Presentation on theme: "Student plagiarism: deterring it, detecting it, dealing with it"— Presentation transcript:
1 Student plagiarism: deterring it, detecting it, dealing with it Jude Carroll, Oxford Brookes University
2 This is my plan for this lecture…… -Defining plagiarism. What kinds of student plagiarism are a problem in 2007? […..in Belgium?]-An approach based on learning, not on punishment. A holistic approach is needed to deal with plagiarism.I will describe what is needed in a holistic approach. We must- teach students the necessary skills-design programmes and design tasks to limit copying- ensure effective detection- agree how much plagiarism makes a ‘case’ for action- match the level of plagiarism with the consequencesAppropriate policies are central to a holistic approach. I will make some recommendations for policies for 2007 plagiarism.
3 Defining plagiarism[translation] ‘Plagiarism is any identical or lightly altered use of someone else’s work (ideas, texts, structures, images, plans etc) without adequate reference to the source’KU Leuven, 2007
4 How can work belong to others? ‘lightly altered …someone else’s work …adequate reference of the source’What is ‘adequate’? What sources need reference?How can work belong to others?How much do I alter to make work mine?‘work’ What is that?
5 What explains our interest in student plagiarism? Academics give credit for learningLearning is demonstrated by understandingUnderstanding is demonstrated by change (in you or in the work)So……No change, then no understandingNo understanding, then no learningNo learning, then no credit
6 Do KU Leuven students understand what plagiarism is? Students must understand the implicit and tacit assumptions in the definitionStudents must link the idea of plagiarism to their own everyday decisions as students……Students must discuss and explore their ideas (and their false ideas)Activity: Which are plagiarism?
7 Transparency……….The reader must know what the [student] writer is doing with sources, with others’ ideasStudents need to learn to show credibility and to borrow authority
8 ‘If the person marking your work cannot tell whether they are marking your work or someone else’s work, that person might wonder, ‘Is it plagiarism?’You create a false assumption for your assessor if you borrow others’ work (published or unpublished) and do not say right there in the text where it comes from.’
9 Misunderstanding what we mean by ‘learning’ leads to plagiarism Copying from other studentsCopying from books, from the internet, from previous workCollecting chunks of text from the Web and sticking them togetherHardly changing the original author’s words or changing them in superficial ways[Students bypass any evidence of understanding]
10 Poor use of citation rules leads to plagiarism -Some text quoted, some not marked as quotations-Some text cited correctly, some lifted but not cited.- Paraphrasing that sticks too closely to the original text
11 Wrong decisions and actions lead to plagiarism -Submitting the same piece of work twice-Sharing work with fellow students who then use it to ‘do their own work’-Over- use of editing & proofreading-Sub-contracting work which seems ‘not important’[Marker is not sure whose work is being judged]
12 Misconduct and cheating leads to plagiarism -Paying someone; buying an assignment-Finding it (or most of it)-Copying most (or all) and hiding the fact-Handing in someone else’s answer or work-Lying about your contribution to the group-Deliberately disguising your breach of the rules
13 Acting relies on more than understanding…….. “Ok, here is an assignment. How do I do it? ……..Can I find the answer?Has someone already answered this? Has a fellow student done it?How hard is it? Can I do a good answer? Is it worth spending the time?How much time will it take? If I do it, what else will suffer?If I fake it or copy it, will I be caught?If I am caught, what are the likely consequences?”Most students do the assignment.A growing number answer with plagiarism, intentionally or unintentionally.
14 Most worries about plagiarism are about misconduct & cheating Most cases of plagiarism come from misunderstanding and poor use of the rules of citation and attribution Q: Are university policies designed to deal with the small number of deliberate cheaters …. or the large and growing number of unintentional cases?
15 Dealing with plagiarism requires a ‘holistic’ approach Understanding ‘the rules of the game’Teaching students the skillsDesigning out easy copying; designing in apprenticeshipA range of detection strategiesAgreeing ‘How serious?’ [High, medium, low?]Agreeing what proves a caseProcedures that do not punish whoever spots itFair, consistent, defensible penalties
16 Discussion activityHow holistic is your university?Where are the strengths?Where are the gaps?
17 “I told them about plagiarism so they definitely know about it but I still get it.What’s wrong with them?”
18 ‘Teach students the skills they will need.’ If I told you how to play cricket, could you play it?Could you play it well?What would you need to be a good cricket player?
19 AnalysingEvaluatingParaphrasing and summarisingStructure‘Mining’ texts to support opinionsREFERENCINGtaking apart; creating & answering sub-questionsmaking judgments about value, reliability, authorityothers’ words and ideaswhat order to put things in; subheads, paragraphsUsing others’ authority
20 Focus on course design and task design find it?fake it?make it?do it?
21 designing out easy cheating designing in practiceInductionDiagnosisSkills developmentFeedbackPracticedesigning out easy cheatingNovelty - context/formatSpecificity - local, recent, personal, individual, uniqueHigher-order cognitive skills*Assess the processAuthenticate the authorYES: rank, justify, choose, revise, interpret, analyse, invent, planNO: knowledge (eg. ‘describe, state’), basic understanding (‘explain’).NO: generic application
22 Influencing decisions 5: Use a wide range of detection strategies. electronicmanualProactive‘Should I look carefully at anyone’s work?Using a commercial tool(Urkund, Turnitin, etc)Matching exams and courseworkViva xx%Meta-writing taskKeeping the order of submissionReactive‘Is this really the student’s own work?’Advanced Google search‘Properties’ functionchecking formatting,Using a commercial tool (Urkund, Turnitin etc)changes in languageChanges in referencingChanges in formatting, word processingOff the topicToo advanced language or contentInappropriate words, content
23 ‘Detection’ is a process….. suspicionactioninvestigationconfirmation
24 Final stages: dealing with cases How much evidence?Classifying the seriousnessMatching penalty to the level of breachKeeping recordsMonitoring and learning from data