -driven effects of biodiversity on water processing, nutrient cycling and carbon storage. Endemism and relationships between soil and vegetation diversity. 3 Studies on impact of increasing CO 2 concentration and climate change on seed traits, plant physiology and biological diversity in degraded drylands. Assessment of pollution load on existing vegetation and designing of green belts in urban areas. 4 Utilization of genetic variation in different trees species like Prosopis cineraria, Tecomella undulata, Tectona grandis, Anogeissus pendula, Capparis decidua etc in productivity enhancement. Utilization of clonal forestry in enhancing forest productivity. Development of state-of-the-art molecular biology lab to carry out research on genetic engineering and molecular characterization etc. 5 Studies on appropriate extension mechanism and developing better linkages and effective coordination for effective transfer of research outcomes to the end users. Publications of outreach material for scientific professionals and end users. FORESTRY RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR NEXT YEARS
Training imparted: A Training imparted: About 8928 trainees including farmers, N.G.O.s, S.H.G.s, V.F.P.C. Members, Watershed Cluster Members, Watershed Development Teams, Forest Field Officials, and 324 school children have been exposed to the research finding Participation in Trade fairs/Exhibition every year Organized farmers fairs Publication of extension materials AFRI Newsletter: 01 (Quarterly in Hindi) Brochures- 50; Proceedings-3; Pamphlets-25 VVK Bichhwal, Bikaner, Rajasthan VVK Chipardi beedi, Rajkot, Gujarat Establishment of VVK CASE STUDIES AND EXTENSION WEB portal: A bilingual web application of the 160 important plants species developed and hosted on the web server at URL Demo Village: Technology package like live fencing, pasture development, Rainwater harvesting etc demonstrated at Demo village Salavas, Jodhpur Direct to Consumer: Some successful programme have been taken to field functionaries through training, workshop and field visits/demonstration under this scheme.
Evaluations AFRI has evaluations of afforestation works carried out in Combating Desertifications programmes of SFD, Rajasthan during different phases covering 10 arid districts. Other evaluations are watershed programme in Jhalawar, reclamation of water logged areas in Jetsar in Ganganagar and Rawatsar area in Hanumangarh (Funded by MoRD, GoI). Education Till date 27 student have been awarded Ph. D. degree in different fields 16 Ph. D. scholars are pursuing their research work at present. EVALUATIONS AND FOREST EDUCATION