2 ToolsWhy should you invest in the best tool for the job? 1. Cheap tools break easily 2. Cheap tools sometimes damage fasteners (rounded bolts / nuts, stripped screws) 3. Quality tools last longer, perform better, and are less likely to damage fasteners 4. Quality tools come with a lifetime warranty
3 Tool DesignQuality tools are made of high strength alloy steel and should be light and easy to use in tight quarters. A quality tool is slim and properly designed to fit your hand.
4 Tool QualityQuality Tools are heat treated, and the working surface is at a close tolerance, a 3/4 is a 3/4 sharp edges are removed, and tools are polished.Tech Tip: Keep your tools clean! A greasy or oily tool can decrease a technician’s performance and may slip causing injury to the technician.
6 Tips to Remember KEEP YOUR TOOLS CLEAN! Separate cutting tools Lightly oil any tool that might rustDelicate measuring tools- keep in protective containers micrometers etc.Engrave your tools with Drivers license.Put Name & license Number on all tools
7 Major brands of Quality hand tools: Snap On, Craftsman, S-K Wayne, Matco, Mac, Huskey Proto, Master Mechanic New Britain
8 Tool Boxes Three Main Parts of Tool Box Top Box (for frequently used tools) (dividers help organize small tools)Bottom Box (Roll-away) (for larger and heavier tools)Side Box (for lighter bulkier tools)
9 When working in the shop Always wear safety glassesor a full face shield
10 WrenchesWrenches are a way to remove and replace bolts etc, but they are slow. Use only as a last resort. You should use air tools or ratchets if at all possible, because they are faster.(Remember, pull with a wrench you have better control, if you do push, push with your palm open.)
11 Wrench Sizesize is determined by width of jaw opening.
12 Slug WrenchThis is the only wrench designed to be used with a hammer.
13 Open End Wrench Size is determined by the width of jaw opening. The open end is angled or offset by 15 degrees at one end to help reach fasteners in tight spots.
14 Box End WrenchBox-end wrenches are available in 6 or 12 point openings. Can be double offset or box offset 15 degrees for clearance for hand.Comes in different lengths, each end is a different size, good wrench for breaking loose tight bolts
15 Combination WrenchOne end open, one end boxed both the same size can be different lengths
16 Tubing Wrench - (flare nut) Box type wrench with section cut away. One end sometimes might be open like a combination wrench. Make sure you buy 6pt. – (12pt. are no good, they will slip)
17 Adjustable Open-End Wrench AKA “Crescent” Wrench Not a replacement for all other wrenches. Try to always use the correct size wrench. This wrench is usually used as a last resort, and tends to slip. Adjust jaws firmly. You should only put pressure on the fixed jaw.
18 Ignition Wrenchone end open, one end boxed or both ends open different size at each end
19 Socket WrenchSockets come in many sizes with different openings. 6 pt. & 12 pt. are the most common.They are used to remove and install nuts and bolts.8 pt or double square are used on square nuts. Square (4 sided) sockets are also used in special applications6 point point point
20 Drive size common to Automotive are 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 3/4 - square hole
23 Sockets Extensions used to extend reach of sockets Universal Joint A “universal” is used to reach around obstructions.Impact Standard
24 Torque StixUsed to torque down lug nuts to the proper torque when using a impact wrench. The larger the shaft the more torque it will carry.
25 Torque SticksLook up on the chart for your make and model or if you know the torque look on the chart and find the right torque stix
26 ratchet - short and long Socket Handlesratchet - short and longSwivel Head Ratchet
27 Socket handlesspeed handle - and swivel speed handle used to rapidly spin a fastener off and onflex handle or breaker bar long and shortsliding T bar
28 Torque wrenchesA torque wrench is a tool used to precisely set the torque or tightness of a fastener such as a nut or bolt.Beam typeDial type sometimes referred to as a Micrometer type or Click Type
30 Torque wrenches Come in inch lbs and foot lbs Always look up tightening sequenceAlways look up the amount of TorqueRecheck each fastener twicePull with a steady pull, do not jerkMake sure threads are cleanRemember that it takes more force to start a fastener then to keep it turning.
31 Allen WrenchesAn Allen wrench is one type of wrench that connects to a specially made hex fastener
38 Screw driversScrewdrivers are classed in size of shank such as 3/16, 1/4, 5/16, and length of shank such as 2", 4", 6". Some manufactures take length of shank and handle. Normally just the shank is measured.Handles come in different shapes to get better torque on screw
40 Screw Driver Use Never use a screwdriver as a pry bar or punch! Some shanks are square so you may apply a wrenchIf holding small object in hand do not run screwdriver through hand, keep hand back!Screwdriver handles are not usually insulated
41 Pliers Used to grip various parts Combination slip joint pliers Diagonal side cutters Used for cutting soft metal
42 Pliers Needle nose Channel lock or Arc joint (Sears) Snap-on calls them Adjustable JointUsed to be called water pump pliers
52 HammersClaw Hammer -this is Auto shop, not Wood shop
53 Hammers Claw Hammer - this is Auto shop, not Wood shop Ball Peen Hammer - general purpose hammer most commonly used by techniciansSledge Hammer – for heavy poundingRubber Mallet – used for hub cap installation
54 More HammersBrass Hammers - (middle one) used to prevent damage to mild steel partsPlastic Tipped – also used to prevent damage to softer parts Some have replaceable tips in several different types of materials
55 Dead Blow HammerA dead blow hammer is a specialized mallet helpful in minimizing damage to the struck surface and in controlling striking force with minimal rebound from the striking surface. The head of these hammers are commonly hollow and filled with sand or shot, which absorbs the impact of a strike, reducing the bounce-back. - Wikipedia
56 Hammers Lead Hammers not used much any more Raw hide Hammers not used much any more(good in their day, but have been replaced by newer styles)These have been replaced by dead blow and plastic tip hammers
57 Safety Tips on Hammer use 1. Strike face of hammer head squarely2. Make sure head is secure on hammer handle (Hammer Head is wedged on in both directions)3. Never swing hammer in the direction that someone is standing4. Keep handle clean and dry5. Keep punch and chisel ends from mushrooming by periodic grinding
59 Punches Round Nose Cape Chisel Cape Chisel Cold Chisel Center Punch Tapered Starting PunchDrift or Roll Pin Punch
60 PunchesAligning punch sometimes called a Long Taper or Line-up punch used to line up holes in parts for assemblyCenter punch - use before drilling or to mark metal
61 Chisels Used to cut off damaged parts or fasteners Flat Cold chisel: most common, A technician must always wear safety glasses and be sure the cutting edge is sharp. The striking surface or top of chisel should not be mushroomed, it should be smooth with a slight taper.
62 Punches To sharpen, remove mushroom, or true Punches and chisels: Hold at proper angles and dip often in water, DO NOT let them turn blue
66 FilesAre used when a small amount of material needs to be removed (usually metal)Coarse File – Double Cut – has large cutting grooves, for removing material fasterSmooth File –Single cut – removes small amounts of metal and leaves a smoother finishMill Bastard - really coarse cutting grooves for maximum cutting powerThe number of cuts and the size of the cuts determines the coarseness of the file
67 Files Single cut - rows of teeth run in one direction Double cut - teeth run at an angle to each other
68 Shapes of filesflat, square, round or rat tail, half round, knife edge, 3-square or triangular, point file
69 Files Use a coarse file for soft metal, it prevents clogging File card (3) Tech Tips: 1. Always use a file handle2. Use chalk to get rid of oil on a file3. Use a file card or wire brush to clean a file
70 Rotary files good for blind holes where a lot of material must be removedwear safety glasses
71 Hack saws used to cut metal close quarter Hack saws Blade length 8, 10, 12,Semi-flexible blades, High speed blades.
72 Hack Saws - Blades Teeth on hack saw go forward Need at least two teeth on metalTeeth per inch (T.P.I.)14 T.P.I. Large pieces of soft steel18 T.P.I Large pieces of hard tool steel24 T.P.I. Cooper brass, Light angle Iron Tubing, sheet metal32 T.P.I. Thin sheet metal and thin tubingHold the hacksaw with both hands
73 Hole sawUsed to cut round holes in thin metal or wood or plastic
74 Holding Tools - ViseA vise is primarily used to hold parts during drilling, cutting, or thread repairing operations.A vise should never be hammered on for any reason. A vise is not an anvil!
75 Holding Tools – C-clamp C-clamps hold parts on a work surface while:DrillingFilingCuttingWeldingOr other operations
76 Examples of Cleaning Tools: Q: Why is dirt an enemy of the automobile?A: One grain of sand can cause a major breakdown by clogging a passage or scarring a part.Examples of Cleaning Tools:Scraper: removes gaskets, grease, sludge, and carbon from parts.Wire Brush: Used to remove light rust and baked-on dirt from automotive parts.Solvent Tank: Used with a brush to clean oil and grease from parts.Wire Knot Brush: Used with a drill to remove gaskets, carbon, and rust deposits.
78 Telescoping Inspection Mirrors Inspection mirrors allow technicians to see behind objects and in difficult to see locations.
79 Pick up tools Heavy duty Telescoping Magnetic Pick-up Tool: For picking up heavy iron or steel objects, like dropped nuts, bolts, and toolsStandard TelescopingMagnetic Pick-up Tool:For picking up lighter iron or steel objects, like dropped nuts and boltsMechanical FingersPick-up Tool: For picking up light non-magnetic objects
80 Pry-Bars Heavy Duty Pry-Bars Rolling Head Pry-Bars Door Panel Trim Pry-Tool
81 Pry-BarsWEAR EYE PROTECTION! Extreme care must be used when operating a pry-bar to avoid damaging parts, do not apply excessive force on fragile components.
82 Twist Drill Bits Fractional inch size 1/16,1/4, 3/8, 7/16, ½ Letter Size A-ZNumber Size 1-80Left hand drill bits cut when going in Reverse (usually for broken bolt extraction)
84 Twist Drill BitsTypes of materials carbon steel – Cheap drill bit high speed steel (HSS) better Titanium & Cobalt bestShanks - straight - turned down - taperedAll Drill Bits must be sharp
85 Drill MotorsCommon sizes 1/4, 3/8, ½ refers to size of chuck or how big of drill bit it will hold.Center punch before drilling, keeps drill from wanderingUse cutting oil except on sheet metal and cast iron.Corded and cordlessSome have keyless chucks
87 Safety Hints 1. Firm grip on the drill 2. Always unplug drill before removing or installing drill bit3. Don't wear loose clothing4. Secure the work firmly (C-clamp or vise)5. Wear safety glasses6. Make sure drill is properly grounded7. To avoid electric shock, do not stand on wet surfaces when using power tools
88 Tap & DiesTaps are used to cut internal threads
89 Types of taps Taper - first 6-8 threads are Chamfered Plug - first 3-5 threads are ChamferedBottoming have threads all the way to the Bottom - Does not start well
91 TapsKnow these terms; Tap drill drill bit that drills a hole the proper size for threads to be cut when using a tap (slightly smaller than thread size). Clearance Drill drill bit that will drill a hole the size needed to insert bolt with out threading it.
92 Refer to the tap drill size chart Tap wrenchDie Stock
93 Dies Dies are used to cut external threads on stock or bolts
94 Tap & DiesFinding the right size Tap or Die Use a Thread pitch gauge National Coarse National Fine NC NF ½ x ½ x 20 ½ size of bolt 13 teeth per inch teeth per inch
95 Thread pitch gauge Used to find how many threads in an inch come in metric and standard
96 Tap and Die rules Use cutting oil when using Taps and Dies Keep Tap square with holeKeep backing off Tap to break chips off (1 turn in 1/2 turn backKeep Taps and Dies clean and lightly oiledKeep Taps in storage box separate from others so you will not damage the cutting edgeMake sure all the tools are in the box when you return it to the tool room
97 Tap & DiesThread chasers and thread files should be used only to repair damaged threads
98 Screw Extractors For removing broken screws and studs first center punch broken bolt, lube with W.D. 40 to loosen bolt, drill out with largest size drill with out damaging threads all the way through, then insert screw extractorsquare shank - hit with hammerspiral - will twist in and grab
101 Soldering If solder gun does not work do these three things 1. Tighten the nuts, the screw or Allen set screw on the soldering tip. (do not over tighten as it gets hot then cold it will expand then contract these will always come lose)2. Clean and sand the tip of the solder gun3. tin the tip of the solder gun
102 Types of SolderRosin core - wiringAcid core - radiators
112 Offset model aviation snips Left cut model - for cutting straight and tight left curvesRight cut model - for cutting straight and tight right curvesStraight cut model - for cutting straight and mild curves both left and right
123 Power Probe IIIUse to test for power or ground and more
124 Questions?Check the textbook chapter 3 for any questions you still need answered.Check with at least three other students to try and find the answers you are missing.Finally, Check with the instructor to learn where to go to find the answers you still need.Still have questions? ContactMr. Vance Bloom atOr Mr. Ed Kessel at