Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: The Magnitude of the Crime Problem. Important notes These slides are not a replacement for the text Please use these slides as a starting point."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3: The Magnitude of the Crime Problem
Important notes These slides are not a replacement for the text Please use these slides as a starting point for your own PowerPoint presentation based on your reading of the book, and your needs. They are not designed to be a definitive record of the book chapter Please do not cite from these slides. Please cite any text from the book as some text may have changed. The book is the definitive record. Printing the slides The background for the slides is taken from the book cover. To print without the background, Right click on the slide background Click format background > Hide background graphics Click Apply to All Print as Slides with the color/grayscale set to Pure Black and White Dont forget to switch the background graphics back on! This is a hidden slide
Crime reporting rates in the US and UK Crime US reporting rate (%) UK reporting rate (%) Motor vehicle theft9593 Burglary5366 Aggravated assault/wounding6458 Robbery6147 Assault without injury4036 Theft from the person4035 All violent offences4943 All crime41
Reasons for not reporting crime to police (UK) Reason for not reportingVandalismBurglaryViolence Trivial/no loss/police would not/could not do anything Private/dealt with ourselves Inconvenient to report564 Reported to other authorities228 Common occurrence324 Fear of reprisal347 Dislike or fear of the police/previous bad experience with police or courts 222 Other3910
Reasons for not reporting crime to police (US) Reason for not reportingViolenceRobbery Household burglary Object recovered; offender unsuccessful Reported to another official Private or personal matter Not important enough Insurance would not cover
Case study Calls for service in Camden, NJ
CAD incidents, Camden (NJ) 2005
Top potential crime calls for service, Camden, 2005
Calls for service in Camden, NJ While 80 per cent of CAD incidents in Camden appear to relate to crime… … over 80 per cent of these same incidents do not result in a crime report.
The crime funnel
Criminal careers Criminal careers can be defined by their Onset Duration (usually measured in years) Termination
Youth Lifestyles Survey 57 per cent of males and 37 per cent of females had committed an offence at some point in their life Nearly 20 per cent of them had done so in the previous 12 months
Some major criminal career studies Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development Wolfgangs Philadelphia cohort UK Home Office study of the 1950s and 1960s
Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development Frequents (43% of offenders) Occasionals Innocents Criminal careers average between 7 and 9 years
Marvin Wolfgang Philadelphia cohort study 627 chronics constituted only 6.3 per cent of the whole cohort of 9,945 boys Chronic offenders were responsible for 52 of all cohort offences
Prevalence of offenders per 100 males Adapted from Farrington, D.P. (1992) Criminal career research in the United Kingdom, British Journal of Criminology, 32(4): 525.
Reoffending increases with court appearances Source: Coumarelos, C. (1994) Juvenile offending: predicting persistence and determining the cost-effectiveness of interventions (Sydney: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research), p. 20
Key risk factors for prolific offenders Background risk factorsSystemic identifiable risk factors Socio-economically deprivedEarly age of first conviction Antisocial parents and siblingsHistory of court appearances Received poor rearing as a childHistory of drug usage Coming from broken homesHanging around in public Low intelligenceHaving delinquent friends Poor school recordExcessive drinking Being truant or excluded from schoolBeing a victim of personal crime Lack of parental supervisionAntisocial behavior
Organized crime Term loosely applied Includes long-term, hierarchically structured teams, to loose networks of career criminals, who come together for specific criminal ventures and dissolve once these are over (Serious Organized Crime Agency, 2006)
Money laundering Estimates of yearly global sums laundered can range from US$500 billion to US$1.5 trillion (Brooks 2001) However, the estimates that do exist have little evidence to justify them (Levi 2002: 184) Another constituent of the dark figure of crime
Criminal careers summarized The criminal careers research can best be summarized as 6 per cent of the population commit about 60 per cent of the crime Still leaves 1. a large number of prolific offenders to be disrupted or incapacitated, and 2. a significant minority of the crime being committed by occasional offenders who may not come to notice.