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Agricultural Biotechnology

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Presentation on theme: "Agricultural Biotechnology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Agricultural Biotechnology
Iqbal Harbi Mohammed General Board of date Palm

2 What is biotechnology? as a set of tools that uses living organisms (or partsof organisms) to make or modify a product, improve plants, trees or animals, or develop microorganisms for specific uses. Agricultural biotechnology is the term used in crop and livestock improvement through biotechnology tools Biotechnology encompasses a number of tools and elements of conventional breeding techniques, bioinformatics, microbiology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, plant physiology, and molecular biology.

3 Biotechnology: A collection of technologies

4 The biotechnology tools that are important for agricultural biotechnology include
Conventional plant breeding - Tissue culture and micropropagation - Molecular breeding or marker assisted selection - Genetic engineering and GM crops - Molecular Diagnostic Tools

5 Integration of conventional and modern biotechnology
methods in crop breeding

6 The Applications of Biotechnology
Agricultural Biotechnology Plant agriculture Animal agriculture Food processing

7 Genetic Engineering Tissue culture Applications of Biotechnology
Organic fertilizers Bio-fertilizer Genetic Engineering

8 - Biotechnology laboratory
Agricultural Biotechnology in Iraq Ministry of Agriculture: - Tissue culture laboratory - Biotechnology laboratory

9 Why is Plant Tissue Culture Important?
It has made significant contributions in: The production of plant material Plant breeding Gene banks The production of chemical compounds

10 Vegetative multiplication stage
Tissue culture Formation Stage Vegetative multiplication stage Field Acclimation Root Formation Stage Elongation

11 Tissue culture



14 Agarose and PAGE gel-electrophoresis.
Biotechnology laboratory A) Infrastructure: DNA extraction. PCR amplification. Agarose and PAGE gel-electrophoresis. DNA fingerprinting

15 Biotechnology expert (Ph.D.) Tissue Culture expert (Ph.D)
B) The human resources: Biotechnology expert (Ph.D.) Tissue Culture expert (Ph.D) Agriculture engineers (M.Sc.) Agriculture engineers (B.Sc.) Technicians Temporary technicians Workers

16 Introduction of tissue culture and molecular techniques to the Iraq.
C) Objectives: Introduction of tissue culture and molecular techniques to the Iraq. propagation of local and imported date palm cultivars (and other species )using the tissue culture technique. Multiplication of other plant species for different national projects. Establishment of a genetic map for date palms and other species.(olive,potato.wheat,Barley,) Molecular characterization of the Iraq genetic resources. Molecular diagnostics.

17 Identification of genetically modified crops
Identification of fingerprint by protien electrophorese Checking of the genetic stability of tissue culture plants DNA finger printing for many plant species by using different types of molecular markers RAPD AFLP SSR

18 Development of a date palm breeding program.
Fingerprinting of date palms cultivars.

19 2 Natural Agriculture Organic fertilizers Bio-fertilizer
Applications of Biotechnology Natural Agriculture Organic fertilizers Bio-fertilizer


21 Bacteria in root surface Bacteria in root surface
Biofertilizers The term biofertilizer refers to preparation containing live microbes which helps in enhancing the soil fertility either by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilization of phosphorus or decomposing organic wastes or by augmenting plant growth by producing growth hormones with their biological activities. Rhizobium Bacteria Bacteria in root surface Bacteria in root surface Legume inoculation

22 Advantages of Biofertilizers
Renewable source of nutrients Sustain soil health Supplement chemical fertilizers. Replace 25-30% chemical fertilizers Increase the grain yields by 10-40%. Decompose plant residues, and stabilize C:N ratio of soil Improve texture, structure and water holding capacity of soil No adverse effect on plant growth and soil fertility. Stimulates plant growth by secreting growth hormones. Secrete fungistatic and antibiotic like substances Solubilize and mobilize nutrients Eco-friendly, non-pollutants and cost effective method


24 Organic fertilizers an ecological production management system
that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony.”

25 the Important Role of Organic Matter in Soils
􀁺 Physical - Improves aggregation (glue) - Improves water holding capacity (surface area) 􀁺 Chemical - Increases nutrient availability (cycling, P and micronutrient solubility - Increases CEC (200 cmolc kg-1) - Buffers the soil against pH changes 􀁺 Biological - Increases microbial diversity - Assists in pathogen suppression

26 Justification for establishing agricultural biotechnology network
The network will enable scientists of member countries to get acquainted with experiences gained and progress achieved. The network will enable scientists to learn more about recent advances in technologies. Less developed countries will capitalize on more advance member countries in training..

27 Justification for establishing agricultural biotechnology network
The network will allow less advanced countries get acquainted with these achievements and adopt them . The network will help less advanced countries learn more on how biotechnology research has been integrated in development . How decision makers came to support this type of research. Lessons learnt can be made available via the network in the annual meetings or through the periodical publications.

28 Recommendations Develop an annual report for each joint research presented in each country in the field of agricultural and biological technologies by way which is accessible, compares them and identifies common similarities and differences. Conduct joint research on some of the common crops grown between the participating countries to enable work out through the study of environmental and genetic conditions that affect the quality and productivity of these crops. Development of a shared location (web site) for the dissemination of research and the latest developments.


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