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Angela Brown. 1. Summarize the actions of John Adams as President. 2. Describe the events of Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion. 3. Explain the outcome and the.

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Presentation on theme: "Angela Brown. 1. Summarize the actions of John Adams as President. 2. Describe the events of Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion. 3. Explain the outcome and the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Angela Brown

2 1. Summarize the actions of John Adams as President. 2. Describe the events of Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion. 3. Explain the outcome and the importance of the election of 1800.

3 Bellringer:  Rate on a scale of 1 – 5 with 5 the highest the importance of the following conditions to presidential campaigns:  Length of the campaign  honesty of the campaign,  relevance of issues raised during the campaign Key Terms:  XYZ Affair  Alien and Sedition Act  Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions  nullification

4  Despite having served as a leader during the American Revolution and as the Vice President for eight years, John Adams lacked the prestige of George Washington.  As President, Adams faced the differences were growing wider and wider.  He also faced the threat of war from abroad.  From the beginning of the Adams administration, the U.S. began to drift toward war with France.  The French were angry about Jay’s Treaty with the British and began seizing American ships in French harbors.  Trying to avoid war, Adams sent officials to Paris to negotiate with the revolutionary government.

5  Once in Paris, the American officials were met by secret agents sent by the French foreign minister.  These agents were later identified only as X, Y, and Z.  They demanded a bribe of $250,000 and a loan to the French of $10 million before the Americans would even by allowed to see the French foreign minister.  This was common practice in European diplomacy but outraged the Americans and became known as the X, Y, Z Affairs.

6  The diplomats refused to pay and returned home.  The slogan “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute (bribery)” rang out in the U.S.  By 1798 the French and U.S. engaged in an undeclared war firing on and seizing each other’s ships.

7  The federalists took advantage of the war crisis and Adam’s popularity to push important new measures through Congress.  An increase in the size of the army, higher taxes to support the army and navy, and the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 were a few.

8  Under the Alien Act, the President gained the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the U.S.  Under the Sedition Act, persons who wrote, published or said anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the American government or its officials could be fined or jailed.  You had to be able to proved everything you said.  The Federalists used the Sedition Act to silence Republican opposition.  Ten Republicans were convicted and many others were tried.

9  Jefferson, Madison, and other Republicans believed that the Sedition Act violated the constitutional protection of freedom of speech.  The Constitution did not state who had the authority to determine constitutionality.

10  Jefferson and Madison believed that the states should make that judgment.  They responded with the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.  They stated, if a state decided that a law was unconstitutional, it could declare that law “null and void” within the state.  This principle of nullification remained unresolved.  Neither Virginia nor Kentucky tried to enforce the resolutions.  Their defiance of federal power was clear.

11  Tensions between Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans continued to grow during the late 1790s.  Members of Congress attacked each other in the House.  Crowds taunted President Adams, at times forcing him to enter the presidential residence in Philadelphia through the back door.  With the election of 1800 looming, many people believed the future of the U.S. was at stake.

12  In the area around Richmond, Virginia, a blacksmith named Gabriel Prosser and several other slaves planned a rebellion.  The leaders intended to take over Richmond and win freedom.  The small-scale rebellion failed.  The rebels were caught and tried, and at least twenty of them, included Prosser, were executed.

13  The election of 1800 was a nasty campaign.  Jeffersonian newspapers accused Adams of being a monarchist…a terrible insult at the time.  Federalists asserted that Jefferson was a godless man who would lead the United States into chaos.

14  Jefferson won the popular vote in December 1800.  He was unable to get a majority in the Electoral College so the House would have to choose the new President.  Though Jeffersonians had won most of the seats they had not yet entered office.  The vote would be taken by the Federalists controlled House.

15  Even before the voting began it was clear that no candidate could get a majority immediately.  The House finally elected Jefferson as the their President on the thirty-sixth ballot.

16  Adams defeat was in a way an unfair judgement of his abilities.  Adams was more devoted to public service and, some historians believe, more honest than most Presidents.  Rising above Federalist hostility to France, he had sent a second diplomatic mission to that country in 1799.  This mission had cooled tensions between the U.S. and France considerably.  Like most decisive Presidents, however, Adams failed to quiet his critics and angered many of his supporters.

17  By 1800 Thomas Jefferson was the clear leader of those who prefered local to national government.  Jefferson and his followers believed it was better to risk too much liberty than suffer from too much government.  Jefferson always denied that he was a politician.  He never saw himself as working to build a permanent political party.  This is exactly what he did.

18  In 1801 Washington D.C. designed by L’Enfant to feature broad boulevards and Roman buildings, was a swamp with muddy, rutted roads and half-completed structures.  With Jefferson’s inauguration, the Federalist leaders proved they would step down and let the Jeffersonian Republicans take over.  Jefferson recognized the significance of this peaceful transfer of power.

19  1. Why was the election of 1800 significant in the history of the United States?  2. Create a list of the Federalists’ actions that angered many Americans and caused them to elect Jeffersonian Republicans in 1800.  3. How does the Sedition Act reflect the Federalists’ position in the controversy between those who favored liberty and those who favored order?

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