Presentation on theme: "Student plagiarism in Norwegian universities and university colleges: What works, what doesn’t work, what still needs to be done Jude Carroll KTH & Oxford."— Presentation transcript:
Student plagiarism in Norwegian universities and university colleges: What works, what doesn’t work, what still needs to be done Jude Carroll KTH & Oxford Brookes University, UK
‘Shared problem, shared responsibility’: but also … shared solutions. Shared ideas. Shared expertise. … a network across Norwegian Higher Education …. open exchange [of data, ideas, approaches…..] …. learning from other countries’ experiences
About the presentation Mix of talk and discussion / activity Key issues, not all the issues Starts with my summary of effective practice + [what has not been effective] [what I suggest needs doing….] Then addressing five points in detail – [and I will define plagiarism ….]
About me and plagiarism …. from 2001 Plagiarism as way to encourage educational development … helping students understand ‘learning’ …. as a way to show students what we value Plagiarism as a complex issue.
What is plagiarism? What do we mean by ‘plagiarism’? …. In this department? ….. At this level of study? …… for this particular task?
What is a plagiarising student doing? She is submitting work which is not her own work. It is more correct to say that the work belongs to someone else, not to the student. She is not acknowledging the person who did the work. She is seeking personal credit or benefit from the work. [‘Here is my work. Now give me some credit in return for this work.’] She is creating a false impression in the mind of the person who is giving a grade or giving her credit. What is deception involving plagiarism? Trying to deceive the person giving the grade about who did the submitted work This is cheating -assumes she knows the correct way -assumes she has planned her actions with that aim -assumes you can show evidence of her intention to deceive
Norwegian statement on Ethics in research in the social sciences etc (2007) These actions are mentioned: "falsification, fabrication, plagiarism and other serious breaches of good scientific practice that have been committed wilfully or through gross negligence* when planning, carrying out or reporting on research". * my emphasis
Me: ‘Not all plagiarism is cheating’ Journalist: ‘Yes, but……’ Q: How much plagiarism in Norway is cheating? Q: How often do students cheat? Q: What students cheat more than others? Q: Do the students these days cheat more than they used to? Q: Why do teachers think students are ready? Q: How often do students not understand teachers’ expectations? Q: Which students need extra teaching and extra support and do not get it? Q: What has changed in the last few years for students finding and using information?
1.Copy without acknowledging the source – from the Web, from books, from experts (for example, taking another person’s code), from peers 2.Take: Use another person’s argument or ideas or research or structure or images etc without giving credit 3.Commission: ask other students, experts or ‘services’ to do the work 4.Re-use : their own work or another person’s work 5.‘Freeload’ in groups and fabricate [‘make up….’] What students do when they plagiarise
….. cheating It happens I hate it I can tell you many stories about it. You can probably tell each other many stories about it……. It is rising from a low or very low base…. In the Anglophone world, it is now Big Business. One or two examples……..
What works? What doesn’t work? What needs to be done?
What doesn’t work? 1.Looking for simple solutions 2.Expecting quick solutions 3.Expecting one or two people to solve it 4.Expecting it in only some students 5.Expecting plagiarism to go away
Are there simple solutions? Software No home exams….. Higher penalties Tell the students, ‘Don’t do it!’ [often at the beginning of the programme…..] Deny / ignore the issue …. Blame some groups
What works? [What has been shown around the world to be an effective way to deter students from plagiarism?] 1.Pedagogic issue, not evidence of lack of morality 2.Students and teachers understand what is needed 3.Assignments that say: ‘Make an answer’ not ‘Find an answer’ 4.Policies that do not hurt the person who spots the plagiarism 5.Procedures for dealing with cases that are fast, fair and trusted
16 Do students understand…. - what plagiarism is? - What they must do to avoid it? -what skills they need? [NOT just referencing…..] In five minutes: 1.% starting university who understand 2.% in Year 3 who understand
17 To build understanding Active discussion, not passive listening Little and often [Once is not enough] Building over time to more complex skills
What needs to be done [I think] 1. Deal with false ideas All plagiarism is cheating All plagiarism must be reported All plagiarism cases are mismanaged by Disciplinary Board/Appeals Committees Plagiarism is ‘rife’; it is a serious threat to standards 2.Get teachers to see plagiarism as their issue 3. Get teachers to rethink the assignments they give to students - especially home examinations 4. Teach students the necessary skills 5. Devise procedures for cases which match the needs of 2009
Action 1: Dealing with false ideas Plagiarism results from students who - do not understand what is expected - do not do what is expected - cheat or deliberately try and deceive.
Cheating, – intent to deceive MANAGE and PUNISH REPORT for DISCIPLINE The work is ‘not the student’s own’. Student does not know MARK and TEACH Where is this line? Student knows; but the work is ’not OK’
Action 2: Getting teachers to see this as their issue Removing the blocks Seeing teaching as skills development + content Programme level planning Shared responsibilities They are accrediting learning
What needs to be done [I think] 1. Deal with false ideas All plagiarism is cheating All plagiarism must be reported All plagiarism cases are mismanaged Plagiarism is a serious threat to standards 2.Get teachers to see plagiarism as their issue 3. Get teachers to rethink assignments - especially home examinations 4. Teach students the necessary skills 5. Devise procedures for cases which match the needs of 2009
23 Procedures for cases: the ‘can of worms’ Read them through with me. There will be chances to discuss these.
My recommendations Start anywhere Build local coalitions and groups Top-down and bottom up Programme focus Policy underpins everything: if that is wrong, then everything else is tough…… Let’s come back to these issues after we hear from the rest of the speakers today……