Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Crime and Victimization"— Presentation transcript:
1The Nature of Crime and Victimization Chapter 2The Nature of Crime and Victimization
2Measuring CrimePrimary sources for measuring crime are:Official Data (Uniform Crime Reports)Victim Surveys (National Crime Victim Survey)Self-Report Surveys
3Weaknesses of the Uniform Crime Reports They only measure crime reported to the policeAll crime is not counted the sameIndexed crimes are measured when reportedNon-indexed crimes are counted when an arrest is madeReporting practices
4Revising the Uniform Crime Reporting System Definitions of crimes will be revised.Counting method will be by the number of incidents.More crimes will be included in each category.Other changes to make the data more accurate.
5National Crime Victim Survey Data is gathered by the Bureau of Census and compiled by the Bureau of Justice Statistics.Sample includes 100,000 people in 50,000 households.Respondents are over the age of 12.Respondents queried every six months about household and personal victimizations.
6Self-Reported Crime Data Asks respondents to tell about their criminal activities.Measures the “dark figure of crime.”Reveals that crime is a very common activity.Demonstrates youth crime is spread throughout the social classes.Is probably a reliable measure of trends over a period of time.
7Compatibility of Crime Statistic Sources Prominent crime experts have concluded that the data sources are more compatible than was first believed.Tallies of crimes are not in synch, but trends reported are often quite similar.
9The Ecology of CrimeCrime is not equally spread across society.Some factors that account for different crime patterns are:Day, season and climatePopulation densityFirearms and crimeThe Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, Switzerland is the principle international source of public information on all aspects of small arms.
10The Ecology of Victimization Most victimization occurs in large urban areas.Most incidents occur in the evening hours.The most likely sites are open public areas.An overwhelming number involve only one victim.Most serious crimes take place after 6 p.m.
11Social Class and CrimeA still-unresolved issue in criminology is the relationship between social class and crime.Traditional crime has been thought of as a lower-class phenomenon (instrumental and expressive crime).Methodologies used to measure the phenomenon vary widely.
12Gender and CrimeThree data-gathering statistics tools support the theory that male crime rates are much higher than those of females.Explanations include:Masculinity hypothesisChivalry hypothesisSocializationDevelopmentLiberal feminist theory
13Race and CrimeOfficial crime data indicate that minority groups’ members are involved in a disproportionate share of criminal activity.Critics of these data argue police bias in the arrest process creates the differences.Some critics believe institutional racism creates economic deprivation which leads to more crime.Other researchers focus on family dissolution as an explanatory factor.
14Careers and CrimeMost offenders commit a single criminal act and upon arrest discontinue their antisocial activity.Some commit a few less serious crimes.Career criminals or chronic offenders account for a majority of all criminal offenses.