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Minnesota Atlas Project By Linda Thomas Page 75,66,21,34.

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1 Minnesota Atlas Project By Linda Thomas Page 75,66,21,34

2 Minnesota Atlas Project By Linda Thomas Page 75

3 New Ulm New Ulm 1870  In 1854, a group of German Americans settled in a scenic, tree-covered river valley in what would become south central Minnesota. They named their new community New Ulm, after the city of Ulm in southern Germany.  The settlers were determined to maintain their German heritage. They erected brick buildings on orderly streets, leaving plenty of room for gardens and parks. They built a Turner Hall, a traditionally German club where they could gather for education and physical fitness.  Boosted by the railroad, New Ulm welcomed thriving industries that included bricks, cigars, flour and of course, beer. The city’s breweries and taverns played such a critical role in its German fellowship.  Today, New Ulm’s August Schell Brewing Co. is the nation’s second-oldest family-owned brewery.  The city’s history was not entirely peaceful, however. In 1862, while many men were off fighting in the Civil War, the U.S.-Dakota War made its way to New Ulm’s borders. The Indians, angered by a series of broken government promises and feeling desperate and threatened, twice attacked the city. Hundreds of people were killed and fires damaged many of the city’s original structures. Today, only three buildings from that period remain

4 Mankato Mankato 1870 Fort Blue Earth – first white settlement in Mankato  Mankato was originally called Mahkato, meaning greenish blue earth to Mankato’s first inhabitants, the Dakota Indians.  The first Europeans came through Mankato in the 1700s looking for the Northwestern Passage.  Stagecoach travel became the popular mode of transportation in 1852 when a crude military road from Mankato to St. Paul was built.  In 1868, the railroads came to Mankato, making it the railroad hub for southern Minnesota. The stagecoach line and the railroads eventually eliminated the need for steamboat travel.  The last boat, The Henrietta, made its final run from Mankato to St. Peter on April 27, 1897.

5 St. Peter St. Peter, 1870  St. Peter was founded in 1853 by Captain William Bigelow Dodd, who claimed 150 acres north of what is now Broadway Avenue.  He named the new settlement Rock Bend because of the rock formation at the bend of the Minnesota River.  In 1855 a group of St. Paul businessmen interested in promoting the town formed the Saint Peter Company, and the town was renamed St. Peter.  In 1851 the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux was signed between the Sioux (Dakota) and the U. S. Government just one mile north of St. Peter. The promises of the treaty were not kept. The Dakota became angered and the Dakota War of 1862 began in Cottonwood County.  In 1866 the Legislature established the first "Minnesota Asylum for the Insane" in St. Peter.

6 Blue Earth County  The population density is 74 people per square mile.  There are 21,971 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 94.96% White, 1.19% Black/African American, 0.28% Native American, 1.79% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.69% from other races, and 1.03% from two or more races. 1.77% of the population are Hispanic.  47.6% are of German and 13.6% Norwegian ancestry. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 18604,803— 187017,302260.20% 188022,88932.30% 189029,21027.60% 190032,26310.50% 191029,337−9.1% 192031,4777.30% 193033,8477.50% 194036,2037.00% 195038,3275.90% 196044,38515.80% 197052,32217.90% 198052,3140% 199054,0443.30% 200055,9413.50% 201064,01314.40% U.S. Decennial Census Cities Townships AmboyBeauford Eagle LakeCutternut Good ThunderCambria Lake CrystalCeresco Madison LakeDanville MankoatDecoria MapletonGarden City Minnesota LakeJamestown North MankatoJudson PembertonLe Ray SkylineLime St. ClairLincoln Vernon CenterLyra Mankato Mapleton McPherson Medo Pleasant Rapidan Shelby South Bend Sterling Vernon Center The County Seat of Blue Earth County is Mankato

7 Blue Earth County History  The area of Blue Earth County was once known as the “Big Woods" and was occupied by the Dakota Indians.“  It was started by a French explorer, Pierre- Charles Le Sueur. He was one of the first White people in this area, arriving at the point where the Minnesota and Blue Earth rivers meet.  The area remained under French control until 1803, but soon after was passed to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase.  The county of Blue Earth was finally created after a division of the Minnesota Territory on March 5, 1853 from portions of Dakota County and free territory.  It was named after the Blue Earth River.Blue Earth River  The railroads allowed many different White ethnic immigrants and Yankee settlers into the area. Blue Earth has grown into a very good county for agriculture, industry, business, education, and culture, and still continues to grow today.

8 Brown County  The population density is 44 people per square mile.  There are 11,163 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 97.82% White, 0.10% Black/African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.91% from other races, and 0.63% from two or more races. 2.03% of the population are Hispanic.  67.1% are of German and 9.6% Norwegian ancestry. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 18602,339— 18706,396173.50% 188012,01887.90% 189015,81731.60% 190019,78725.10% 191020,1341.80% 192022,42111.40% 193023,4284.50% 194025,5449.00% 195025,8951.40% 196027,6766.90% 197028,8874.40% 198028,645−0.8% 199026,984−5.8% 200026,911−0.3% 201025,893−3.8% U.S. Decennial Census Cities Townships Unincorporated CobdenAlbinEssig ComfreyBashawGoodahl EvanBurnstownLevanworth HanskaCottonwoodSearles New UlmEden Sleep EyeHome SpringfieldLake Hanska Leavenworth Linden Milford Mulligan North Star Prairieville Sigel Stark Stately The County Seat of Brown County is New Ulm.

9 Brown County History  In February, 1855, the Territorial Legislature established Brown County, an area formerly in Blue Earth County.  The size of territorial Brown County was enormous, covering forty-two thousand square miles, west to Missouri River, and south to Iowa. Northward it included the Sioux reservation lands south of the Minnesota River as far as Big Stone Lake to the northwest.  After Minnesota became a state in 1858, Brown County was frequently reduced in size as new counties were created. It has remained at its present size since 1865.  The county was named for Joseph Renshaw Brown, who came to Minnesota in 1819, and became well known as a trader, businessman, politician, speculator, and inventor.  On February 18, 1856, the Territorial Legislature declared Brown County an organized county and established New Ulm as the county seat.

10 Carver County  The population density is 197 people per square mile.  There are 24,883 housing units at an average density of 70 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county is 95.95% White, 0.59% Black/African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.56% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.87% from other races, and 0.82% from two or more races. 2.55% of the population were Hispanic of any race.  44.3% were of German, 12.1% Norwegian, 7.1% Irish and 6.2% Swedish ancestry Historical populations CensusPop.%± 18605,106— 187011,586126.90% 188014,14022.00% 189016,53216.90% 190017,5446.10% 191017,455−0.5% 192016,946−2.9% 193016,936−0.1% 194017,6064.00% 195018,1553.10% 196021,35817.60% 197028,33132.60% 198037,04630.80% 199047,91529.30% 200070,20546.50% 201091,04229.70% U.S. Decennial Census

11 Historical populations CensusPop.%± 18605,318— 187011,607118.30% 188016,30340.50% 189019,05716.90% 190020,2346.20% 191018,609−8.0% 192017,870−4.0% 193017,9900.70% 194019,2276.90% 195019,088−0.7% 196019,9064.30% 197021,3317.20% 198023,4349.90% 199023,9292.10% 200025,4266.30% 201027,7039.00% Le Sueur County  The population density is 57 people per square mile.  There are 10,858 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county is 96.56% White, 0.15% Black/African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.02% from other races, 3.92% of the population are Hispanic.  44.9% were of German, 9.0% Czech, 9.0% Norwegian and 8.2% Irish ancestry The county seat of Le Sueur County is Le Center

12 McLeod County The County Seat of McLeod County is Glencoe.  The population density is 71 people per square mile.  There are 14,087 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county is 96.62% White, 0.22% Black/African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.79% from other races, 3.63% of the population are Hispanic.  57.5% are of German and 8.5% Norwegian ancestry Historical populations CensusPop.%± 18601,286— 18705,643338.80% 188012,342118.70% 189017,02638.00% 190019,59515.10% 191018,691−4.6% 192020,4449.40% 193020,5220.40% 194021,3804.20% 195022,1983.80% 196024,4019.90% 197027,66213.40% 198029,6577.20% 199032,0308.00% 200034,8989.00% 201036,6515.00%

13 Nicollet County The County Seat of Nicollet County is St. Peter Historical populations CensusPop.%± 18603,778— 18708,362121.30% 188012,33347.50% 189013,3828.50% 190014,77410.40% 191014,125−4.4% 192015,0366.40% 193016,55010.10% 194018,28210.50% 195020,92914.50% 196023,19610.80% 197024,5185.70% 198026,9299.80% 199028,0764.30% 200029,7716.00% 201032,7279.90%  The population density is 66 people per square mile There are 11,240 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 96.37% White, 0.80% Black/African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.14% Asian, 0.02%Pacific Islander, 0.65% from other races, 1.80% of the population are Hispanic.  49.2% are of German, 13.3% Norwegian, 6.8% Swedish and 5.4% Irish ancestry.

14 Renville County The County Seat of Renville County is Olivia.  The population density is 18 people per square mile.  There are 7,413 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county is 95.72% White, 0.06% Black/African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.77% from other races, 5.11% of the population are Hispanic.  50.9% are of German, 16.3% Norwegian and 5.1% Swedish ancestry Historical populations CensusPop.%± 1860245— 18703,2191213.90% 188010,791235.20% 189017,09958.50% 190023,69338.60% 191023,123−2.4% 192023,6342.20% 193023,6450% 194024,6254.10% 195023,954−2.7% 196023,249−2.9% 197021,139−9.1% 198020,401−3.5% 199017,673−13.4% 200017,154−2.9% 201015,730−8.3%

15 Sibley County The County Seat of Sibley County is Gaylord. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 18603,609— 18706,72586.30% 188010,63758.20% 189015,19942.90% 190016,86210.90% 191015,540−7.8% 192015,6350.60% 193015,8651.50% 194016,6254.80% 195015,816−4.9% 196016,2282.60% 197015,845−2.4% 198015,448−2.5% 199014,366−7.0% 200015,3566.90% 201015,226−0.8%  The population density is 26 people per square mile.  There are 6,024 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 95.57% White, 0.12% Black/African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 3.09% from other races, 5.43% of the population are Hispanic.  65.7% are of German and 6.3% Norwegian ancestry

16 County Data

17 Minnesota River  The Minnesota River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 332 miles long.  It rises in southwestern Minnesota, in Big Stone Lake on the Minnesota–South Dakota border just south of the Laurentian Divide at the Traverse Gap portage.  It flows southeast to Mankato, then turns northeast. It joins the Mississippi south of the Twin Cities, near the Fort Snelling.  On June 19, 1852, acting upon a request from the Minnesota territorial legislature, the United States Congress decreed the aboriginal name for the river, Minnesota, to be the river’s official name and ordered all agencies of the federal government to use that name when referencing it.  The valley that the Minnesota River flows in is up to five miles wide and 250 feet deep. It was carved into the landscape by the massive glacial River Warren between 11,700 and 9,400 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age in North American. Pierre Charles Le Sueur was the first European to visit the river.

18 Minnesota Atlas Project By Linda Thomas Page 66

19 Ortonville  C.K. Orton arrived in Benson in 1871 by train and set out on foot.  He made his formal claim to 160 acres of pre-empted government land. He settled on section nine of Township 121, range 46.  C.K. Orton and his three brothers built three building near the lake and started farming. In 1881 Ortonville was organized as a village.  On August 19, 1897, a fire destroyed the entire east side of town, ten buildings in all.

20 Madison  In 1884, land was bought from John Anderson and at that time, it was a field of wheat.  Many people moved from Lac qui Parle Village to Madison. Madison was located on the rail line of the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railroad.  C. P. Moe suggested the name Madison in memory of his former home, Madison, WI.  The first freight and passenger train arrived in 1884. Madison was incorporated in 1885.  Both Dawson and Madison started to petition for county seat status. The first county sear was Lac qui Parle Village.  In 1889, Madison won county seat status. In 1894, Madison Milling Company was incorporated.

21 Big Stone County  The population density is 12 people per square mile.  There were 3,171 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 98.44% White, 0.17% Black/African American,.52% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.12% from other races. .34% of the population are Hispanic.  45.7% German, 21.0% are of Norwegian, 8.0% Swedish, and 6.3% Irish ancestry. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 187024— 18803,688 15266.70 % 18905,72255.20% 19008,73152.60% 19109,3677.30% 19209,7664.30% 19309,8380.70% 194010,4476.20% 19509,607−8.0% 19608,954−6.8% 19707,941−11.3% 19807,716−2.8% 19906,285−18.5% 20005,820−7.4% 20105,269−9.5% The County Seat of Big Stone County is Ortonville.

22 Lac Qui Parle County  The population density is 10 people per square mile.  There were 3,374 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 98.85% White, 0.16% Black/African American,.22% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.06% from other races. .26% of the population are Hispanic.  44.6% are of Norwegian and 35.2% German ancestry. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 1870145— 18804,891 3273.10 % 189010,382112.30% 190014,28937.60% 191015,4358.00% 192015,5540.80% 193015,398−1.0% 194015,5090.70% 195014,545−6.2% 196013,330−8.4% 197011,164−16.2% 198010,592−5.1% 19908,924−15.7% 20008,067−9.6% 20107,259−10.0% The County Seat of Lac qui Parle County is Benson.

23 Swift County  The population density is 16 people per square mile.  There were 4,821 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 90.67% White, 2.69% Black/African American,.50% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 1.52 Pacific Islander, 1.40% from other races.  2.68% of the population are Hispanic.  34.4% are of German, 30.5% Norwegian, 5.2% Swedish, and 5.1% Irish ancestry. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 18807,473— 189010,16136.00% 190013,50332.90% 191012,949−4.1% 192015,09316.60% 193014,735−2.4% 194015,4695.00% 195015,8372.40% 196014,936−5.7% 197013,177−11.8% 198012,920−2.0% 199010,724−17.0% 200011,95611.50% 20109,783−18.2% The County Seat of Swift County is Benson

24  Swift County was established February 18th, 1870.  This county was named after Henry Adoniram Swift, the governor of Minnesota in 1863.  In 1869, the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad had reached Willmar and the following year it arrived in Benson.  Swift County is primarily an agriculture community. It is a vast, flat stretch of land, unbroken by trees.  Besides farming, the county is home to agriculture equipment manufacturers, an ethanol plant, and the new Fibromin Plant which burns turkey litter to create electricity.  Swift County is home to a total of 24 lakes. Lake Oliver is one of the biggest in the county at 416 acres (1.7 km 2 ). The lakes in Swift County are great for fishing. There are 9 rivers and streams in this county. Swift County History

25 Yellow Medicine County  The Upper Sioux Indian Reservation is entirely within the county.  The county name is based on an Indian name for the bitter root of the Moon-seed plant, which they used for medicinal purposes.  The population density is 15 people per square mile.  There were 4,873 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 96.09% White, 0.11% Black/African American, 2.04% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.92% from other races.  1.76% of the population are Hispanic  36.5% are of Norwegian and 34.6% German ancestry. The County Seat of Yellow Medicine County is Granite Falls. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 18805,884— 18909,85467.50% 190014,60248.20% 191015,4065.50% 192016,5507.40% 193016,6250.50% 194016,9171.80% 195016,279−3.8% 196015,523−4.6% 197014,418−7.1% 198013,653−5.3% 199011,684−14.4% 200011,080−5.2% 201010,438−5.8%

26 County Data

27  Big Stone Lake is a long narrow, fresh water lake and reservoir forming the border between Minnesota and northeastern South Dakota.  The lake covers 12,610 acres of surface area, stretching 26 miles from end to end and averaging around 1 mile wide, and at an elevation of 965 feet is the lowest point in South Dakota.  Big Stone Lake is the source of the Minnesota River, which flows 332 miles to the Mississippi River. Flow from the lake to the Minnesota River is regulated by the Big Stone Dam, located at the southern end of the lake.  The lake is fed by the Little Minnesota River at its north end, which flows through the Traverse Gap.  Big Stone was formed at the end of the last ice age when glacial Lake Agassiz drained through the gap into Glacial River Warren. The valley of that river now holds Big Stone Lake. The communities of Ortonville, MN, and Big Stone City, SD are located at the southern tip of the lake; Browns Valley, MN, is located at the northern tip. Big Stone Lake

28 Big Stone Lake State Park  In 1961 that Big Stone Lake State Park was established at the urging of Ortonville business people who were concerned about lakeshore development.  Long ago, this area was the south end of glacial Lake Agassiz. Torrents of water cut the valley when glacial river Warren drained Lake Agassiz.  The area around Big Stone Lake State Park consists of granite and gneiss quarries.  The top three inches of stone is exposed and contains the fossil remains of sharks' teeth.  Big Stone Lake State Park is part of the Minnesota River Country Landscape Region, a large area which extends almost 200 miles from Ortonville to Mankato.  At one time, the landscape consisted of tall and mid-grass prairie, interspersed with marshes, lakes and streams.  Today, extensive farming has replaced the prairie. Cottonwoods, ash, and silver maples can be found on the lake's shoreline.  The Bonanza Scientific and Natural Area located within the park protects more than 80 acres of native oak savanna and glacial till prairie habitat. Bonanza also includes 50 acres of oak basswood forest and spring-fed ephemeral streams.

29 Marsh Lake  Marsh Lake is a man-made reservoir on the Minnesota River which has one of the only two nesting colonies of the white pelican in Minnesota.  The American White Pelican, one of two species of pelicans in North America, is one of the world's largest birds. They can weigh as much as 30 pounds and have wingspans that can reach 110 inches.  The American White Pelican breeds in inland shallow freshwater lakes, wet prairies, and marshes during the summer from southern Canada and Minnesota west to northern California. They begin their migration to their winter grounds along the Gulf Coast in early fall.

30 Lac qui Parle Wildlife Management Area  The management of wildlife -- white-tailed deer, geese and other animals -- is a major success story.  In the fall of 1958, only 150 geese were counted at Lac qui Parle. Since then, management practices have brought as many as 120,000 geese at one time.  Shortly after 1826, Joseph Renville, an independent fur trader built a stockade overlooking the foot of Lac qui Parle. Within the stockade, Dr. Thomas Smith Williamson and Alexander Huggins founded the Lac qui Parle Sioux Mission in July, 1835.  The missionaries translated the Gospel and several hymns into the Dakota language. They also completed the first dictionary of the language.  Lac qui Parle was designated as a state park in 1941.  At the close of the last glacial period, 13,000 to 15,000 years ago, Glacial Lake Agassiz, the largest freshwater lake the world has known, covered much of northwest Minnesota.  For thousands of years, this lake drained southward through Glacial River Warren. This torrential river carved out what is now known as the Minnesota River Valley.  Down the length of the Minnesota River, where major tributaries joined it, deltas formed natural dams which resulted in wide lakes." Lac qui Parle Lake was formed in this manner, as was Marsh Lake to the north.

31 Minnesota Atlas Project By Linda Thomas Page 21

32 Thief River Falls  Thief River Falls takes its name from a geographic feature, the falls of the Red Lake River at its confluence with the Thief River.  The name of the river is a loose translation of the Ojibwe phrase, Gimood-akiwi ziibi, literally, the "Stolen-land river" or "Thieving Land river," which originated when a band of Dakota Indians occupied a secret encampment along the river, hence "stealing" the land, before being discovered and routed by the neighboring Ojibwe.  In the Treaty of Old Crossing of 1863, the Moose Dung's Indian Reservation was established on the west bank of the Thief River, at its confluence with Red Lake River.  This Indian Reservation was dissolved in 1904 and their population incorporated as part of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa.  Thief River Falls marked the limit of navigation on the Red Lake River.  The town site was established in 1887 and later incorporated as a city in 1896.  Thief River Falls first developed as a lumber milling town.  It is located in a major agriculture area because of the rich soil left by ancient, Glacial Lake Agassiz.  The Great Northern and the Soo Line railroads brought prosperity when Thief River Falls became a center for shipping wheat.

33 Kittson County  The population density is 5 people per square mile.  There were 2,719 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 98.09% White, 0.15% Black/African American,.26% Native American,.26% Asian,.87% from other races.  1.27% of the population are Hispanic.  30.1% are of Norwegian, 13.7% German, 25.7% Swedish, and 6.6 Polish ancestry. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 18601,612— 187064−96.0% 18809051314.10% 18905,387495.20% 19007,88946.40% 19109,66922.60% 192010,63810.00% 19309,688−8.9% 194010,71710.60% 19509,649−10.0% 19608,343−13.5% 19706,853−17.9% 19806,672−2.6% 19905,767−13.6% 20005,285−8.4% 20104,552−13.9% The County Seat of Kittson County is Hallock.

34 Kittson County History  Kittson County was once part of glacial Lake Agassiz.  The early explorers of the region were the fur traders. Pembina, North Dakota's oldest settlement, which was located just across the Red River of the North, dates its beginning to 1797 when the first trading post was established.  St. Vincent, which is located directly across the Red River from Pembina, was settled in 1857. With rumors of a railroad coming through, settlers moved across the river from Pembina to stake their claims.  Many of these early settlers were Métis, a mixture of native and naturalized North Americans.  Nearly twenty years later, in 1878, the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad line finally reached St. Vincent and opened up the area to settlement.  The communities of Donaldson, Kennedy, Hallock, Northcote, Humbolt and St. Vincent were established along this line. It wasn't until the early 1900s when the eastern portion of the county was settled.

35 Marshall County Historical populations CensusPop.%± 1880992— 18909,130820.40% 190015,69871.90% 191016,3384.10% 192019,44319.00% 193017,003−12.5% 194018,3648.00% 195016,125−12.2% 196014,262−11.6% 197013,060−8.4% 198013,027−0.3% 199010,993−15.6% 200010,155−7.6% 20109,439−7.1%  The population density is 6 people per square mile.  There were 4,791 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 97.2% White, 0.10% Black/African American,.29% Native American,.17% Asian,1.62% from other races.  2.93% of the population are Hispanic.  43.2% are of Norwegian, 11.7% German, 9.6% Swedish, and 12.1 Polish ancestry. The County Seat of Marshall County is Warren.

36 Pennington County  The population density is 22 people per square mile.  There were 6,033 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 97.02% White, 0.21% Black/African American,.82% Native American,.59% Asian,.51% from other races.  1.24% of the population are Hispanic.  49.0% are of Norwegian, 15.4% German, and 7.2% Swedish, ancestry. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 19109,376— 192012,09129.00% 193010,487−13.3% 194012,91323.10% 195012,9650.40% 196012,468−3.8% 197013,2666.40% 198015,25815.00% 199013,306−12.8% 200013,5842.10% 201013,9302.50% The County Seat of Pennington County is Thief River Falls.

37 Polk County  The population density is 16 people per square mile.  There were 14,008 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 94.18% White, 0.33% Black/African American,.1.30% Native American,.30% Asian, 2.57% from other races.  4.79% of the population are Hispanic.  41.7% are of Norwegian, 19.7% German, and 5.8% French ancestry. Historical populations YearPop. 1860 240 1870 0 1880 11,433 1890 30,192 1900 35,429 1910 36,001 1920 37,090 1930 36,019 1940 37,734 1950 35,900 1960 36,182 1970 34,435 1980 34,844 1990 32,498 2000 31,369 2010 31,600 The County Seat of Polk County is Crookston.

38 Roseau County  The population density is 10 people per square mile.  There were 7,101 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 95.92% White, 0.13% Black/African American,.1.42% Native American, 1.73% Asian,.008% from other races. .43% of the population are Hispanic.  41.% are of Norwegian, 18.8% German, and 10.7% Swedish ancestry. The County Seat of Roseau County is Roseau. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 1900 6,994— 1910 11,33862.10% 1920 13,30517.30% 1930 12,621−5.1% 194015,10319.70% 1950 14,505−4.0% 1960 12,154−16.2% 1970 11,569−4.8% 1980 12,5748.70% 199015,02619.50% 2000 16,3388.70% 2010 15,629−4.3%

39 County Data

40 Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge  The refuge, originally named Mud Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, was established in 1937 primarily for waterfowl production and maintenance.  Located in eastern Marshall County, the 61,500 acres are situated in the aspen parkland region of northwest Minnesota.  In 1976, 4,000 acres of the refuge were designated a Wilderness Area.  Today, Agassiz is composed of 37,400 acres of wetlands, 11,650 acres of shrub lands, 9,900 acres of forestland, 1,710 acres of grassland, and 150 acres of cropland.  The Wilderness Area encompasses one of the most westerly extensions of black spruce tamarack bog in Minnesota.

41 Huntly Wildlife Management Area  This 6,000 acre unit is dominated by aspen woodland, lowland shrub land, and emergent vegetation, but also contains some oak savanna, rich fens, upland coniferous forest, and upland shrub land.  Given the wide variety of habitats on this unit, there are many opportunities to see a wide array of species.  Long-eared owl, bald eagle, and many other species have been seen on this unit.  Hunting options include: deer, bear, small game, and forest game birds.

42 East Park Wildlife Management Area  This 10,427 unit is comprised of aspen forest, shrub land, emergent wetland, and open water.  The 1700 acre Nelson Slough impoundment provides an excellent opportunity for viewing wetland species and it provides opportunity for waterfowl hunting.  There are three water access points and eight primitive campsites on this unit.  Management techniques that are often utilized on this site include hydro-axing young aspen and brush, timber harvest, and prescribed burning.  Hunting options include: deer, bear, small game, forest game birds, sharp tail grouse, and waterfowl.

43 Twin Lakes Wildlife Management Area  This unit is comprised of over 8,000 acres.  Over half of the unit is wetland, along with large and small blocks of aspen timber, oak savanna with dry prairie and some cropland for food plots. The major management is on waterfowl and big game production  Recreation opportunities include hiking, snow shoeing, cross-country skiing, berry picking, canoeing, and wildlife viewing.  Water access is available at several locations adjacent to the marshes.  Distinctive wildflowers include Culver's root, northern gentian, asters, blazing stars, goldenrod, and sunflowers.  Moose, sand hill cranes, sharp-tailed grouse, sharp-tailed sparrow, American bittern, short-eared owl, and yellow rail frequent the WMA.

44 Elm Lake Wildlife Management Area  Elm Lake Wildlife Management Area abuts the Agassiz refuge on the south. This 15,750-acre WMA is located on County Road 120, approximately 10 miles outside Holt. E  lm Lake WMA features a wheelchair-accessible boat dock in addition to primitive camping facilities.

45 Pelan & New Maine Wildlife Management Area  Pelan is a 887 acre WMA with a mixture of off-site aspen, scattered oak, brush prairie, and emergent wetland.  This unit is managed as aspen parkland through prescribed burning and the cutting of aspen and brush.  Hunting opportunities exist for upland game birds as well as big game species. Moose and Elk are occasionally seen utilizing this site.  New Maine is a 2,667 acre WMA consisting of a wide array of habitats. Oak savannas, oak woodlands, and aspen woodlands exist on the beach ridge running through the property, with shrub lands and sedge meadows on the lower ground.  Yellow rail and american bittern are just a couple of bird species that can be found on this unique area.

46 Minnesota Atlas Project By Linda Thomas Page 34

47 Hibbing  Hibbing was founded in 1893 by the town's namesake, Frank Hibbing.  Hibbing is the home to the world's largest iron ore mine, which was discovered by Leonidas Merritt.  In 1887, Mr. Hibbing settled in Duluth where he established a real estate business and began explorations on the Vermilion Range.  In 1892, he headed a party of thirty men at Mountain Iron and cut a road through the wilderness to Section 22, 58-20. An expert iron ore prospector, he soon discovered the surface indication which led him to believe in the existence of extensive ore deposits.  In 1914 two men, Carl Wickman and Andrew "Bus Andy" Anderson, started a bus line between Hibbing and Alice, Minnesota which would eventually become Greyhound Lines, the world's largest bus company.

48 Chisholm  The site of Chisholm was first explored in 1892 by E.J. Longyear, inventor of the diamond drill, and for whom the lake in town is named.  He founded the first mine in town, the Pillsbury.  Later, Archibald Chisholm, who was living near Ely, migrated to Hibbing and founded the Chisholm mine there. I  n 1901, along with the Chisholm Improvement Community, plotted the town and had it incorporated as a village.  With a railroad line to Duluth and plenty of mining work available in and near town, the population of Chisholm grew rapidly, and by 1908, the town had more than 6,000 people and 500 buildings.  On September 5, 1908, a fast-moving forest fire obliterated the town due to the dry conditions during the late summer and wood construction of nearly all the buildings in town.  Many people sought escape by going into the lake. No one died in the fire. Afterwards, building codes were enhanced, and by the next summer, more than 70 fireproof buildings had been erected.  Chisholm became a city in 1934.

49 Virginia  The area was originally named "qeechaquepagem" by the Ojibwe tribe, which roughly means "lake of the North birds".  The first settlers came to Virginia in 1890, lured by prospects of streets paved with gold and then uncovered the iron deposits.  On November 12 1892, Virginia became incorporated as a village and the sale of land lots began.  Virginia was destroyed by fire in 1893.  On February 2, 1895, Virginia was incorporated as a city and the W.T. Bailey Lumber Mill started.  Fire destroyed Virginia again in 1900; thereafter all commercial building was built out of brick or concrete.  Virginia Rainy Lake Lumber Mill opened 1989 and was the largest white pine mill in the world; the last log ran on October 9, 1929.

50 Eveleth  The Village of Eveleth was platted on April 22, 1893, and founded in 1894, located approximately 1 mile southwest of the present location, on land then included in the Adams-Spruce Mine.  The community was named after Erwin Eveleth, a prominent employee of a timber company in the area.  In 1895, iron ore was discovered beneath the village site and a post office was established.  In 1900, the village was moved to its present location. The village was incorporated as a City in 1913. When the city expanded, it annexed portions of Fayal Township, including the former unincorporated communities of Alice Mine Station.  Eveleth is located on the Mesabi Range, one of sub-regions within Minnesota Iron Range.  The town's economy has always been tied to the iron ore mining and processing which occurs in the area.

51 Laurentian Divide  The Laurentian Divide is a continental divide dividing the direction of water flow in eastern and southern Canada and the northern Midwestern United States.  The divide crosses into the United States in northeast Minnesota at the Height of Land Portage.  Near Hibbing it forms a three-way divide at the Hill of Three Waters where the watersheds of the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi River systems meet with the Hudson Bay basin.

52 St. Louis County  It is the largest county by total area in Minnesota, and the second largest in the United States east of the Mississippi River; in land area alone, after Aroostook County, Maine.  The population density is 32 people per square mile.  There were 95,800 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 94.86% White, 0.85% Black/African American, 2.03% Native American,.66% Asian,.22% from other races. .80% of the population are Hispanic.  13.7% are of Norwegian, 17.% German, 9.7% Swedish, 12.1% Finnish, 6.0% Irish and 5.3% Italian ancestry. The County Seat of St. Louis County is Duluth. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 1860406— 18704,5611023.40% 18804,504−1.2% 189044,862896.00% 190082,93284.90% 1910163,27496.90% 1920206,39126.40% 1930204,596−0.9% 1940206,9171.10% 1950206,062−0.4% 1960231,58812.40% 1970220,693−4.7% 1980222,2290.70% 1990198,213−10.8% 2000200,5281.20% 2010200,226−0.2%

53 St. Louis County History  St. Louis County was founded on February 20, 1855 as Doty County and had its name changed to Newton County on March 3, 1855.  It originally consisted of the area east and south of the St. Louis River, while the area east of the Vermilion River and north of the St. Louis River was part of Superior County.  Superior County was renamed St. Louis County.  Then on March 1, 1856, that St. Louis County became Lake County, and Newton County was renamed St. Louis County and had that eastern area added to it; it was also expanded westward by incorporating parts of Itasca County, which then also included most of Carlton County.  On May 23, 1857 St. Louis County took its current shape when Carlton County was formed from parts of St. Louis and Pine Counties.

54 Itasca County  It is named after Lake Itasca, which is in turn a shortened version the Latin words veritas caput, meaning 'truth' and 'head', a reference to the source of the Mississippi River.  The population density is 16 people per square mile.  There were 24,528 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile.  The racial makeup of the county was 94.64% White, 0.16% Black/African American, 3.40% Native American,.27% Asian,.16% from other races. .60% of the population are Hispanic.  13.8% are of Norwegian, 25.6.% German, 7.2% Swedish, 7.7% Finnish, 6.2% Irish and 5.0% English ancestry. The County Seat of St. Louis County is Grand Rapids. Historical populations CensusPop.%± 185097— 186051−47.4% 18709688.20% 188012429.20% 1890743499.20% 19004,573515.50% 191017,208276.30% 192023,87638.70% 193027,22414.00% 194032,99621.20% 195033,3211.00% 196038,00614.10% 197035,530−6.5% 198043,06921.20% 199040,863−5.1% 200043,9927.70% 201045,0582.40%

55 Superior National Forest  Superior National Forest, part of the United States National Forest system, is located in the Arrowhead Region of the state of Minnesota between the Canada-United States border and the north shore of Lake Superior.  The area is part of the greater Boundary Waters region along the border of Minnesota and the Canadian province of Ontario, a historic and important thoroughfare in the fur trading and exploring days of British North America.  Superior National Forest comprises over 3,900,000 acres of woods and waters.  The majority of the forest is multiple-use, including both logging and recreational activities such as camping, boating, and fishing.  Slightly over a quarter of the forest however is set aside as a wilderness reserve known as the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA), where canoer’s can travel along interconnected lakes and rivers and over historic portages.

56 Sturgeon River State Forest  View beautiful second-growth northern forest as well as lots of wildlife. Bald eagles, hairy wood peckers, kingfishers, wood ducks, beavers, and river otters all can be found within this forest.  Mountain bikers can take their pick between Taconite and Arrowhead state trails to ride through upland portions of this state forest or if you prefer the water, you can take a trip on Little Fork River State Water Trail, the choice is yours.  There are no campgrounds within the forest. However, camping is available at McCarthy Beach State Park or in the George Washington and Kabetogama state forests.

57 Kabetogama State Forest  The Kabetogama State Forest is located in Koochiching and St. Louis counties of Minnesota.  The forest borders the Superior National Forest and the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness to the east, the Sturgeon River State Forest to the south, the Nett Lake Indian Reservation to the west, and Voyageurs National Park to the north. t  Popular outdoor recreational activities are largely centered around the abundant lakes and rivers in the forest, such as boating, canoeing, kayaking and fishing.  "Boat-in camping“ is possible on the popular 39,271 acres Lake Vermilion, and more traditional camping is possible throughout the forest. Campsites administered by the forest are available on Namakan Lake and the 24,033 acres Kabetogama Lake, which are technically located within Voyageurs National Park.

58 George Washington State Forest  The George Washington State Forest is located in Itasca, Koochiching, and St. Louis counties of Minnesota.  The forest was established and named after George Washington in 1931, to commemorate the bicentennial of his birth.  The forest borders the Chippewa National Forest and completely surrounds the Scenic State Park to the west, and borders the Sturgeon River State Park and McCarthy Beach State Park to the east.  The Taconite State Trail passes through the forest.  Wildfires were common in the area from 1880 to 1930, when the area was logged and homesteaded.  The last large fire occurred in 1933. The infrastructure of the forest was expanded largely during the Great Depression.  Between 1933 and 1945 three Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps were located in the forest and were responsible for campground construction, road- building, and soil and water conservation projects.  The popularity and extent of outdoor recreation in the forest are attributed to the work done by the CCC.

59 Lake Vermillion  Lake Vermilion is a freshwater lake in northeastern Minnesota. The Ojibwe originally called the lake Onamuni, which means "Lake of the Sunset Glow“. French fur traders translated this to the Latin word Vermilion, which is a red pigment.“  Lake Vermilion is located between the towns of Tower on the east and Cook on the west, in the heart of Minnesota Arrowhead Region and at the northern fringe of the Mesabi Iron Range.  The Vermilion Range was an area known for mining during the late 19th century and early-to-mid-20th century, and the Soudin Mine operated just at the eastern edge of the lake.  Tourists are drawn by Lake Vermilion's reputation as a fishing destination, as well as its setting in the northern Minnesota wilderness.  The lake is surrounded by parts of the Superior National Forest and the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW).  The Minnesota DNR rates Lake Vermilion as the fifth largest lake by surface area within Minnesota borders.  The surface area of Lake Vermilion is 39,271 acres and has a maximum depth of 76 feet.

60 Pelican Lake  Pelican is a 10,945 acre, a class 7 lake located west of Highway 53 at Orr, MN.  Pelican has 54 miles of shoreline and over 50 islands to explore.  Slightly over half of the lake is less than 15 feet deep. Bass, northern pike, and pan fish dominate the sport-fish community.  For over 80 years, tourists have been drawn to Pelican Lake and Orr, Minnesota because of its reputation for great fishing, clear water and the opportunity to experience the serenity of true wilderness.  Pines and evergreens line the shores along with rocks left over from the ice age.

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