3 Session Outlines: The origin of MDGs What are MDGs? How progress towards MDGs is measured?ActivitiesProgress achieved & Challenges remaining.
4 The Birth of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) MDGs is a UN initiative.The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000 commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women.The MDGs are derived from this Declaration, and all have specific targets and indicators.All 191 UN member states have agreed to try to achieve the 8 MDGs by the year 2015.Illiteracy الامية
5 The MDGs Framework Adopts a broad Human Development approach: Hunger, Health,Education,Gender equity,Environmental sustainability .
6 Extreme poverty, Hunger, Illiteracy and Disease by 2015. Why MDGs,,,?MDGs are eight targeted development aims designed to free humanity from;Extreme poverty, Hunger, Illiteracy and Disease by 2015.MDGs emphasize the role of developed countries in aiding developing countries. (Goal 8).
7 The Eight Millennium Development Goals are: Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education;Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women;Goal 4: Reduce child mortality;Goal 5: Improve maternal health;Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases;Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability; andGoal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
8 All the MDG influence Health, and Health influences all the MDGs The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) place health at the heart of development ,and are inter-dependent; For example:Better health enables children to learn and adults to earn.Reducing poverty, hunger and environmental degradation positively influences, but also depends on, better health.
9 MDGs Targets & Indicators The eight MDGs break down into:21 quantifiable targets that are measured by60 indicators.
10 What are Indicators?Defined as variables which help to measure changes.They can ;Indicate Direction of change,Indicate Speed of change,Compare areas or groups of people at the same point in time.
11 Why are Indicators important? To measure progress towards MDGs .Where are we today?How far away from the target are we?What progress is being made.
12 Example Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 5.A Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.IndicatorsMaternal mortality ratioProportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
13 (from the Millennium Declaration) Indicators for monitoring progress Goals and Targets(from the Millennium Declaration)Indicators for monitoring progressGoal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerTarget 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a dayProportion of population below $1 (PPP) per dayPoverty gap ratioShare of poorest quintile in national consumptionTarget 1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young peopleGrowth rate of GDP per person employedEmployment-to-population ratioProportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per dayProportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employmentTarget 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hungerPrevalence of underweight children under-five years of ageProportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption
14 (from the Millennium Declaration) Indicators for monitoring progress Goals and Targets(from the Millennium Declaration)Indicators for monitoring progressGoal 2: Achieve universal primary educationTarget 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schoolingNet enrolment ratio in primary educationProportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primaryLiteracy rate of year-olds, women and menGoal 3: Promote gender equality and empower womenTarget 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary educationShare of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sectorProportion of seats held by women in national parliament
15 (from the Millennium Declaration) Indicators for monitoring progress Goals and Targets(from the Millennium Declaration)Indicators for monitoring progressGoal 4: Reduce child mortality Target 4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rateUnder-five mortality rateInfant mortality rateProportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measlesGoal 5: Improve maternal health Target 5.A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratioMaternal mortality ratioProportion of births attended by skilled health personnelTarget 5.B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive healthContraceptive prevalence rateAdolescent birth rateAntenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits)Unmet need for family planning
16 (from the Millennium Declaration) Indicators for monitoring progress Goals and Targets(from the Millennium Declaration)Indicators for monitoring progressGoal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesTarget 6.A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDSHIV prevalence among population aged yearsCondom use at last high-risk sexProportion of population aged years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDSRatio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged yearsTarget 6.B: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need itProportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugsTarget 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseasesIncidence and death rates associated with malariaProportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednetsProportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugsIncidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosisProportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course
17 (from the Millennium Declaration) Indicators for monitoring progress Goals and Targets(from the Millennium Declaration)Indicators for monitoring progressGoal 7: Ensure environmental sustainabilityTarget 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resourcesTarget 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of lossProportion of land area covered by forestCO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)Consumption of ozone-depleting substancesProportion of fish stocks within safe biological limitsProportion of total water resources usedProportion of terrestrial and marine areas protectedProportion of species threatened with extinctionTarget 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitationProportion of population using an improved drinking water sourceProportion of population using an improved sanitation facilityTarget 7.D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellersProportion of urban population living in slums.
18 (from the Millennium Declaration) Indicators for monitoring progress Goals and Targets(from the Millennium Declaration)Indicators for monitoring progressGoal 8: Develop a global partnership for developmentTarget 8.A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial systemIncludes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationallyTarget 8.B: Address the special needs of the least developed countriesIncludes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries' exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reductionOfficial development assistance (ODA)Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national incomeProportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untiedODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross national incomesODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes
19 (from the Millennium Declaration) Indicators for monitoring progress Goals and Targets(from the Millennium Declaration)Indicators for monitoring progressGoal 8: Develop a global partnership for development (cont.)Target 8.C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)Target 8.D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long termMarket accessProportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and least developed countries, admitted free of dutyAverage tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countriesAgricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic productProportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacityDebt sustainabilityTotal number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI InitiativesDebt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services
20 (from the Millennium Declaration) Indicators for monitoring progress Goals and Targets(from the Millennium Declaration)Indicators for monitoring progressGoal 8: Develop a global partnership for development (cont.)Target 8.E: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countriesProportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basisTarget 8.F: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communicationsTelephone lines per 100 populationCellular subscribers per 100 populationInternet users per 100 population
21 Criticisms accompanied the MDGs Lack of analysis and justification behind the chosen objectives,Difficulty or lack of measurements for some goals.The mechanism used focuses on donor achievements rather than development successes. These goals are better achieved by community initiatives rather than by external financing.
22 Activity 1What do you think are the relationships between improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene and the Millennium Development Goals(MDGs)? Hint; Sanitation: a means of keeping faeces distant from human beings. Hygiene: behavioral means of reducing the spread of potential pathogens.
23 Read carefully and then match these ways with relevant MDGs? Activity 2The WHO provides ways to help countries reach MDGs, below are some of these ways.Read carefully and then match these ways with relevant MDGs?
24 WHO Ways ,,,,,WHO recommends replacing user fees with pre-payment financing systems such as insurance.WHO assesses children’s growth according to a global standard to identify cases of Malnutrition.WHO trains more birth attendants .WHO provides a full range of health services for women of all ages.WHO improves local availability of effective Antimalarials.
25 3 years to the deadline ,,,Where are we 3 years to the deadline ,,,Where are we? UN MDGs 2013 Report Progress towards the goals was uneven across countriesProgress achievedSlow progressThe proportion of people living in extreme poverty has been halved at the global levelEnvironmental sustainability is under severe threatOver 2 billion people gained access to improved sources of drinking waterMost maternal deaths are preventable, but progress in this area is falling shortMortality rates from malaria fell by more than 25 per cent globallyToo many children are still denied their right to primary educationThe proportion of undernourished people in developing regions decreasedGains in sanitation are impressive—but not good enough
26 Much progress has been made Much progress has been made. But more efforts and investment are necessary to make further progress by 2015.