Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Agroforestry in Degraded Drylands: Win – Win Approaches for Local, Regional and Global Problems Leu S. and Mor-Mussery A. in collaboration."— Presentation transcript:
Sustainable Agroforestry in Degraded Drylands: Win – Win Approaches for Local, Regional and Global Problems Leu S. and Mor-Mussery A. in collaboration with the Sustainability Laboratory
Overexploitation Land Degradation by - Productivity - Carbon Stocks - Biodiversity - Resilience and Sustainability Mismanagement Acceleration of and Sensitization to Effects of Global Warming
2. Rehabilitation by Restoration of Vegetation Productivity + Carbon Stocks + Biodiversity + Resilience and Sustainability + Management Mitigation of and Adaptation to Effects of Global Warming!
Engineering or Forestry Topography Analysis and Engineering Requirements N
Site plan Riverine, native plants * Plants the will be suited in the edges of the river Silvipasture Savanna trees with additional uses (mainly pasture), suited to arid zones, Shade trees The shade pathways Fenced Green Tree To border between the different fields and supplement extra use (crop, pasture, shade etc…)
The area excluded by the black line is unsuitable for large agricultural plots, while areas 1 – 4 do not pose any problems except for small corrections along the river; The following pictures demonstrate these facts;
200m Only the two marked rhomboids are suitable for agriculture, about 10 and 5 dunam; Stable Wadi Unstable Wadi and Soil Large Rocky Slope with Wadis
The Soil in the southern-most Wadi is highly erosive; these erosion structures have to be stabilized by terraces, planting of mixed trees, olive plantations and high value trees; Native trees will be incorporated for high grazing value, biodiversity and agricultural return;
Technique1: Restoration of vegetation, erosion control and tree planting using contour drip irrigation Trees and Shrubs were planted along drip irrigation, every 2m one line was established, and every dripper received 100L of water during November-December 2008.
The number of functions fulfilled by dryland trees is huge Carbon Sequestration into biomass; Recovery of nutrients from deep soil; Enrichment and protection of top soils by plant litter; Increasing productivity of annual vegetation; Preventing wind erosion; Providing shade to animals and buildings; Preventing water runoff and erosion; Restoring natural habitats and biodiversity; Providing fodder during the dry season; Providing biomass energy; Providing high value oils and fruit for economic expansion; Technique2: Restoration of land using dryland trees
20 years old Acacia victoria woodland near Yattir farm (220 mm mean Annual Precipitation) 2.5 t per ha and year annual vegetation; 2.5 tons per ha and year tree litter (edible); 1 ton per ha and year woody biomass; 6 tons per year CO 2 sequestration; Supports 2 goats per ha: RICH ANIMAL LIFE Degraded land nearby: 0.5 t per ha and year annual vegetation NO tree litter! NO woody biomass! NO CO 2 sequestration! Supports 0.2 goats per ha NEGLIGIBLE ANIMAL LIFE!!! *Problem: Acacia victoria is not a native species! Fact: Woodland trees Sequestrate high Carbon amounts into biomass
Facts: Grazing Improvement, Land Rehabilitation and Biomass Production by Silvipasture Biomass and Litter under Tree Canopy and in nearby Open Areas: Suitable Trees Promote Growth of Annual Vegetation and Provide Extraordinary Amounts of Organic Litter!
Facts: Using trees for agriculture purposes in arid environments Left: niche of wheat growing without need of irrigation and nutrient supply; Right: Small olive tree survives inside the Acacia victoria woodland, taking advantage of higher soil fertility and humidity, reduced evaporation and protection from wind by the other trees.
planting techniques: The planting method dramatically affects soil characteristics Contour TrenchingPlanting without Soil Disturbance
Terrace Agroforestry using Natural Topography A simple stone terrace suffices to create excellent conditions for Olive cultivation. The reduced water runoff intensity allows natural vegetation to recover as well.
Intercropping in Agroforestry Terraces Other Crops Used for Intercropping: Vegetables Watermelons Sunflowers Tobacco Classical agroforestry with summer sorghum (left behind) intercropped with olive trees. The humidity stored in the soil of the dammed areas suffices to maintain growth of sorghum throughout the hot, completely dry summer.
An area covered by manure (right) displayed very significant plant growth in spite of very poor rainfall (~110 mm in 2009), in contrast to the exposed soil to the left. Principle of Soil Management: THE MOST IMPORTANT: Exposed Soil Degradation
Expected Benefits at Wadi Attir Carbon sequestration compensating for the agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Water savings by optimized agricultural production, wind breaks, plant litter and no till agriculture; Reduced fertilizer use due to nitrogen fixing plants and nutrient recovery from deep soil by trees; Improved biodiversity due to planted native trees; Increased profitability due to growing amounts of high quality high price oils; Providing waste biomass for energy production from tree trimming; Reduced erosion and soil loss due to terrace agroforestry and erosion barriers;