Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Hand Tools Tools Why should you invest in the best tool for the job? 1. Cheap tools break easily 2. Cheap tools sometimes damage fasteners."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 Hand Tools
Tools Why should you invest in the best tool for the job? 1. Cheap tools break easily 2. Cheap tools sometimes damage fasteners (rounded bolts / nuts, stripped screws) 3. Quality tools last longer, perform better, and are less likely to damage fasteners 4. Quality tools come with a lifetime warranty
Quality tools are made of high strength alloy steel and should be light and easy to use in tight quarters. A quality tool is slim and properly designed to fit your hand. Tool Design
Quality Tools are heat treated, and the working surface is at a close tolerance, a 3/4 is a 3/4 sharp edges are removed, and tools are polished. Tool Quality Tech Tip: Keep your tools clean! A greasy or oily tool can decrease a technician’s performance and may slip causing injury to the technician.
When buying tools, you get what you pay for !
Tips to Remember KEEP YOUR TOOLS CLEAN! Separate cutting tools Lightly oil any tool that might rust Delicate measuring tools- keep in protective containers micrometers etc. Engrave your tools with Drivers license. Put Name & license Number on all tools
Snap On, Craftsman, S-K Wayne, Matco, Mac, Huskey Proto, Master Mechanic New Britain Major brands of Quality hand tools: Snap On, Craftsman, S-K Wayne, Matco, Mac, Huskey Proto, Master Mechanic New Britain
Tool Boxes Three Main Parts of Tool Box Top Box (for frequently used tools) (dividers help organize small tools) Bottom Box (Roll-away) (for larger and heavier tools) Side Box (for lighter bulkier tools)
When working in the shop Always wear safety glasses or a full face shield
Wrenches Wrenches are a way to remove and replace bolts etc, but they are slow. Use only as a last resort. You should use air tools or ratchets if at all possible, because they are faster. (Remember, pull with a wrench you have better control, if you do push, push with your palm open.)
Wrench Size size is determined by width of jaw opening.
Slug Wrench This is the only wrench designed to be used with a hammer.
Open End Wrench Size is determined by the width of jaw opening. The open end is angled or offset by 15 degrees at one end to help reach fasteners in tight spots.
Box-end wrenches are available in 6 or 12 point openings. Can be double offset or box offset 15 degrees for clearance for hand. Comes in different lengths, each end is a different size, good wrench for breaking loose tight bolts Box End Wrench
Combination Wrench One end open, one end boxed both the same size can be different lengths
Tubing Wrench - (flare nut) Box type wrench with section cut away. One end sometimes might be open like a combination wrench. Make sure you buy 6pt. – (12pt. are no good, they will slip)
Adjustable Open-End Wrench AKA “Crescent” Wrench Not a replacement for all other wrenches. Try to always use the correct size wrench. This wrench is usually used as a last resort, and tends to slip. Adjust jaws firmly. You should only put pressure on the fixed jaw.
Ignition Wrench one end open, one end boxed or both ends open different size at each end
Socket Wrench Sockets come in many sizes with different openings. 6 pt. & 12 pt. are the most common. They are used to remove and install nuts and bolts. 8 pt or double square are used on square nuts. Square (4 sided) sockets are also used in special applications 6 point 8 point 12 point
Drive size common to Automotive are 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 3/4 - square hole
Swivel sockets Impact or Wobbly sockets crowfeet Sockets
Extensions used to extend reach of sockets Universal Joint A “universal” is used to reach around obstructions. Impact Standard Sockets
Used to torque down lug nuts to the proper torque when using a impact wrench. The larger the shaft the more torque it will carry. Torque Stix
Look up on the chart for your make and model or if you know the torque look on the chart and find the right torque stix Torque Sticks
Socket Handles ratchet - short and long Swivel Head Ratchet
Socket handles speed handle - and swivel speed handle used to rapidly spin a fastener off and on flex handle or breaker bar long and short sliding T bar
Torque wrenches A torque wrench is a tool used to precisely set the torque or tightness of a fastener such as a nut or bolt. Beam type Dial type sometimes referred to as a Micrometer type or Click Type
Torque wrenches Digital
Torque wrenches Come in inch lbs and foot lbs Always look up tightening sequence Always look up the amount of Torque Recheck each fastener twice Pull with a steady pull, do not jerk Make sure threads are clean Remember that it takes more force to start a fastener then to keep it turning.
Allen Wrenches An Allen wrench is one type of wrench that connects to a specially made hex fastener
Screw drivers A. Slotted B. Pozi-Drive Phillips C. Phillips D. Torx E. Allen / Hex
Screw driver Selection Blade should fit the slot snugly and have good surface contact with no play
Screw drivers Reed and Prince clutch
Pozi-drive Allen or Hex tip Screw drivers
Scurlox or Square Drive Torx Screw drivers
Offset Screw drivers
Screwdrivers are classed in size of shank such as 3/16, 1/4, 5/16, and length of shank such as 2", 4", 6". Some manufactures take length of shank and handle. Normally just the shank is measured. Handles come in different shapes to get better torque on screw Screw drivers
Never use a screwdriver as a pry bar or punch! Some shanks are square so you may apply a wrench If holding small object in hand do not run screwdriver through hand, keep hand back! Screwdriver handles are not usually insulated Screw Driver Use
Pliers Used to grip various parts Combination slip joint pliers Diagonal side cutters Used for cutting soft metal
Pliers Needle nose Channel lock or Arc joint (Sears) Snap-on calls them Adjustable Joint Used to be called water pump pliers
Locking Pliers Locking Pliers or Vise Grips (Brand Name) used to clamp and hold various parts Needle Nose Locking Pliers or Vise Grips Lock ring pliers
Pliers Locking C-Clamp
Pliers Snap Ring - Internal or External
Pliers Spark Plug Boot Pliers
Pliers Brake pliers Hose clamp pliers
Pliers Robo Grip
Pliers Pinch off hose pliers
Pliers Wire Strippers and Crimpers
Hammers Claw Hammer - this is Auto shop, not Wood shop
Hammers Claw Hammer - this is Auto shop, not Wood shop Ball Peen Hammer - general purpose hammer most commonly used by technicians Sledge Hammer – for heavy pounding Rubber Mallet – used for hub cap installation
More Hammers Brass Hammers - (middle one) used to prevent damage to mild steel parts Plastic Tipped – also used to prevent damage to softer parts Some have replaceable tips in several different types of materials
Dead Blow Hammer A dead blow hammer is a specialized mallet helpful in minimizing damage to the struck surface and in controlling striking force with minimal rebound from the striking surface. The head of these hammers are commonly hollow and filled with sand or shot, which absorbs the impact of a strike, reducing the bounce- back. - Wikipedia
Hammers Lead Hammers not used much any more Raw hide Hammers not used much any more (good in their day, but have been replaced by newer styles) These have been replaced by dead blow and plastic tip hammers
Safety Tips on Hammer use 1.Strike face of hammer head squarely 2.Make sure head is secure on hammer handle (Hammer Head is wedged on in both directions) 3.Never swing hammer in the direction that someone is standing 4.Keep handle clean and dry 5. Keep punch and chisel ends from mushrooming by periodic grinding
Chisels & Punches
Punches Round Nose Cape Chisel Cape Chisel Cold Chisel Center Punch Tapered Starting Punch Drift or Roll Pin Punch
Punches Aligning punch sometimes called a Long Taper or Line-up punch used to line up holes in parts for assembly Center punch - use before drilling or to mark metal
Chisels Used to cut off damaged parts or fasteners Flat Cold chisel: most common, A technician must always wear safety glasses and be sure the cutting edge is sharp. The striking surface or top of chisel should not be mushroomed, it should be smooth with a slight taper.
Punches To sharpen, remove mushroom, or true Punches and chisels: Hold at proper angles and dip often in water, DO NOT let them turn blue
Brass Drift Punch Set
Files Are used when a small amount of material needs to be removed (usually metal) Coarse File – Double Cut – has large cutting grooves, for removing material faster Smooth File –Single cut – removes small amounts of metal and leaves a smoother finish Mill Bastard - really coarse cutting grooves for maximum cutting power The number of cuts and the size of the cuts determines the coarseness of the file
Files Single cut - rows of teeth run in one direction Double cut - teeth run at an angle to each other
Shapes of files flat, square, round or rat tail, half round, knife edge, 3-square or triangular, point file
Use a coarse file for soft metal, it prevents clogging File card Files (3) Tech Tips: 1. Always use a file handle 2. Use chalk to get rid of oil on a file 3. Use a file card or wire brush to clean a file
Rotary files good for blind holes where a lot of material must be removed wear safety glasses
Hack saws used to cut metal close quarter Hack saws Blade length 8, 10, 12, Semi-flexible blades, High speed blades.
Teeth on hack saw go forward Need at least two teeth on metal Teeth per inch (T.P.I.) 14 T.P.I.Large pieces of soft steel 18 T.P.ILarge pieces of hard tool steel 24 T.P.I.Cooper brass, Light angle Iron Tubing, sheet metal 32 T.P.I.Thin sheet metal and thin tubing Hold the hacksaw with both hands Hack Saws - Blades
Hole saw Used to cut round holes in thin metal or wood or plastic
Holding Tools - Vise A vise is primarily used to hold parts during drilling, cutting, or thread repairing operations. A vise should never be hammered on for any reason. A vise is not an anvil! A vise should never be hammered on for any reason. A vise is not an anvil!
Holding Tools – C-clamp C-clamps hold parts on a work surface while: Drilling Filing Cutting Welding Or other operations
Cleaning Tools Q: Why is dirt an enemy of the automobile? A: One grain of sand can cause a major breakdown by clogging a passage or scarring a part. Examples of Cleaning Tools: Scraper: removes gaskets, grease, sludge, and carbon from parts. Wire Brush: Used to remove light rust and baked-on dirt from automotive parts. Solvent Tank: Used with a brush to clean oil and grease from parts. Wire Knot Brush: Used with a drill to remove gaskets, carbon, and rust deposits.
Probe & Pickup Tools
Telescoping Inspection Mirrors Inspection mirrors allow technicians to see behind objects and in difficult to see locations.
Pick up tools Heavy duty Telescoping Magnetic Pick-up Tool: For picking up heavy iron or steel objects, like dropped nuts, bolts, and tools Mechanical Fingers Pick-up Tool: For picking up light non-magnetic objects Standard Telescoping Magnetic Pick-up Tool: For picking up lighter iron or steel objects, like dropped nuts and bolts
Pry-Bars Heavy Duty Pry-Bars Rolling Head Pry-Bars Door Panel Trim Pry-Tool
Pry-Bars WEAR EYE PROTECTION! WEAR EYE PROTECTION! Extreme care must be used when operating a pry-bar to avoid damaging parts, do not apply excessive force on fragile components.
Twist Drill Bits Fractional inch size 1/16,1/4, 3/8, 7/16, ½ Letter Size A-Z Number Size 1-80 Left hand drill bits cut when going in Reverse (usually for broken bolt extraction)
Twist Drill Bits
Types of materials - carbon steel – Cheap drill bit - high speed steel (HSS) better - Titanium & Cobalt best Shanks - straight - turned down - tapered All Drill Bits must be sharp
Drill Motors Common sizes 1/4, 3/8, ½ refers to size of chuck or how big of drill bit it will hold. Center punch before drilling, keeps drill from wandering Use cutting oil except on sheet metal and cast iron. Corded and cordless Some have keyless chucks
Drill, Keyless chuck Drill Motor
Safety Hints 1.Firm grip on the drill 2.Always unplug drill before removing or installing drill bit 3. Don't wear loose clothing 4.Secure the work firmly (C-clamp or vise) 5.Wear safety glasses 6. Make sure drill is properly grounded 7.To avoid electric shock, do not stand on wet surfaces when using power tools
Tap & Dies Taps are used to cut internal threads
Taper - first 6-8 threads are Chamfered Plug - first 3-5 threads are Chamfered Bottoming have threads all the way to the Bottom - Does not start well Types of taps
Know these terms; Tap drill drill bit that drills a hole the proper size for threads to be cut when using a tap (slightly smaller than thread size). Clearance Drill drill bit that will drill a hole the size needed to insert bolt with out threading it. Taps
Refer to the tap drill size chart Tap wrench Die Stock
Dies Dies are used to cut external threads on stock or bolts
Finding the right size Tap or Die Use a Thread pitch gauge National Coarse National Fine NC NF ½ x 13 ½ x 20 ½ size of bolt 13 teeth per inch 20 teeth per inch Tap & Dies
Thread pitch gauge Used to find how many threads in an inch come in metric and standard
Tap and Die rules Use cutting oil when using Taps and Dies Keep Tap square with hole Keep backing off Tap to break chips off (1 turn in 1/2 turn back Keep Taps and Dies clean and lightly oiled Keep Taps in storage box separate from others so you will not damage the cutting edge Make sure all the tools are in the box when you return it to the tool room
Thread chasers and thread files should be used only to repair damaged threads Tap & Dies
Screw Extractors For removing broken screws and studs first center punch broken bolt, lube with W.D. 40 to loosen bolt, drill out with largest size drill with out damaging threads all the way through, then insert screw extractor square shank - hit with hammer spiral - will twist in and grab
Thread repair Heli Coil EZ-LOK
Soldering If solder gun does not work do these three things 1. Tighten the nuts, the screw or Allen set screw on the soldering tip. (do not over tighten as it gets hot then cold it will expand then contract these will always come lose) 2. Clean and sand the tip of the solder gun 3. tin the tip of the solder gun
Offset model aviation snips Left cut model - for cutting straight and tight left curves Right cut model - for cutting straight and tight right curves Straight cut model - for cutting straight and mild curves both left and right
Seal pullers Seal installers Seal Puller & Installer
Hand Impact Used to remove stubborn screws insert right size bit turn in direction you want to go and strike with a hammer.
Measuring tools feeler gauge - flat round or wire
Measuring tools Feeler gauge flat & round
Measuring tools Calipers Outside Inside Dial
Dial indicator Straight edge max (not shown) Telescoping gauge Small hole gauge Measuring tools
Micrometer name of parts reading mikes Inside micrometer See power point on micrometersmicrometers
Test Light Use to test for power or ground
Power Probe III Use to test for power or ground and more
Questions? Check the textbook chapter 3 for any questions you still need answered. Check with at least three other students to try and find the answers you are missing. Finally, Check with the instructor to learn where to go to find the answers you still need. Still have questions? Contact Mr. Vance Bloom at Or Mr. Ed Kessel at