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© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Tool rules Tool storage Wrenches Screwdrivers Pliers Hammers Chisels and punches (13 Topics)
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Files Saws Holding tools Cleaning tools Probe and pickup tools Pry bars
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. There are several basic tool rules that should be remembered
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Purchase Quality Tools With tools, you usually get what you pay for Quality tools are lighter, stronger, easier to use, and are usually covered by a warranty
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Keep Tools Organized For each tool to be used quickly, the tools should be neatly arranged There should be a place for every tool, and every tool should be in its place
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Keep Tools Clean Wipe tools clean and dry after each use Greasy or oily tools can be dangerous! Cleaning also prevents corrosion from forming on the tools
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Use the Right Tool for the Job Even though several different tools may be used to loosen a bolt, usually one will do a better job One tool may be faster, grip the bolt better, be less likely to break, or require less physical effort
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Toolbox stores and protects a technician’s tools when not in use
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. ToolBox Never open more than two drawers at a time
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. ToolBox Parts Lower roll-around cabinet holds bulky, heavy tools Upper tool chest holds commonly used tools in easy reach Small carrying tray placed in the upper tool chest allows tools to be taken to the vehicle more easily
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. ToolBox Organization Related tools are usually kept in the same drawer various types of hammers may be stored in one drawer and all screwdrivers in another Small or delicate tools should not be kept with large, heavy tools to prevent damage Tool holders help organize small tools
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Used to install and remove nuts and bolts Available in both conventional (inch) and metric (millimeter) sizes size is stamped on the side of the wrench Wrench size is determined by measuring across the wrench jaws
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Wrench Sizes Customary Metric
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rules for Wrench Use Always select the right size wrench wrench must fit the bolt head snugly Never hammer on a standard wrench use a longer wrench with more leverage or a special slug wrench, designed to be used with a hammer
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rules for Wrench Use When possible, pull on the wrench if the wrench slips, you are less likely to hurt your hand Never use a steel bar or pipe to increase the length of a wrench excess force can bend or break the wrench
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Open-End Wrench Has an open jaw on both ends Each end is a different size and set at an angle Angle allows the open-end wrench to turn bolts and nuts with little wrench swing space Wrench can be turned over between each swing to get a new “bite” on the bolt head
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Box-End Wrench Completely closed on both ends Will not round off bolt heads as easily as an open-end wrench Available with either 6- or 12-point openings
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Combination Wrench Has a box-end jaw on one end and an open end on the other Both ends are usually the same size Provides the advantage of two types of wrenches for the price of one
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Line Wrench Also called a tubing wrench or flare nut wrench Box-end wrench with a small opening or split in the jaw Opening allows the wrench to be slipped over fuel lines, brake lines, or power steering lines Prevents damage to soft fittings
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Wrenches A. Open-end B. Box-end C. Combination D. Tubing or line wrench
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Socket Wrench (Socket) Cylinder-shaped, box-end tool One end fits over the fastener, while the other end has a square hole that fits on a handle used for turning
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Socket Terms Drive size size of the square opening for the handle common drive sizes are 1/4”, 3/8”, 1/2”, and 3/4” Points configuration of the box for the bolt head 4-point, 6-point, 8-point, and 12-point are available
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Socket Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Socket Handles Ratchet Breaker bar or flex handle
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Socket Handles Speed handle T-handle
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Socket Handles Torque wrench Flexible driver
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Extensions Used between a socket and its handle
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Universal Joint Swivel that lets the socket wrench reach around obstructions
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Adjustable (Crescent) Wrench Has jaws that can be adjusted to fit different size bolt and nut heads Used only when other type wrenches will not fit
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Pipe Wrench Adjustable wrench used to grasp cylindrical objects Toothed jaws actually dig into the object
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Allen Wrench Hexagonal shaft-type wrench Used to turn set screws on pulleys, gears, and knobs
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Specialty Wrenches Ratchet wrench Flex-Combination Half-moon
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Used to remove or install screws Available in many shapes and sizes
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Screwdriver Types A. Standard B. Phillips C. Reed and Prince D. Torx E. Clutch Fig 10
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Screwdriver Types Offset Stubby
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Screwdriver Types Starting screwdriver Awl
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Impact Driver Used to loosen stubborn fasteners. When struck with a hammer, the driver exerts powerful turning and downward forces
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Selecting a Screwdriver Screwdriver tip must fit in the slot perfectly
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Used to grip, cut, crimp, hold, and bend various parts Never use pliers when another type tool will work Pliers can nick and scar a part
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Combination (Slip Joint) Pliers Slip joint allows the jaws to be adjusted to grasp different size parts
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rib Joint Pliers Also called channel lock pliers or water pump pliers. Open extra wide for holding very large objects
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Needle Nose Pliers Excellent for handling extremely small parts or reaching into highly restricted areas
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Diagonal Cutting Pliers Jaw shape allows cutting flush with a surface
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Locking Pliers (Vise Grips) Clamp onto and hold a part. Sometimes used to unscrew fasteners with stripped or rounded heads
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Snap Ring Pliers Sharp, pointed tips are useful for installing and removing special clips called snap rings
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Various types of hammers are used for operations that involve striking a tool or part
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rules for Hammer Use Select the right size hammer Always check that the hammer head is tight on the handle Never hit a hardened part with a steel hammer metal chips may fly off Grasp the hammer near the end of the handle and strike the part or tool squarely
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ball Peen Hammer Flat surface is for general striking. Round end is for shaping metal parts, such as sheet metal or rivet heads
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sledge Hammer Heavy hammer, produces powerful blows
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Brass (Lead) Hammer Provides a soft, heavy head. Head deforms to protect the part surface from damage
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Plastic (Rawhide) Hammer Light hammer with a soft head. Used where light blows are needed to prevent part breakage or damage
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rubber Mallet Recommended on many sheet metal or plastic parts, such as moldings and wheel covers
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Dead Blow Hammer Features a plastic-coated, metal face Filled with small metal balls (lead shot) Extra weight prevents a rebound of the hammer when striking Plastic coating avoids surface damage
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Chisels used for cutting off damaged or badly rusted nuts, bolts, and rivet heads Punches used to mark or make an indentation in metal or to drive parts like pins or bolts out of holes
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Chisels and Punches A.Flat chisel B.Cape chisel C.Round-nose chisel D.Diamond-point chisel E.Holder F.Center punch GPin punch H.Long, tapered punch I.Starting punch
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Center Punch Used to mark parts for reassembly and to start a hole before drilling
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Starting (Drift) Punch Has a strong, tapered shank that can withstand moderate blows Used to drive pins, shafts, and metal rods part of the way out of a hole Pin punch is used after the starting punch straight shank can fit into a bore as the part is driven fully out
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Aligning Punch Has a long, tapered shape Handy for lining up parts during assembly Punch is inserted into holes in mating parts and then wiggled to match up the holes
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Chisel and Punch Rules Use the largest punch or chisel that will work Keep both ends of a chisel or punch properly ground and shaped after prolonged hammering, the top of a chisel or punch can become deformed and enlarged (mushroomed)
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Chisel and Punch Rules Grind off the mushroom and form a chamfer
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Chisel and Punch Rules When grinding a chisel or punch, grind slowly to avoid overheating the tool overheating can cause the tool to become soft Wear eye protection when using or grinding a chisel or punch
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Remove burrs, nicks, and sharp edges and perform other smoothing operations Useful when only a small amount of material must be removed
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Files
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. File Grades Coarse file provides large cutting edges used on soft materials, such as plastic, brass, and aluminum Fine file provides small cutting edges produces a smoother surface used on harder materials, like cast iron or steel
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. File Safety Rules Never use a file without a handle securely attached To prevent undue file wear, apply pressure only on the forward stroke When filing, place one hand on the handle and the other on the file tip
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. File Safety Rules Do not file too rapidly One file stroke every second is fast enough If a file becomes clogged, clean it with a file card Never hammer or pry with a file
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. A hacksaw is the saw most frequently used by a technician Various blade lengths can be mounted in an adjustable frame blade teeth should point away from the handle Select the appropriate blade for the job at least two saw teeth should contact the material being cut
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Using a Hacksaw Press down lightly on the forward stroke. Use strokes per minute
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. There are several different types of tools used for holding objects in the automotive shop These tools include: vise C-clamp stand holding fixture
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Vise Mounted on a workbench Used to hold parts during cutting, drilling, hammering, and pressing operations Vise caps or wood blocks should be used when mounting precision parts in a vise vise caps are soft metal jaw covers
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Vise
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rules for Vise Use Never hammer on a vise handle to tighten or loosen the vise Keep the moving parts of the vise clean and oiled Wear safety glasses when using a vise Be careful not to damage parts in the jaws of a vise
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. C-Clamp Holds parts on a work surface when drilling, filing, cutting, or welding
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Stands and Holding Fixtures Used to help secure heavy or clumsy parts while working Cylinder head stands, transmission fixtures, rear axle holding stands, and others all make your work safe and easier
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cylinder Head Stand Holds the head in position during valve and seat work
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. There is an old saying, “if you do the job right, you will spend most of your time cleaning parts” Dirt is a major enemy of a vehicle one grain of sand can cause a major breakdown by clogging a passage or scarring a part
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cleaning Tools Scrapers remove grease, gaskets, sludge, dried oil, and carbon on parts used on flat surfaces when using a scraper, never scrape toward your body, and keep your other hand out of the way Brushes used to remove light rust and dirt on parts
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Pickup tools are needed when bolts, nuts, or other small parts are dropped and cannot be reached by hand Probe tools can also be helpful during inspection of hard-to-reach areas
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Magnetic Pickup Tool Magnet hinged to the end of a rod
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Finger Pickup Tool Grasps nonmagnetic parts which will not stick to a magnet
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mirror Probe Allows you to look around corners or behind parts
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Strong steel bars that are helpful during numerous assembly, disassembly, and adjustment operations Commonly used when adjusting the tension of engine belts When prying, always be careful to not damage any part of the vehicle
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