2 Performance indicator: definition A measure of a situation to detect any change.A feature or characteristic used to measure whether, and/or the extent to which, a stated result has been achieved.The definition suggests 2 elements:- indicator reflects the change that has occurred (i.e.: from on status to another)- indicators are applied to demonstrate the level of achievement over a period of time.Indicators are essential for demonstrating achievement and for supporting accountability.
3 Performance indicator: concept Using indicators to support program management involves:- establishing the baseline (to determine the situation at the beginning of the planning period)setting a target (commitment)measuring achievement (actual result)The concept of performance indicator includes the notions of baseline, target and achievement:- Baseline: the value of the indicator at the beginning of the planning period.- Target: the value of the same indicator reflecting a commitment to result for a given period- Achievement: the actual value of the same indicator at the end of the planned timeframeThe baseline, target and achievement are values of the indicator at different times.
4 How many indicators? The fewer indicators per stated result the better The general recommendation is that we should use as few indicators as possible.The main limit is that of practicality:- cost- effort- usefulnessIs it easy to get the information? If not, you may need to choose a different indicator.One indicator per result may be sufficient depending of the complexity of the stated result.An indicator can be disaggregated (broken down into categories) to reflect various perspectives (e.g. by region, type of economy, target groups). If that is the case, we should keep in mind the amount of data to be handled and use less but more meaningful indicators.PME (former BMR) has prepared “Guidelines on the development of Expected Results and indicator” (WHO/BMR/01.5 December 2004). It includes illustrative examples.
5 Indicators: technical qualities Sound indicators have the following qualities:Validity: The measurement captures what it is supposed to measureReliability: The measurement is consistent and comparable across time and placeSensitivity: The measurement can detect the extent and direction of the change during the required timeframeThere is a difference between an indicator that is well written and one that measures the right thing.These qualities are not absolute, but indicators have these qualities to varying degrees. The stronger each quality, the more precise the indicator.
6 Indicators: practical qualities The chosen indicator(s) should be:Simple: consensus on meaning, easy to interpret, to assess and to usePractical: timely data collection, at reasonable costUseful: for decision-making, and learning for better planning and implementationIn addition to the technical qualities of validity, reliability and sensitivity, we should have in mind various practical considerations.This slide provides a summary of issues on indicators that managers need to keep in mind when developing a set of indicators.Completing the performance measurement matrix (see further detail in slides 26 and 27) will also help managers see whether their indicators are sufficiently simple, practical and useful.
7 Indicators: Essential Traits CREAM: Clear, Relevant, Economical, Adequate, MonitorableQQTP: Quantity, Quality, Time, and Place or PopulationDOPA: Direct (closely related to the intended change), Objective (operationalized and unambiguous), Practical (reasonable cost combined with high utility), and Adequate (no more or less than what’s necessary to measure intended change)
8 In summary, good indicators are… Relevant to the stated resultReliable signals that convey information about real changesObjectively verifiable and not just subjective in their natureMeasurable with reasonable cost and effortHelpful to managers:in assessing whether the program is successful in achieving resultsin improving the programIndicators must :Be congruent with the statement of the results,ensure that the nature of the change stated in the result is what is being measured.If the formulation is not clear, or is somehow ambiguous or subjective by its nature, you will not expect the indicator to be used to objectively verify the result.If you cannot afford to collect the information or if you have to struggle to get it, then your indicator will not be helpful.Indicators should ensure that the achievements can be measured within the planned period, and that the information from the indicators will assist decision-making.
9 MDG Indicators #1-- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day2. Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty]3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption
10 MDG Indicators #1-- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger4. Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption
11 MDG Indicators #2-- Achieve universal primary education Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education7. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 58. Literacy rate of year-olds
12 MDG Indicators #3-- Promote gender equality and empower women Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 20159. Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education10. Ratio of literate women to men, years old11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament
13 MDG Indicators #4-- Reduce child mortality Target 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate13. Under-five mortality rate14. Infant mortality rate15. Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles
14 MDG Indicators #5--Improve maternal health Target 6: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio16. Maternal mortality ratio17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
15 MDG Indicators #6--Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Target 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS18.HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged years--19a. Condom use at last high-risk sex--19b. Percentage of population aged years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS--19c. Contraceptive prevalence rate20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged years
16 MDG Indicators #6--Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria22. Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course DOTS (Internationally recommended TB control strategy)Target 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
17 MDG Indicators #7--Ensure environmental sustainability Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources25. Proportion of land area covered by forestRatio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface areaEnergy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP)Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons)29. Proportion of population using solid fuels
18 MDG Indicators #7--Ensure environmental sustainability Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural31. Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban and rural
19 MDG Indicators #7--Ensure environmental sustainability Target 11: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers32. Proportion of households with access to secure tenure
20 Measuring performance BaselineTargetIncomeImprovementMeasurementat the end ofthe period“Readings” on the same indicator“Readings” at different timesThe key point is the use of the same indicator at 3 different times (i.e. three “reading”).The measurement at the end of the period (achievement) will be assessed against the measurement at the beginning of the period (baseline) and results stated as a commitment to be achieved (target).The performance will be the difference between the achievement, and the baseline measured at the beginning of the period.It is important to assess and record each of these “readings” at the appropriate time.
21 An approach for developing indicators: Step #1 (determine focus) Review MDG indicatorsDetermine feasibility of adapting an existing indicatorIf existing indicators are unsatisfactory, determine what might be useful
22 An approach for developing indicators: Step #2 (refine focus) Quantitative or Statistical Measures:Number ofFrequency of% ofRatio ofQualitative Judgments or Perceptions:Congruence withPresence ofQuality ofExtent ofLevel of
23 An approach for developing indicators: Step #3 (combine quantity & quality) Indicator: % of births attendedAdd Quantity: % of births attended INCREASED from 60% to 90%Add Quality: Births attended by TRAINED health personnel increased from 60% to 90%Add Time: Births attended by trained personnel increased from 60% to 90% by 2012Add Place: Births attended by trained personnel in X District increased from 60% to 90% by 2012
24 Developing Indicators: good practices for Results Framework Discuss results and indicators in parallelConsult and get consensus among relevant staff regarding indicatorsApply the selection principles and discard those indicators that do not have the required qualitiesValid Simple Reliable Practical Sensitive UsefulValidReliableSensitiveRetain the best mix of indicators and keep alternatives in reserve (1or 2 indicators per stated result is sufficient)Check the relevance of indicators to the state result
25 RF performance measurement matrix This matrix is a tool to outline the operational requirements for measuring indicators.It would be used after completing the results framework:- the results framework is used at the planning stage to develop the various levels of results and the associated indicators.- after that, this matrix is used to outline the requirements for using the indicators.This matrix can also assist with planning the work associated to performance measurement.
26 Another View: Essential RF Indicator Information Definition of termsDisaggregationBaselineData collection techniquesAssociated instrumentation or toolsData verificationData analysisData reportingData usePopulationData collectorsFrequency