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Chapter 3: The Magnitude of the Crime Problem

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1 Chapter 3: The Magnitude of the Crime Problem

2 Important notes These slides are not a replacement for the text
Please use these slides as a starting point for your own PowerPoint presentation based on your reading of the book, and your needs. They are not designed to be a definitive record of the book chapter Please do not cite from these slides. Please cite any text from the book as some text may have changed. The book is the definitive record. Printing the slides The background for the slides is taken from the book cover. To print without the background, Right click on the slide background Click format background > Hide background graphics Click ‘Apply to All’ Print as ‘Slides’ with the color/grayscale set to ‘Pure Black and White” Don’t forget to switch the background graphics back on! This is a hidden slide

3 Crime reporting rates in the US and UK
US reporting rate (%) UK reporting rate (%) Motor vehicle theft 95 93 Burglary 53 66 Aggravated assault/wounding 64 58 Robbery 61 47 Assault without injury 40 36 Theft from the person 35 All violent offences 49 43 All crime 41

4 Reasons for not reporting crime to police (UK)
Reason for not reporting Vandalism Burglary Violence Trivial/no loss/police would not/could not do anything 83 70 46 Private/dealt with ourselves 10 17 34 Inconvenient to report 5 6 4 Reported to other authorities 2 8 Common occurrence 3 Fear of reprisal 7 Dislike or fear of the police/previous bad experience with police or courts Other 9

5 Reasons for not reporting crime to police (US)
Reason for not reporting Violence Robbery Household burglary Object recovered; offender unsuccessful 20 15 23 Reported to another official 14 5 4 Private or personal matter 19 8 7 Not important enough 6 Insurance would not cover 0.1 3

6 Case study Calls for service in Camden, NJ

7 CAD incidents, Camden (NJ) 2005

8 Top potential crime calls for service, Camden, 2005

9 Calls for service in Camden, NJ
While 80 per cent of CAD incidents in Camden appear to relate to crime… … over 80 per cent of these same incidents do not result in a crime report.

10 The crime funnel

11 Criminal careers Criminal careers can be defined by their Onset
Duration (usually measured in years) Termination

12 Youth Lifestyles Survey
57 per cent of males and 37 per cent of females had committed an offence at some point in their life Nearly 20 per cent of them had done so in the previous 12 months

13 Some major criminal career studies
Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development Wolfgang’s Philadelphia cohort UK Home Office study of the 1950s and 1960s

14 Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
Frequents (43% of offenders) Occasionals Innocents Criminal careers average between 7 and 9 years

15 Marvin Wolfgang Philadelphia cohort study
627 chronics constituted only 6.3 per cent of the whole cohort of 9,945 boys Chronic offenders were responsible for 52 of all cohort offences

16 Prevalence of offenders per 100 males
Adapted from Farrington, D.P. (1992) ‘Criminal career research in the United Kingdom’, British Journal of Criminology, 32(4): 525.

17 Reoffending increases with court appearances
Source: Coumarelos, C. (1994) ‘Juvenile offending: predicting persistence and determining the cost-effectiveness of interventions’ (Sydney: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research), p. 20

18 Key risk factors for prolific offenders
Background risk factors Systemic identifiable risk factors Socio-economically deprived Early age of first conviction Antisocial parents and siblings History of court appearances Received poor rearing as a child History of drug usage Coming from broken homes Hanging around in public Low intelligence Having delinquent friends Poor school record Excessive drinking Being truant or excluded from school Being a victim of personal crime Lack of parental supervision Antisocial behavior

19 Organized crime Term loosely applied
Includes long-term, hierarchically structured teams, to ‘loose networks of career criminals, who come together for specific criminal ventures and dissolve once these are over’ (Serious Organized Crime Agency, 2006)

20 Money laundering Estimates of yearly global sums laundered can range from US$500 billion to US$1.5 trillion (Brooks 2001) However, the estimates that do exist have ‘little evidence to justify them’ (Levi 2002: 184) Another constituent of the ‘dark figure of crime’

21 Criminal careers summarized
The criminal careers research can best be summarized as 6 per cent of the population commit about 60 per cent of the crime Still leaves a large number of prolific offenders to be disrupted or incapacitated, and a significant minority of the crime being committed by occasional offenders who may not come to notice.

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