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NGO STICHTING BAKENS VERZET (“ANOTHER WAY”) NETHERLANDS MODEL FOR SELF-FINANCING, ECOLOGICAL, SUSTAINABLE, LOCAL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS Part Four.

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Presentation on theme: "NGO STICHTING BAKENS VERZET (“ANOTHER WAY”) NETHERLANDS MODEL FOR SELF-FINANCING, ECOLOGICAL, SUSTAINABLE, LOCAL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS Part Four."— Presentation transcript:

1 NGO STICHTING BAKENS VERZET (“ANOTHER WAY”) NETHERLANDS MODEL FOR SELF-FINANCING, ECOLOGICAL, SUSTAINABLE, LOCAL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS Part Four How projects under the Model achieve most of the Millennium goals in project areas.

2 Plan of the presentation Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Goal 2 : Achieve universal primary education. Goal 2 : Achieve universal primary education. Goal 3 : Promote gender equality and empower women. Goal 3 : Promote gender equality and empower women. Goal 4 : Reduce child moratlity. Goal 4 : Reduce child moratlity. Goal 5 : Improve maternal health. Goal 5 : Improve maternal health. Goal 7 : Ensure evnvironmental sustainability. Goal 7 : Ensure evnvironmental sustainability. Goal 6 : Combat HIV/aids, malaria and other diseases. Goal 6 : Combat HIV/aids, malaria and other diseases. Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Why monitoring project results is so easy. Why monitoring project results is so easy. Some inherent limitations of the Millennium goals. Some inherent limitations of the Millennium goals.

3 Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Target 01 : Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than one dollar a day. Target 01 : Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than one dollar a day. Sub-target 01 : Proportion of population below US$1 (PPP) per Day (World Bank) Sub-target 01 : Proportion of population below US$1 (PPP) per Day (World Bank) Sub-target 02: Poverty gap ratio US$ 1 per day (World Bank) Sub-target 02: Poverty gap ratio US$ 1 per day (World Bank) Sub-target 03 : Share of poorest quintile in National Income or Consumption Sub-target 03 : Share of poorest quintile in National Income or Consumption Target 02 : Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Target 02 : Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Sub-target 04 : Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age (UNICEF) Sub-target 04 : Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age (UNICEF) Sub-target 05 : Proportion of the population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (F.A.O.) Sub-target 05 : Proportion of the population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (F.A.O.)

4 Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Target 01 : Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than one dollar a day. Whoops ! Am I in the right half? Whoops ! Am I in the right half? Planned results. Planned results. US$ 1 per day and quality of life. US$ 1 per day and quality of life. Projects apply to everyone in project areas Projects apply to everyone in project areas Full package of basic services supplied. Full package of basic services supplied. Good quality of life for all. Good quality of life for all direct job opportunities direct job opportunities. Individuals profit through savings on present service costs. Individuals profit through savings on present service costs. Social security structures for the needy. Social security structures for the needy. Extensions to regional and national levels. Extensions to regional and national levels.

5 Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Target 02 : Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Everyone in project area will be well fed. Everyone in project area will be well fed. Food production structures set up. Food production structures set up. Local production for local use. Local production for local use. How wide variation of diet is assured. How wide variation of diet is assured. Food security in times of crisis. Food security in times of crisis. Cooperative distribution of surpluses. Cooperative distribution of surpluses. Cooperative storage facilities. Cooperative storage facilities. Plant nurseries. Plant nurseries. Seed banks. Seed banks. The power of the local money systems. The power of the local money systems. Social security structures for the needy. Social security structures for the needy. Extensions to regional and national levels. Extensions to regional and national levels.

6 Goal 2 : Achieve universal primary education. Target 03 : Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling. Target 03 : Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling. Sub-target 06 : Net enrolment ratio in primary education (UNESCO). Sub-target 06 : Net enrolment ratio in primary education (UNESCO). Sub-target 07 : Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 (UNESCO) Sub-target 07 : Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 (UNESCO) Sub-target 08 : Literacy rate of year olds (UNESCO) Sub-target 08 : Literacy rate of year olds (UNESCO)

7 Goal 2 : Achieve universal primary education. Target 03 : Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling. Target 03 : Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling. All children in project area will enjoy a full course of primary and, where desired, secondary education. All children in project area will enjoy a full course of primary and, where desired, secondary education. Trade school and propedeuse for university. Trade school and propedeuse for university. Young people in the age group at project commencement. Young people in the age group at project commencement. How hundreds of schools can be built in the project area and staffed. How hundreds of schools can be built in the project area and staffed. Hundreds of solar-lit study rooms. Hundreds of solar-lit study rooms. Evening courses, especially for women. Evening courses, especially for women.

8 Goal 3 : Promote gender equality and empower women. Target 04 : Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and at all levels by Target 04 : Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and at all levels by Sub-target 09 : Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education (UNESCO) Sub-target 09 : Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education (UNESCO) Sub-target 10 : Ratio of literate women to men years old (UNESCO) Sub-target 10 : Ratio of literate women to men years old (UNESCO) Sub-target 11 : Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (ILO) Sub-target 11 : Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (ILO) Sub-target 12 : Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (IPU) Sub-target 12 : Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (IPU)

9 Goal 3 : Promote gender equality and empower women. Target 04 : Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and at all levels by Target 04 : Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and at all levels by Full primary, secondary education available to all. Full primary, secondary education available to all. Trade school and (possibly) propeduese for university available. Trade school and (possibly) propeduese for university available. Illiteracy for years-olds disappears as full education paths are completed. Illiteracy for years-olds disappears as full education paths are completed. Solving illiteracy amongst years-olds witrhout education at the moment the project starts. Solving illiteracy amongst years-olds witrhout education at the moment the project starts. Adult education (especially for women and girls) Adult education (especially for women and girls) Study rooms Study rooms Hygiene education courses. Hygiene education courses. Wage employment for women NOT supported. (Subtarget 11) Wage employment for women NOT supported. (Subtarget 11) Cooperatives, micro-credits, and local money system. Cooperatives, micro-credits, and local money system. How women dominate project structures. How women dominate project structures. Built-in training for participation in formal political structures. Built-in training for participation in formal political structures.

10 Goal 4 : Reduce child mortality. Target 5 : Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five. Target 5 : Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five. Sub-target 13 : Under-five mortality rate (UNICEF) Sub-target 13 : Under-five mortality rate (UNICEF) Sub-target 14 : Infant mortality rate (UNICEF) Sub-target 14 : Infant mortality rate (UNICEF) Sub-target 15 : Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles (UNICEF) Sub-target 15 : Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles (UNICEF)

11 Goal 4 : Reduce child mortality. Target 5 : Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five. Target 5 : Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five. Hygiene education courses. Hygiene education courses. Clean drinking water and sanitation facilities. Clean drinking water and sanitation facilities. Elimination of smoke in homes. Elimination of smoke in homes. Varied diet. Varied diet. Waste recycling system. Waste recycling system. Drainage Drainage Preventive action against mosquitoes, flies and vermin. Preventive action against mosquitoes, flies and vermin. Nursing facilities Nursing facilities Distribution of medicines. Distribution of medicines. Immunisation against measles NOT covered. Immunisation against measles NOT covered.

12 Goal 5 : Improve maternal health. Target 06 : Reduce by three quarters the maternity mortality ratio. Target 06 : Reduce by three quarters the maternity mortality ratio. Sub-target 16 : Maternity mortality ratio. Sub-target 16 : Maternity mortality ratio. Sub-target 17 : Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel. Sub-target 17 : Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel.

13 Goal 5 : Improve maternal health. Target 06 : Reduce by three quarters the maternity mortality ratio. Target 06 : Reduce by three quarters the maternity mortality ratio. Limits of the project and the responsibility of the Ministry of Health Limits of the project and the responsibility of the Ministry of Health Hygiene education (health) clubs. Hygiene education (health) clubs. Reduction of work load on women. Reduction of work load on women. Clean drinking water, sanitation facilities Clean drinking water, sanitation facilities Varied diet. Varied diet. Elimination of smoke. Elimination of smoke. Waste recycling structures Waste recycling structures Prevention against mosquitoes, flies and vermin. Prevention against mosquitoes, flies and vermin. Nursing structures. Nursing structures. Bicycle ambulance service. Bicycle ambulance service. Distribution of medicines. Distribution of medicines.

14 Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases. Target 07 : Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Target 07 : Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Sub-target 18 : HIV prevalence among year-old pregnant women (UNAIDS) Sub-target 18 : HIV prevalence among year-old pregnant women (UNAIDS) Sub-target 19 : Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate and population aged years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, UNICEF, UN Population Division, WHO) Sub-target 19 : Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate and population aged years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, UNICEF, UN Population Division, WHO) Sub-target 20 : Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged years. Sub-target 20 : Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged years. Target 08 : Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Target 08 : Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Sub-target 21 : Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria (WHO). Sub-target 21 : Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria (WHO). Sub-target 22 : Proportion of Population in Malaria Risk areas using Effective Malaria Prevention and Treatment measures. (UNICEF). Sub-target 22 : Proportion of Population in Malaria Risk areas using Effective Malaria Prevention and Treatment measures. (UNICEF). Sub-target 23 : Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis (WHO) Sub-target 23 : Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis (WHO) Sub-target 24 : Proportion of Tuberculosis Cases detected and Cured under Directly-Observed Treatment Short Courses (WHO) Sub-target 24 : Proportion of Tuberculosis Cases detected and Cured under Directly-Observed Treatment Short Courses (WHO)

15 Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases. Target 07 : Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Target 07 : Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Better not to be younger than 15 and older than 24 ! Better not to be younger than 15 and older than 24 ! Prevention and cure. Prevention and cure. Hygiene education courses for women and in schools. Hygiene education courses for women and in schools. Generic nursing facilities. Generic nursing facilities. Reaching males above school-leaving age. Reaching males above school-leaving age. Care for and schooling of orphans. Care for and schooling of orphans. Social security network. Social security network. Cooperative purchasing groups. Cooperative purchasing groups.

16 Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases. Target 08 : Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Sub-target 21 : Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria (WHO). Sub-target 21 : Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria (WHO). Sub-target 22 : Proportion of Population in Malaria Risk areas using Effective Malaria Prevention and Treatment measures. (UNICEF). Sub-target 22 : Proportion of Population in Malaria Risk areas using Effective Malaria Prevention and Treatment measures. (UNICEF). Sub-target 23 : Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis (WHO). Sub-target 23 : Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis (WHO). Sub-target 24 : Proportion of Tuberculosis Cases detected and Cured under Directly-Observed Treatment Short Courses (WHO) Sub-target 24 : Proportion of Tuberculosis Cases detected and Cured under Directly-Observed Treatment Short Courses (WHO)

17 Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases. Target 08 : Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases of malaria and other major diseases Prevention, cure and integrated development. Prevention, cure and integrated development. Hygiene education courses for women and in schools. Hygiene education courses for women and in schools. Preventive measures taken against malaria (NOT vaccinations). Preventive measures taken against malaria (NOT vaccinations). Water, sanitation, drainage, 100% waste recycling. Water, sanitation, drainage, 100% waste recycling. Locally made mosquito nets, fly-catchers. Locally made mosquito nets, fly-catchers. Generic local nursing facilities available for distribution of medicines. Generic local nursing facilities available for distribution of medicines. Project structures facilitate public campaigns. Project structures facilitate public campaigns.

18 Goal 7 : Ensure environmental sustainability. Target 09 : : Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources. Target 09 : : Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources. Sub-target 25 :Forested land as a percentage of land area (FAO) Sub-target 25 :Forested land as a percentage of land area (FAO) Sub-target 26 :Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area (UNEP) Sub-target 26 :Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area (UNEP) Sub-target 27 : Energy supply (apparent consumption: kg oil equivalent) per $ (PPP) GDP (World Bank) Sub-target 27 : Energy supply (apparent consumption: kg oil equivalent) per $ (PPP) GDP (World Bank) Sub-target 28 : Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone depleting CFCs (ODP tons) Sub-target 28 : Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone depleting CFCs (ODP tons) Sub-target 29 : Proportion of the population using solid fuels. Sub-target 29 : Proportion of the population using solid fuels. Target 10 : Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. Target 10 : Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. Sub-target 30 : Proportion of the population with sustainable access to an improved water source (WHO/UNICEF) Sub-target 30 : Proportion of the population with sustainable access to an improved water source (WHO/UNICEF) Sub-target 31 :Proportion of the population with access to improved sanitation (WHO/UNICEF) Sub-target 31 :Proportion of the population with access to improved sanitation (WHO/UNICEF) Target 11 : Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by Target 11 : Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020.

19 Goal 7 : Ensure environmental sustainability. Target 09 : : Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources. Target 09 : : Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources. Project 100% ecological. Project 100% ecological. Use of local money systems fundamental to projects. Use of local money systems fundamental to projects. Energy consumption as indicator of quality of life (sub-target 27). Energy consumption as indicator of quality of life (sub-target 27). Use of high-efficiency cookers and locally produced mini-briquettes. Use of high-efficiency cookers and locally produced mini-briquettes. Kyoto Treaty and CO2 reduction : In theory Euro per year per project. Kyoto Treaty and CO2 reduction : In theory Euro per year per project. Local energy for local consumption. Local energy for local consumption. Down with kerosene and batteries ! Down with kerosene and batteries ! Numerous widespread renewable energy applications. Numerous widespread renewable energy applications. Natural parks and reserves. Natural parks and reserves. Plant nurseries. Plant nurseries. Seed-banks. Seed-banks. Protection of bio-diversity. Protection of bio-diversity. Reforestation and tree-planting. Reforestation and tree-planting. Complete waste recycling system. Complete waste recycling system. Local products for local consumption. Local products for local consumption. Use of CFCs – chlorofluorocarbons in the project area. Use of CFCs – chlorofluorocarbons in the project area.

20 Goal 7 : Ensure environmental sustainability. Target 10 : Reduce by half the proportion of people Target 10 : Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. without sustainable access to safe drinking water. By half indeed. How silly can you be? By half indeed. How silly can you be? Plenty of clean drinking water for all, without exceptions. Plenty of clean drinking water for all, without exceptions. Local water points (usually 200) at tank commission level. Local water points (usually 200) at tank commission level. Back-up at well-heads (usually 35). Back-up at well-heads (usually 35). Rain-water harvesting at homes. Rain-water harvesting at homes. Recycling of urine and grey water at household level. Recycling of urine and grey water at household level. Complete ecological sanitation system for all ( houses). Complete ecological sanitation system for all ( houses). Ecological sanitation in schools, clinics and public places. Ecological sanitation in schools, clinics and public places. 100% recycling of waste products at the lowest possible level. 100% recycling of waste products at the lowest possible level. Project concepts apply fully to slums. Project concepts apply fully to slums. Preference for pilot projects in rural areas. Preference for pilot projects in rural areas. First stop migration from rural areas to towns. First stop migration from rural areas to towns.

21 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Target 12 : Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally. Target 12 : Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally. Target 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction. Target 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction. Target 14 : Address the special needs of the landlocked countries and small island states. Target 14 : Address the special needs of the landlocked countries and small island states. Target 15 : Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable over the long term. Target 15 : Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable over the long term. Target 16 : In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth. Target 16 : In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth. Target 17 : In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries. Target 17 : In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries. Target 18 : In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies. Target 18 : In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies.

22 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. The real meaning of goal 8 (sub-targets 12-18). The real meaning of goal 8 (sub-targets 12-18). Named sub-targets (1): Named sub-targets (1): Official development assistance 32. Net ODA as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national product (targets of 0.7% in total and 0.15% for LDCs) 33. Proportion of ODA to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) 34. Proportion of ODA that is untied 35. Proportion of ODA for environment in small island developing States 36. Proportion of ODA for transport sector in landlocked countries Market access 37. Proportion of exports (by value and excluding arms) admitted free of duties and quotas 38. Average tariffs and quotas on agricultural products and textiles and clothing 39. Domestic and export agricultural subsidies in OECD countries 40. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity

23 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. The real meaning of goal 8 (sub-targets 12-18). The real meaning of goal 8 (sub-targets 12-18). Named sub-targets (2): Named sub-targets (2): Debt sustainability 41. Proportion of official bilateral HIPC debt cancelled 42. Total Number of Countries that Have Reached their HIPC Decision Points and Number that Have Reached their Completion Points (Cumulative) (HIPC) (World Bank-IMF) 43. Debt Service as a Percentage of Exports of Goods and Services (World Bank) 44. Debt Relief Committed Under HIPC Initiative (HIPC) (World Bank-IMF) 45. Unemployment of year-olds, Each Sex and Total (ILO) 46. Proportion of Population with Access to Affordable, Essential Drugs on a Sustainable Basis (WHO) 47. Telephone Lines and Cellular Subscribers per 100 Population (ITU) 48. Personal Computers in Use and Internet Users per 100 Population (ITU)

24 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Target 12 : Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non- discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally. Target 12 : Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non- discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally. Take your guess at what the target might mean. Take your guess at what the target might mean. Democratic project structures run by the people. Democratic project structures run by the people. Inbuilt social security system guarantees participation for all. Inbuilt social security system guarantees participation for all. Local money system gives purchasing power to all. Local money system gives purchasing power to all. Interest-free, cost-free cooperative micro-credit system for productivity development. Interest-free, cost-free cooperative micro-credit system for productivity development. Role of women. Role of women. Relations with other project areas and local money systems. Relations with other project areas and local money systems. Formal currency relations in the host country. Formal currency relations in the host country. Formal import-export relations. Formal import-export relations.

25 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Target 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction. Target 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction. Project is about LOCAL development. Project is about LOCAL development. Cooperative, interest-free, inflation-free local economic environment. Cooperative, interest-free, inflation-free local economic environment. Patchwork-quilt of local economic environments. Patchwork-quilt of local economic environments. Relations between local economic environments. Relations between local economic environments. Regional and national plans costs 2.5 Euro-cents per inhabitant. Regional and national plans costs 2.5 Euro-cents per inhabitant. Formal money initial capital requirement Euro 75 per person. Formal money initial capital requirement Euro 75 per person. Euro for each million people. Euro for each million people. Euro for the poorest 2 billion people. Euro for the poorest 2 billion people.

26 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Target 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction. Target 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction. Euro for the poorest 2 billion people. That is Euro for the poorest 2 billion people. That is approximately four times the INCREASE in the 2002 United States defence budget authorised by Congress approximately four times the INCREASE in the 2002 United States defence budget authorised by Congress the cost of six months’ war in Iraq the cost of six months’ war in Iraq the current expected purchase price of 850 Joint Strike Fighters the current expected purchase price of 850 Joint Strike Fighters three months’ trade deficit of the United States (US$ per month) three months’ trade deficit of the United States (US$ per month) half of the annual agricultural subsidies paid to western and northern farmers in 2001 (US$ ) half of the annual agricultural subsidies paid to western and northern farmers in 2001 (US$ ) just twice the outgo of OECD donor countries for development aid in 2006, including debt relief (US$ ) just twice the outgo of OECD donor countries for development aid in 2006, including debt relief (US$ ) just 6% of the money (US$ ) spent by donor countries on development aid over the last 50 years just 6% of the money (US$ ) spent by donor countries on development aid over the last 50 years

27 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Sub-target 14 : Address the special needs of the landlocked countries and small island states. Sub-target 14 : Address the special needs of the landlocked countries and small island states. Model concepts apply without modification to landlocked countries, small island states, poor urban areas, including poor rural and urban areas in industrialised countries. Model concepts apply without modification to landlocked countries, small island states, poor urban areas, including poor rural and urban areas in industrialised countries.

28 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Target 15 : Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable over the long term. Target 15 : Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable over the long term. Interest-bearing debt is by definition not sustainable as it necessarily causes financial leakage from poor areas to rich ones. Interest-bearing debt is by definition not sustainable as it necessarily causes financial leakage from poor areas to rich ones. Financial leakage one of the main causes of poverty. Financial leakage one of the main causes of poverty. Purpose : to create a good quality of life for everyone in each project area. Purpose : to create a good quality of life for everyone in each project area. "Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them". Gesell Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228. "Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them". Gesell Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.

29 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Target 16 : In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth. Target 16 : In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth. What about the rest of us? What about the rest of us? Sweat shops, poisons, monoculture, child labour, exploitation of women and slavery. Sweat shops, poisons, monoculture, child labour, exploitation of women and slavery. Each project area provides for direct creation of at least 4000 jobs (for 10% of the adult population) Each project area provides for direct creation of at least 4000 jobs (for 10% of the adult population) Full employment for all in each project area. Full employment for all in each project area. Local production initiatives at individual, family or cooperative level supported by project. Local production initiatives at individual, family or cooperative level supported by project. Employer-employee relations are free in the formal money sphere but not supported by the project. Employer-employee relations are free in the formal money sphere but not supported by the project.

30 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Target 17 : In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries. Target 17 : In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries. Interests of pharmaceuticals multinationals. Interests of pharmaceuticals multinationals. Medicines as a holy cow of development. Medicines as a holy cow of development. Medicines and financial leakage. Medicines and financial leakage. Aid funds spent on medicines contribute (very) little to local economic development in poor countries. Aid funds spent on medicines contribute (very) little to local economic development in poor countries. Eradication at origin of causes of disease. Eradication at origin of causes of disease. Much can be done locally with little or no formal money cost. Much can be done locally with little or no formal money cost. Local cooperative purchasing within project structures. Local cooperative purchasing within project structures.

31 Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development. Target 18 : In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies. Target 18 : In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies. Interests of elites in industrialised and developing countries. Interests of elites in industrialised and developing countries. More holy cows. More holy cows. Centralisation of structures. Centralisation of structures. Financial leakage from poor areas. Financial leakage from poor areas. Careful choice of applications needed. Careful choice of applications needed. Local radio station. Local radio station. Radio-telephones, pigeons, messengers, bongos and smoke signals. Radio-telephones, pigeons, messengers, bongos and smoke signals.

32 Why it is so easy to monitor project results. Each project covers a small surface area. Each project covers a small surface area. Structures the same throughout the project area. Structures the same throughout the project area. Structures serve all inhabitants without selection or exclusion. Structures serve all inhabitants without selection or exclusion. Most structures are visible and materially verifiable. Most structures are visible and materially verifiable. Statistical data available from standard day-to-day registration of activities. Statistical data available from standard day-to-day registration of activities. Available data mostly valid in real time. Available data mostly valid in real time.

33 Some inherent limitations of the Millennium goals Compromises on compromises on compromises…….. Compromises on compromises on compromises…….. Half-pies in the sky. Half-pies in the sky. Eradicate “extreme” poverty and hunger. Eradicate “extreme” poverty and hunger. The tale of the 50%. The tale of the 50%. Too bad, you must belong to the other 50%. Too bad, you must belong to the other 50%. Lots of private parts: Lots of private parts: Section 60 of the Plan of implementation :“(a) Provide access to Section 60 of the Plan of implementation :“(a) Provide access to potable domestic water, hygiene education and improved sanitation potable domestic water, hygiene education and improved sanitation and waste management at the household level through initiatives to and waste management at the household level through initiatives to encourage public and private investment in water supply and encourage public and private investment in water supply and sanitation ……while respecting local conditions involving all sanitation ……while respecting local conditions involving all concerned stakeholders……” concerned stakeholders……” Search for the key development words: “interest”, “monoculture”, “local economies”, “micro-economic” “local “interest”, “monoculture”, “local economies”, “micro-economic” “local production” “financial leakage. production” “financial leakage.

34 Inherent limitations This is article 83 of the Implementation Plan: This is article 83 of the Implementation Plan: “83. In our common pursuit of growth, poverty eradication and sustainable development, a critical challenge is to ensure the necessary internal conditions for mobilizing domestic savings, both public and private, sustaining adequate levels of productive investment and increasing human capacity. A crucial task is to enhance the efficacy, coherence and consistency of macroeconomic policies. An enabling domestic environment is vital for mobilizing domestic resources, increasing productivity, reducing capital flight, encouraging the private sector and attracting and making effective use of international investment and assistance. Efforts to create such an environment should be supported by the international community.” “83. In our common pursuit of growth, poverty eradication and sustainable development, a critical challenge is to ensure the necessary internal conditions for mobilizing domestic savings, both public and private, sustaining adequate levels of productive investment and increasing human capacity. A crucial task is to enhance the efficacy, coherence and consistency of macroeconomic policies. An enabling domestic environment is vital for mobilizing domestic resources, increasing productivity, reducing capital flight, encouraging the private sector and attracting and making effective use of international investment and assistance. Efforts to create such an environment should be supported by the international community.” WHAT DO YOU THINK THIS MIGHT MEAN? WHAT DO YOU THINK THIS MIGHT MEAN?

35 Inherent limitations About article 83 of the Implementation Plan: About article 83 of the Implementation Plan: DRAW YOUR OWN CONCLUSIONS. DRAW YOUR OWN CONCLUSIONS. Which conditions are necessary to mobilise “public and private domestic savings” ? Which conditions are necessary to mobilise “public and private domestic savings” ? How and by whom are they to be “mobilised” ? How and by whom are they to be “mobilised” ? “Sustain adequate levels of productive investment”. “Sustain adequate levels of productive investment”. Investment by whom? Productive in which way? Investment by whom? Productive in which way? “Productive investment” is “crucial” “to enhance the efficiacy, coherence and consistency of macroeconomic policies”. “Productive investment” is “crucial” “to enhance the efficiacy, coherence and consistency of macroeconomic policies”. Which policies? Which criteria are to be followed to make them “efficient, coherent and consistent.” ? Which policies? Which criteria are to be followed to make them “efficient, coherent and consistent.” ? An “enabling domestic environment” is said to be one that encourages the private sector, and makes effective use of “international investment and assistance”. An “enabling domestic environment” is said to be one that encourages the private sector, and makes effective use of “international investment and assistance”. The international community’s job is to make sure that suitable “enabling domestic environments” are created. The international community’s job is to make sure that suitable “enabling domestic environments” are created.

36 NGO STICHTING BAKENS VERZET (“ANOTHER WAY”) NETHERLANDS MODEL FOR SELF-FINANCING, ECOLOGICAL, SUSTAINABLE, LOCAL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS Schoener 50, 1771 ED Wieringerwerf Netherlands. Tel (0) Website :


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