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Ecology AP Readiness Mr. Snider Sherman Oaks CES – download this ppt.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology AP Readiness Mr. Snider Sherman Oaks CES – download this ppt."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology AP Readiness Mr. Snider Sherman Oaks CES – download this ppt

2 Topics Biotic and Abiotic factors Wind circulation Biomes Ecological succession Food Chain vs Web Energy Pyramid Primary productivity Growth, K –r selection Cycles – N C O H 2 O Predator / Prey Past essays –2010 A + B –2009 A –2008 A (2) + B –2007 A + B

3 Biotic and Abiotic factors Biotic – Living Abiotic - Nonliving Plant – Producers Primary importance Fungus Bacteria – Decomposers 2 imp. Animal – Consumers 3 imp. Temperature - average & range Rainfall – average and monthly Soil type – thick, thin, material Sunlight – direct, length of day (season)

4 2010 B



7 Why do deserts form? Cool dry air moves down, expands, absorbs moisture Driven by global wind circulation Also mountain affects – Sonora, Gobi


9 Climatograph 2 data sets – 1 temperature (C); 1 rainfall (mm) Different graphs have different scales - Caution


11 Desert Less than 30 cm rain Cold or Warm (30 ) Cacti, succulents Hawks, snakes, lizards Scorpions, rodents

12 Rainforest – Tropical Broadleaf evergreen, epiphytes: orchids, bromeliads Rainfall over 200-400 cm Temp - hot 25-29 C Big cat, big snake, colorful birds, primate Most diverse Thin soil – nutrients in plants Near equator – 12 hr sun, daily afternoon rain

13 Rainforest – Tropical Dry Rain 150-200 cm Temp 25-29 C Seasonal dry, wet Monsoons –heavy seasonal rains India Tiger, Asian elephant

14 Savanna – tropical grassland Low rain 30-50 cm Short wet winter, long dry summer Fire renewed Grasses, shrub, acacia & boabab tree Lions, cheetah, zebra, hyena, elephant (Lion King) Thick soil

15 Chaparral- Mediterranean Shrub Long dry summer, Short wet winter Fire renewed Temperate Low rain 30-50 cm Herby plants, shrubs, small trees Deer, goat, birds, insect, amphibians, reptiles Us- SoCal

16 Temperate grassland – Prairie, steppes Seasonal temp– cold winters, hot summers Seasonal rain, high summer, wet winter Grass, forbs Fire renewed Buffalo, horse, deer, antelope (O Give me) Burrowers – prairie dog Deep, fertile soil

17 Temperate broadleaf forest Cold winters, warm summers Seasonal rains Fertile soil Maple, Oak, beech trees Deer, bears, wolverines

18 Northern coniferous forest - Taiga Long cold winter, short summer Low precipitation Fir, Spruce Deer, bear

19 Tundra (+ Alpine) Permafrost layer Caribou, reindeer, arctic – fox, owl, wolf, lemmings Mosses, grasses Very low precipitation Dark 3 months of year

20 Succesion Pioneer orgainism – lichen Primary – lichen, moss, grass, shrub, conifer, hardwood Secondary – Fire: return to grasses –Ex. Mt. St Helens Pond – buildup, convert to swamp then grassland




24 2008 A

25 Chain vs web Food chain – simple: who eats who Food web – complicated: who everone is related to; if weighted, arrows different thicknesses Reality – web; testable - chain


27 Energy Pyramid ~ 10% added to next level as biomass ~ 90% lost to environment as heat Not all at once, each process, enzyme, mechanical energy loses up to 80% Origin of Energy – Sun ?%

28 Vocab Autotroph – own energy Heterotroph – other energy Internal – animal External – fungus Producer Consumer (levels below) Decomposer Herbivore – plant only Omnivore – both Carnivore – meat only Saprobe – decomposer

29 2009 A

30 Compared with other terrestrial biomes, deserts have extremely low productivity. (a)Discuss how temperature, soil composition and annual precipitation limit productivity in deserts (b)Describe a four organism food chain that might characterize a desert community, and identify the trophic level of each organism (c)Describe the results depicted in the graph. Explain one anatomical difference and one physiological difference between species A and B that account for the CO2 uptake patterns shown. Discuss the evolutionary significance of each difference. 2007 A

31 The energy flow in ecosystems is based on the primary productivity of autotrophs (a)Discuss the energy flow through an ecosystem and the relative efficiency with which it occurs (b)Discuss the impact of the following on energy flow on a global scale. (a)Deforestation (b)Global climate change 2007 B

32 K = carrying capaciity exponential growth in middle

33 Populations P=I+B-E-D Populations= Immigration + Birth- Emigration-Death Be able to calculate rates Ex. What is the population after 5 years if the initial population is 5000 flying monkeys, the birth rate is 1/250 monkey per year, death rate is 1/500 monkeys per year, immigration is 10 monkeys per year and emigration is 50 monkies to Oz?

34 Short lived Little parental care Many offspring Wide distribution Rapid reproduction Long lived Parental care common Fewer offspring Narrow distribution Delayed reproduction R K Answer is 4850 flying monkeys – run away

35 2008 A

36 Dissolved O2 saturation graph Higher temp= lower saturation How to suffocate a fish w/o removing O2 directly – heat the water

37 2008 B

38 Nitrogen Cycle – Bacteria rock

39 Carbon Cycle

40 Water cycle

41 Delayed increase due to reproduction and delayed decrease due to starvation

42 Predator prey

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