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The Nature of Crime and Victimization

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Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Crime and Victimization"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nature of Crime and Victimization
Chapter 2 The Nature of Crime and Victimization

2 Measuring Crime Primary sources for measuring crime are: Official Data (Uniform Crime Reports) Victim Surveys (National Crime Victim Survey) Self-Report Surveys

3 Weaknesses of the Uniform Crime Reports
They only measure crime reported to the police All crime is not counted the same Indexed crimes are measured when reported Non-indexed crimes are counted when an arrest is made Reporting practices

4 Revising the Uniform Crime Reporting System
Definitions of crimes will be revised. Counting method will be by the number of incidents. More crimes will be included in each category. Other changes to make the data more accurate.

5 National Crime Victim Survey
Data is gathered by the Bureau of Census and compiled by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sample includes 100,000 people in 50,000 households. Respondents are over the age of 12. Respondents queried every six months about household and personal victimizations.

6 Self-Reported Crime Data
Asks respondents to tell about their criminal activities. Measures the “dark figure of crime.” Reveals that crime is a very common activity. Demonstrates youth crime is spread throughout the social classes. Is probably a reliable measure of trends over a period of time.

7 Compatibility of Crime Statistic Sources
Prominent crime experts have concluded that the data sources are more compatible than was first believed. Tallies of crimes are not in synch, but trends reported are often quite similar.

8 Explaining Crime Trends
Factors that influence crime rate trends include: Social factors Economic factors Personal factors Demographic factors

9 The Ecology of Crime Crime is not equally spread across society. Some factors that account for different crime patterns are: Day, season and climate Population density Firearms and crime The Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, Switzerland is the principle international source of public information on all aspects of small arms.

10 The Ecology of Victimization
Most victimization occurs in large urban areas. Most incidents occur in the evening hours. The most likely sites are open public areas. An overwhelming number involve only one victim. Most serious crimes take place after 6 p.m.

11 Social Class and Crime A still-unresolved issue in criminology is the relationship between social class and crime. Traditional crime has been thought of as a lower-class phenomenon (instrumental and expressive crime). Methodologies used to measure the phenomenon vary widely.

12 Gender and Crime Three data-gathering statistics tools support the theory that male crime rates are much higher than those of females. Explanations include: Masculinity hypothesis Chivalry hypothesis Socialization Development Liberal feminist theory

13 Race and Crime Official crime data indicate that minority groups’ members are involved in a disproportionate share of criminal activity. Critics of these data argue police bias in the arrest process creates the differences. Some critics believe institutional racism creates economic deprivation which leads to more crime. Other researchers focus on family dissolution as an explanatory factor.

14 Careers and Crime Most offenders commit a single criminal act and upon arrest discontinue their antisocial activity. Some commit a few less serious crimes. Career criminals or chronic offenders account for a majority of all criminal offenses.

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