2Geographers tend to study the surface of the earth, its landscapes, its features, and why they are where they are.Geologists look deeper into the earth than do geographers and study its rocks, the internal processes of the earth (such as plate tectonics and volcanoes), and study periods of earth history many millions and even billions of years ago.
3Land FormsLandforms are natural physical features of the earth's surfaceValleysPlateausMountainsPlainsHillsVolcanoesMesasglaciers.
8Ozark PlateauThe Ozark Plateau, in the northeastern part of the state, is an extension of the Missouri and Arkansas landscape. It's marked by rivers with steep valley walls separated by broad flat areas.
10Prairie PlainsWest and south of the Ozark Plateau lies the region known as the Prairie Plains. This area produces most of the state's coal and a great deal of oil. Cattle graze on the Prairie Plains and farms in the Arkansas River Valley, east of Muskogee, produce spinach, beans, and carrots.
12Ouachita MountainsOn the border of Arkansas, in the southeastern part of Oklahoma, are the Ouachita Mountains. These sandstone ridges, running east to west, form the roughest land in Oklahoma. Spring-fed streams run through narrow valleys between the ridges.
14Sandstone Hills Region In the north central part of Oklahoma, extending south from the Kansas border to the Red River, is the Sandstone Hills Region. The Sandstone Hills are from 250 to 400 feet high. Some are covered with Blackjack and Post Oak forests. It was in this region that early oil development commenced in Oklahoma.
16Arbuckle MountainsThe Arbuckle Mountains comprise an area of about 1,000 square miles in south-central Oklahoma. The low mountains rise about 600 to 700 feet above the plains. Unusual rock formations have been created by erosion in the mountains. The area is used for cattle grazing.
20Red River Valley Region The Red River Valley Region, in southern Oklahoma along the Texas border, is characterized by rolling prairie. Some forested hills can also be found in the area. The soil is sandy and fertile. Cotton, peanuts, and vegetables are grown in this region.
22Red Beds PlainsTo the west of the Sand Hills, are the Red Beds Plains. The largest land region in Oklahoma, the Red Beds Plains stretch from the Kansas border in the north, south through the center of the state. The Red Beds Plains slope upward from east to west. In the east are some forested areas. In the west the region is covered with grass.
24Gypsum HillsThe Gypsum Hills lie west of the Red Beds Plains and extend north to the High Plains in the northwestern part of Oklahoma. The Gypsum Hills are low (150 to 200 feet) hills capped with 15 to 20 foot layers of gypsum. The Gypsum Hills sparkle in the sunlight because of their gypsum content and, because of this, are sometimes called the Glass Hills.
26High PlainsThe High Plains, in northwestern Oklahoma, are level grasslands. The High Plains rise from about 2,000 feet above sea level in the east to 4,973 feet above sea level at Black Mesa in the west. This region includes the Oklahoma Panhandle, the strip of land 166 miles long and only 34 miles wide between Colorado and Kansas in the north and Texas in the south.
27Cross TimbersWashington Irving described the Cross Timbers as “forests of cast iron” in his travels when he wrote in his journal
28Black Mesa the highest point in Oklahoma - 4,973 feet above sea level Located in the Western tip of the panhandle.
30Glistens when wet and is called the Lake of White Water Great Salt PlainsGlistens when wet and is called the Lake of White Water
31Little SaharaLittle Sahara State Park is located in NW Oklahoma, south of Waynoka. Little Sahara offers over 1600 acres of rideable sand dunes ranging in height from 25 to 75 feet.
32Tornado AlleyTornado Alley: Oklahoma averages annually 53 tornadoes, which do millions of dollars’ worth of damageand kill an average of 5 people each.
33Oklahoma Elevation Map This is a generalized topographic map of Oklahoma. It shows elevation trends across the state. Black Mesa at 4,973 feet - the highest point in Oklahoma. The lowest point is Little River at 289 feet.:
37Great RaftGreat Raft-natural dam created by sticks and muck draining toward the Mississippi It blocked shipping on the Red River all the way to Louisiana. Opened By a “snag boat” invented by Capt. Henry Shreve.
38McClellen-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System Built to help use the shallow Arkansas River and smaller rivers for steamboats to get to the Mississippi River and keel boats
39Water Banking interception and storage of water for drought years. Lake EufaulaLake Texoma