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Chapter 3 Hand Tools.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Hand Tools."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Hand Tools

2 Tools Why should you invest in the best tool for the job? 1. Cheap tools break easily 2. Cheap tools sometimes damage fasteners (rounded bolts / nuts, stripped screws) 3. Quality tools last longer, perform better, and are less likely to damage fasteners 4. Quality tools come with a lifetime warranty

3 Tool Design Quality tools are made of high strength alloy steel and should be light and easy to use in tight quarters. A quality tool is slim and properly designed to fit your hand.

4 Tool Quality Quality Tools are heat treated, and the working surface is at a close tolerance, a 3/4 is a 3/4 sharp edges are removed, and tools are polished. Tech Tip: Keep your tools clean! A greasy or oily tool can decrease a technician’s performance and may slip causing injury to the technician.

5 When buying tools, you get what you pay for !

6 Tips to Remember KEEP YOUR TOOLS CLEAN! Separate cutting tools
Lightly oil any tool that might rust Delicate measuring tools- keep in protective containers micrometers etc. Engrave your tools with Drivers license. Put Name & license Number on all tools

7 Major brands of Quality hand tools: Snap On, Craftsman, S-K Wayne, Matco, Mac, Huskey Proto, Master Mechanic New Britain

8 Tool Boxes Three Main Parts of Tool Box
Top Box (for frequently used tools) (dividers help organize small tools) Bottom Box (Roll-away) (for larger and heavier tools) Side Box (for lighter bulkier tools)

9 When working in the shop
Always wear safety glasses or a full face shield                    

10 Wrenches Wrenches are a way to remove and replace bolts etc, but they are slow. Use only as a last resort. You should use air tools or ratchets if at all possible, because they are faster. (Remember, pull with a wrench you have better control, if you do push, push with your palm open.)

11 Wrench Size size is determined by width of jaw opening.

12 Slug Wrench This is the only wrench designed to be used with a hammer.

13 Open End Wrench Size is determined by the width of jaw opening.
The open end is angled or offset by 15 degrees at one end to help reach fasteners in tight spots.

14 Box End Wrench Box-end wrenches are available in 6 or 12 point openings. Can be double offset or box offset 15 degrees for clearance for hand. Comes in different lengths, each end is a different size, good wrench for breaking loose tight bolts

15 Combination Wrench One end open, one end boxed both the same size can be different lengths

16 Tubing Wrench - (flare nut)
Box type wrench with section cut away. One end sometimes might be open like a combination wrench. Make sure you buy 6pt. – (12pt. are no good, they will slip)

17 Adjustable Open-End Wrench AKA “Crescent” Wrench
Not a replacement for all other wrenches. Try to always use the correct size wrench. This wrench is usually used as a last resort, and tends to slip. Adjust jaws firmly. You should only put pressure on the fixed jaw.

18 Ignition Wrench one end open, one end boxed or both ends open different size at each end

19 Socket Wrench Sockets come in many sizes with different openings. 6 pt. & 12 pt. are the most common. They are used to remove and install nuts and bolts. 8 pt or double square are used on square nuts. Square (4 sided) sockets are also used in special applications 6 point point point

20 Drive size common to Automotive are 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 3/4 - square hole

21 Sockets Shallow Sockets Chrome 12pt. & Impact 6pt. Deep Sockets

22 Sockets Swivel sockets Impact or Wobbly sockets crowfeet

23 Sockets Extensions used to extend reach of sockets
Universal Joint A “universal” is used to reach around obstructions. Impact Standard

24 Torque Stix Used to torque down lug nuts to the proper torque when using a impact wrench. The larger the shaft the more torque it will carry.

25 Torque Sticks Look up on the chart for your make and model or if you know the torque look on the chart and find the right torque stix

26 ratchet - short and long
Socket Handles ratchet - short and long Swivel Head Ratchet

27 Socket handles speed handle - and swivel speed handle used to rapidly spin a fastener off and on flex handle or breaker bar long and short sliding T bar

28 Torque wrenches A torque wrench is a tool used to precisely set the torque or tightness of a fastener such as a nut or bolt. Beam type Dial type sometimes referred to as a Micrometer type or Click Type

29 Torque wrenches Digital

30 Torque wrenches Come in inch lbs and foot lbs
Always look up tightening sequence Always look up the amount of Torque Recheck each fastener twice Pull with a steady pull, do not jerk Make sure threads are clean Remember that it takes more force to start a fastener then to keep it turning.

31 Allen Wrenches An Allen wrench is one type of wrench that connects to a specially made hex fastener

32 Screw drivers Slotted Pozi-Drive Phillips Phillips Torx Allen / Hex

33 Screw driver Selection
Blade should fit the slot snugly and have good surface contact with no play

34 Screw drivers Reed and Prince clutch

35 Screw drivers Pozi-drive Allen or Hex tip

36 Screw drivers Scurlox or Square Drive Torx

37 Screw drivers Offset

38 Screw drivers Screwdrivers are classed in size of shank such as 3/16, 1/4, 5/16, and length of shank such as 2", 4", 6". Some manufactures take length of shank and handle. Normally just the shank is measured. Handles come in different shapes to get better torque on screw


40 Screw Driver Use Never use a screwdriver as a pry bar or punch!
Some shanks are square so you may apply a wrench If holding small object in hand do not run screwdriver through hand, keep hand back! Screwdriver handles are not usually insulated

41 Pliers Used to grip various parts Combination slip joint pliers
Diagonal side cutters Used for cutting soft metal

42 Pliers Needle nose Channel lock or Arc joint (Sears)
Snap-on calls them Adjustable Joint Used to be called water pump pliers

43 Pliers Linesman

44 Locking Pliers Locking Pliers or Vise Grips (Brand Name) used to clamp and hold various parts Needle Nose Locking Pliers or Vise Grips Lock ring pliers

45 Pliers Locking C-Clamp

46 Pliers Snap Ring - Internal or External

47 Pliers Spark Plug Boot Pliers

48 Pliers Brake pliers Hose clamp pliers

49 Pliers Robo Grip

50 Pliers Pinch off hose pliers

51 Pliers Wire Strippers and Crimpers

52 Hammers Claw Hammer - this is Auto shop, not Wood shop

53 Hammers Claw Hammer - this is Auto shop, not Wood shop
Ball Peen Hammer - general purpose hammer most commonly used by technicians Sledge Hammer – for heavy pounding Rubber Mallet – used for hub cap installation

54 More Hammers Brass Hammers - (middle one) used to prevent damage to mild steel parts Plastic Tipped – also used to prevent damage to softer parts Some have replaceable tips in several different types of materials

55 Dead Blow Hammer A dead blow hammer is a specialized mallet helpful in minimizing damage to the struck surface and in controlling striking force with minimal rebound from the striking surface. The head of these hammers are commonly hollow and filled with sand or shot, which absorbs the impact of a strike, reducing the bounce-back. - Wikipedia

56 Hammers Lead Hammers not used much any more
Raw hide Hammers not used much any more (good in their day, but have been replaced by newer styles) These have been replaced by dead blow and plastic tip hammers

57 Safety Tips on Hammer use
1. Strike face of hammer head squarely 2. Make sure head is secure on hammer handle (Hammer Head is wedged on in both directions) 3. Never swing hammer in the direction that someone is standing 4. Keep handle clean and dry 5. Keep punch and chisel ends from mushrooming by periodic grinding

58 Chisels & Punches

59 Punches Round Nose Cape Chisel Cape Chisel Cold Chisel Center Punch
Tapered Starting Punch Drift or Roll Pin Punch

60 Punches Aligning punch sometimes called a Long Taper or Line-up punch used to line up holes in parts for assembly Center punch - use before drilling or to mark metal

61 Chisels Used to cut off damaged parts or fasteners
Flat Cold chisel: most common, A technician must always wear safety glasses and be sure the cutting edge is sharp. The striking surface or top of chisel should not be mushroomed, it should be smooth with a slight taper.

62 Punches To sharpen, remove mushroom, or true Punches and chisels:
Hold at proper angles and dip often in water, DO NOT let them turn blue

63 Mushroomed Chisels

64 Brass Drift Punch Set

65 More…

66 Files Are used when a small amount of material needs to be removed (usually metal) Coarse File – Double Cut – has large cutting grooves, for removing material faster Smooth File –Single cut – removes small amounts of metal and leaves a smoother finish Mill Bastard - really coarse cutting grooves for maximum cutting power The number of cuts and the size of the cuts determines the coarseness of the file

67 Files Single cut - rows of teeth run in one direction
Double cut - teeth run at an angle to each other

68 Shapes of files flat, square, round or rat tail, half round, knife edge, 3-square or triangular, point file

69 Files Use a coarse file for soft metal, it prevents clogging File card
(3) Tech Tips: 1. Always use a file handle 2. Use chalk to get rid of oil on a file 3. Use a file card or wire brush to clean a file

70 Rotary files good for blind holes
where a lot of material must be removed wear safety glasses

71 Hack saws used to cut metal close quarter Hack saws
Blade length 8, 10, 12, Semi-flexible blades, High speed blades.

72 Hack Saws - Blades Teeth on hack saw go forward
Need at least two teeth on metal Teeth per inch (T.P.I.) 14 T.P.I. Large pieces of soft steel 18 T.P.I Large pieces of hard tool steel 24 T.P.I. Cooper brass, Light angle Iron Tubing, sheet metal 32 T.P.I. Thin sheet metal and thin tubing Hold the hacksaw with both hands

73 Hole saw Used to cut round holes in thin metal or wood or plastic

74 Holding Tools - Vise A vise is primarily used to hold parts during drilling, cutting, or thread repairing operations. A vise should never be hammered on for any reason. A vise is not an anvil!

75 Holding Tools – C-clamp
C-clamps hold parts on a work surface while: Drilling Filing Cutting Welding Or other operations

76 Examples of Cleaning Tools:
Q: Why is dirt an enemy of the automobile? A: One grain of sand can cause a major breakdown by clogging a passage or scarring a part. Examples of Cleaning Tools: Scraper: removes gaskets, grease, sludge, and carbon from parts. Wire Brush: Used to remove light rust and baked-on dirt from automotive parts. Solvent Tank: Used with a brush to clean oil and grease from parts. Wire Knot Brush: Used with a drill to remove gaskets, carbon, and rust deposits.

77 Probe & Pickup Tools

78 Telescoping Inspection Mirrors
Inspection mirrors allow technicians to see behind objects and in difficult to see locations.

79 Pick up tools Heavy duty Telescoping Magnetic Pick-up Tool:
For picking up heavy iron or steel objects, like dropped nuts, bolts, and tools Standard Telescoping Magnetic Pick-up Tool: For picking up lighter iron or steel objects, like dropped nuts and bolts Mechanical Fingers Pick-up Tool: For picking up light non-magnetic objects

80 Pry-Bars Heavy Duty Pry-Bars Rolling Head Pry-Bars
Door Panel Trim Pry-Tool

81 Pry-Bars WEAR EYE PROTECTION! Extreme care must be used when operating a pry-bar to avoid damaging parts, do not apply excessive force on fragile components.

82 Twist Drill Bits Fractional inch size 1/16,1/4, 3/8, 7/16, ½
Letter Size A-Z Number Size 1-80 Left hand drill bits cut when going in Reverse (usually for broken bolt extraction)

83 Twist Drill Bits

84 Twist Drill Bits Types of materials carbon steel – Cheap drill bit high speed steel (HSS) better Titanium & Cobalt best Shanks - straight - turned down - tapered All Drill Bits must be sharp

85 Drill Motors Common sizes 1/4, 3/8, ½ refers to size of chuck or how big of drill bit it will hold. Center punch before drilling, keeps drill from wandering Use cutting oil except on sheet metal and cast iron. Corded and cordless Some have keyless chucks

86 Drill Motor Drill, Keyless chuck

87 Safety Hints 1. Firm grip on the drill
2. Always unplug drill before removing or installing drill bit 3. Don't wear loose clothing 4. Secure the work firmly (C-clamp or vise) 5. Wear safety glasses 6. Make sure drill is properly grounded 7. To avoid electric shock, do not stand on wet surfaces when using power tools

88 Tap & Dies Taps are used to cut internal threads

89 Types of taps Taper - first 6-8 threads are Chamfered
Plug - first 3-5 threads are Chamfered Bottoming have threads all the way to the Bottom - Does not start well

90 Taps

91 Taps Know these terms; Tap drill drill bit that drills a hole the proper size for threads to be cut when using a tap (slightly smaller than thread size). Clearance Drill drill bit that will drill a hole the size needed to insert bolt with out threading it.

92 Refer to the tap drill size chart
Tap wrench Die Stock

93 Dies Dies are used to cut external threads on stock or bolts

94 Tap & Dies Finding the right size Tap or Die Use a Thread pitch gauge National Coarse National Fine NC NF ½ x ½ x 20 ½ size of bolt 13 teeth per inch teeth per inch

95 Thread pitch gauge Used to find how many threads in an inch
come in metric and standard

96 Tap and Die rules Use cutting oil when using Taps and Dies
Keep Tap square with hole Keep backing off Tap to break chips off (1 turn in 1/2 turn back Keep Taps and Dies clean and lightly oiled Keep Taps in storage box separate from others so you will not damage the cutting edge Make sure all the tools are in the box when you return it to the tool room

97 Tap & Dies Thread chasers and thread files should be used only to repair damaged threads

98 Screw Extractors For removing broken screws and studs
first center punch broken bolt, lube with W.D. 40 to loosen bolt, drill out with largest size drill with out damaging threads all the way through, then insert screw extractor square shank - hit with hammer spiral - will twist in and grab

99 Thread repair Heli Coil EZ-LOK

100 Solder Guns

101 Soldering If solder gun does not work do these three things
1. Tighten the nuts, the screw or Allen set screw on the soldering tip. (do not over tighten as it gets hot then cold it will expand then contract these will always come lose) 2. Clean and sand the tip of the solder gun 3. tin the tip of the solder gun

102 Types of Solder Rosin core - wiring Acid core - radiators

103 Pullers Two jaw Three jaw

104 Pullers Steering wheel Harmonic balance puller

105 Pullers Slide hammer and attachments

106 Hones wheel cylinder (Drum Brake) disc brake caliper glaze breaker
cylinder hones

107 Ring Compressor ring compressors

108 Ring Expander ring expander

109 Valve Spring Compressor
valve spring compressors

110 Brake spoon & Spanner wrench

111 Tin snips / Straight Tinner Snips

112 Offset model aviation snips
Left cut model - for cutting straight and tight left curves Right cut model - for cutting straight and tight right curves Straight cut model - for cutting straight and mild curves both left and right

113 Bushing driver & Bearing Packer
bushing drivers bearing packer

114 Grease Gun Grease Gun

115 Seal Puller & Installer
Seal pullers Seal installers

116 Hand Impact Used to remove stubborn screws
insert right size bit turn in direction you want to go and strike with a hammer.

117 Measuring tools feeler gauge - flat round or wire

118 Measuring tools Feeler gauge flat & round

119 Measuring tools Calipers
Outside Inside Dial

120 Measuring tools Dial indicator Straight edge - .003 max (not shown)
Telescoping gauge Small hole gauge

121 Micrometer name of parts reading mikes Inside micrometer
See power point on micrometers

122 Test Light Use to test for power or ground

123 Power Probe III Use to test for power or ground and more

124 Questions? Check the textbook chapter 3 for any questions you still need answered. Check with at least three other students to try and find the answers you are missing. Finally, Check with the instructor to learn where to go to find the answers you still need. Still have questions? Contact Mr. Vance Bloom at Or Mr. Ed Kessel at

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