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3Crime reporting rates in the US and UK US reporting rate (%)UK reporting rate (%)Motor vehicle theft9593Burglary5366Aggravated assault/wounding6458Robbery6147Assault without injury4036Theft from the person35All violent offences4943All crime41
4Reasons for not reporting crime to police (UK) Reason for not reportingVandalismBurglaryViolenceTrivial/no loss/police would not/could not do anything837046Private/dealt with ourselves101734Inconvenient to report564Reported to other authorities28Common occurrence3Fear of reprisal7Dislike or fear of the police/previous bad experience with police or courtsOther9
5Reasons for not reporting crime to police (US) Reason for not reportingViolenceRobberyHousehold burglaryObject recovered; offender unsuccessful201523Reported to another official1454Private or personal matter1987Not important enough6Insurance would not cover0.13
11Criminal careers Criminal careers can be defined by their Onset Duration (usually measured in years)Termination
12Youth Lifestyles Survey 57 per cent of males and 37 per cent of females had committed an offence at some point in their lifeNearly 20 per cent of them had done so in the previous 12 months
13Some major criminal career studies Cambridge Study in Delinquent DevelopmentWolfgang’s Philadelphia cohortUK Home Office study of the 1950s and 1960s
14Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development Frequents (43% of offenders)OccasionalsInnocentsCriminal careers average between 7 and 9 years
15Marvin Wolfgang Philadelphia cohort study 627 chronics constituted only 6.3 per cent of the whole cohort of 9,945 boysChronic offenders were responsible for 52 of all cohort offences
16Prevalence of offenders per 100 males Adapted from Farrington, D.P. (1992) ‘Criminal career research in the United Kingdom’, British Journal of Criminology, 32(4): 525.
17Reoffending increases with court appearances Source: Coumarelos, C. (1994) ‘Juvenile offending: predicting persistence and determining the cost-effectiveness of interventions’ (Sydney: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research), p. 20
18Key risk factors for prolific offenders Background risk factorsSystemic identifiable risk factorsSocio-economically deprivedEarly age of first convictionAntisocial parents and siblingsHistory of court appearancesReceived poor rearing as a childHistory of drug usageComing from broken homesHanging around in publicLow intelligenceHaving delinquent friendsPoor school recordExcessive drinkingBeing truant or excluded from schoolBeing a victim of personal crimeLack of parental supervisionAntisocial behavior
19Organized crime Term loosely applied Includes long-term, hierarchically structured teams, to‘loose networks of career criminals, who come together for specific criminal ventures and dissolve once these are over’ (Serious Organized Crime Agency, 2006)
20Money launderingEstimates of yearly global sums laundered can range from US$500 billion to US$1.5 trillion (Brooks 2001)However, the estimates that do exist have ‘little evidence to justify them’ (Levi 2002: 184)Another constituent of the ‘dark figure of crime’
21Criminal careers summarized The criminal careers research can best be summarized as 6 per cent of the population commit about 60 per cent of the crimeStill leavesa large number of prolific offenders to be disrupted or incapacitated, anda significant minority of the crime being committed by occasional offenders who may not come to notice.